Cognizant Communication Corporation Policies

To view a particular policy, click on the appropriate heading. Please contact us if you need assistance.

It is common practice that the editor(s) of a journal is(are) exclusively and independently responsible for deciding which articles submitted to a journal shall be published. In making this decision the editor(s) is(are) guided by the review policies set up for the journal and by the journal’s editorial board. Editor(s) are also restricted by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism.

Published articles shall remain unaltered and intact whenever possible. However, occasional circumstances may arise whereby a published article must later be retracted or even withdrawn. The decision to withdraw a published article is not taken lightly and only performed when clear evidence is provided that information/research provided in the published article is proven to be invalid and/or represent infringements of professional ethical codes, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, etc. Withdrawn means that the article content (XML) is removed and replaced with an XML page simply stating that the article has been withdrawn according to the Cognizant Communication Corporation Policy Article Withdrawal Policy with a link to the current policy document.

Cognizant, LLC./Cognizant Communication Corporation (collectively “CCC”) – Open Access Journals

CCC open access journals are licensed under Creative Commons License CC-BY-NC 4.0

Some of the articles contained in journals published by CCC are open access articles and subject to the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 (CC-BY-NC) license:

Content may be copied, adapted, displayed, distributed, republished or otherwise reused provided the purpose of these activities is not for commercial use. Commercial use means use of the content by a commercial organization or individual for direct (including through sale, loan or license) or indirect (including through marketing campaigns, promotional materials or presentations) commercial gain or remuneration. For examples of common commercial reuses, see below.

Commercial Reuse Examples

The following examples of commercial use require further permission under the CC-BY-NC and CC-BY-NC-ND licenses.

  • republication of content in a work or product available for sale (unless subject to other copyright exceptions such as fair use or fair dealing).
  • republication of content in presentations, brochures, or other marketing materials by a commercial entity, or by any entity for commercial purposes.
  • distribution of the content to promote or market a person, product, course, service, or organization.
  • text and data mining for the purpose of creating a saleable product or product that benefits from promotional or advertising revenue.
  • use of the content by a commercial entity or individual for the purposes of remuneration, directly or indirectly through sale, licensing, promotion, or advertising.

Authors of contributions published under a Creative Commons license may re-use their work under the terms of the Creative Commons license attached to their contributions.

Free-to-View Content

Articles which are free-to-view but do not have a Creative Commons license are not Open Access. Permission is generally required to reuse content from these articles. Please contact us at to obtain permission.

Copyright ©2024 Cognizant LLC. All rights reserved
Cognizant Communication Corporation | P.O. Box 37 | Putnam Valley, NY 10579 | U.S.A.

Cognizant, LLC./Cognizant Communication Corporation (collectively “CCC”) publishes a number of open access articles. See below for information regarding the reuse of these articles. Please note that CCC may make additional non-open access content freely viewable on Ingenta Connect, and the reuse of such material may require permission.

Information for CCC Authors:

Authors of papers published in a CCC journal may reuse their work under the terms of Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC 4.0 ( (In addition, authors of papers published with a non-commercial (NC) or no derivatives (ND) specification may also reuse their work as stated under the Green Open Access* policy.)

All licenses require that reuse complies with the following terms:

Proper reference to the original source of publication is required. This should include listing of the DOI, journal and publisher reference, date of publication, volume and issue number, and page location.

Creative Commons license terms for reuse do not apply to any content (such as graphs, figures, photos, excerpts, etc.) not original to the Open Access article and further permission may be required from the rights holder. The obligation to research and clear permission lies solely with the party reusing the material.

Reuse of a work must not imply or otherwise suggest sponsorship or endorsement by CCC, the author(s), journal, society, or other third party.

Creative Commons licenses do not negate the moral rights of authors, including but not limited to the right to attribution and the right that a work not be subjected to derogatory treatment that threatens the honor or reputation of the author(s).

CCC strongly recommends users notify the original author(s) of their intention to distribute, adapt, translate, or republish Open Access content.

License Summary

Please visit the Creative Commons website for more detailed information on the CC-BY-NC license. (

To request permission or clarification on what is permitted, please contact us at

*Green Open Access: the journal is publishing paid content but allows its authors to deposit their articles as open access in their Institutional Repository. Permission for deposit into an Institutional Repository can be obtained by contacting:

Online Subscriptions

Cognizant subscriptions are currently sold on a volume year basis, either
1) Online only, or,
2) Hard copy and online

If you choose to not renew for the current year, you may continue online access for previously purchased volume years.

Perpetual Access:

Online access for previously purchased volumes will be honored from date of original purchase.

Back volumes for online not previously subscribed to can be purchased at a quoted price.  Contact the publisher.

The license agreement can be completed as follows:

1. Printed in hard copy and filled out by hand. Completed copies can be faxed or mailed to Cognizant, LLC.

2. Type your information directly into the text fields in the PDF, and print out the agreement. It is advisable to print more than one copy to keep for your records, as you cannot save the completed PDF.

Cognizant Communication License Agreement

Please send completed agreements to Cognizant, LLC by fax or mail to:

Fax:  (845) 603-6442
Mail:  P.O. Box 37
Putnam Valley, NY 10579

You may also scan the completed agreement and email it to:

Multi-Site Institution is defined as:

  1. Non-contiguous sites (a single institution with separate branches or departments that operate independently) and share IP addresses and/or network services with a parent site;


  1. Multiple departments that operate independently of the parent institution, but may be located in the same building or on the same campus, and share IP addresses and/or network services with a parent site

Subscription purchase for multi-site use is available as follows:  Full subscription price for main library/institution. All additional sites will be charged 50% of the full subscription price for each subscription year.

Please contact for price quotes or further information.

We can grant permission for deposit a requested paper into an Institution’s repository. The final published paper should be used for deposit and there is no embargo period relating to open access.

Please note that proper reference to the original source of publication is required. This should include listing of the DOI and publisher reference in addition to volume number and page location. The article(s) and/or figure(s) cannot be used for resale.

Please contact for permission to replicate material or for deposits in your institution’s repositories.

Terms of Sale for:

  1. Purchase orders are required.
  2. Orders will be invoiced if you currently have an account with us. Invoice: Net 30 Days, plus shipping and handling charges. Charges of 1% per 30-day period or fraction thereof will be applied to unpaid invoices.
  3. Books are non-returnable.

Non-account purchasers must prepay by either credit card (VISA or MasterCard only), or check in U.S. Dollars drawn on U.S. banks.

Please note our Examination Policy listed below:

  1. If our book is adopted by ordering 5 or more copies and the publisher is notified, the copy may be retained at no charge.
  2. The book may be returned within 90 days or Publisher will invoice for the copy(ies).
  3. You may retain the book for your personal library less 20% of publication price, shipping free.

Please contact if you have any questions.

Cognizant AI Policy:

AI and AI-assisted technologies should only be used to improve readability and language of the work and is not meant to replace author obligations, including, but not limited to, producing and concluding educational insights and recommendations.

The use of AI technology should be done with human governance and all work should be reviewed and edited by the authors carefully. Authors are ultimately responsible for the content of their manuscripts and are accountable for all aspects of their research from beginning through publication.

The use of AI and AI-assisted technology must be disclosed in all manuscripts being submitted to a Cognizant journal.

It is important that authors are transparent with their use of AI and AI-assisted technology to ensure clarity, trust, and credibility among all interested parties and promote compliance with the terms of use of AI and AI-assisted technology.

AI and AI-assisted technologies cannot be included as author or co-author, nor can AI be cited as an author. Authorship gives credit and implies accountability for published work, so there are academic, social, and financial implications. Authorship includes any human who has made a significant contribution to a journal article. Authors also share responsibility and accountability for the results of the published research.

Authors are also responsible for ensuring that the work is original, that the stated authors qualify for authorship, and the work does not infringe on any third-party rights. Before submitting to a Cognizant journal, authors should familiarize themselves with the Ethics Policy of the Cognizant Communication Corporation journal to which they are submitting:

Cognizant Communication Corporation does not allow for the use of generative AI or AI-assisted tools in the creation of or altering of images in submitted manuscripts. This includes, but is not limited to:enhancing, obscuring, removing, moving, or adding to or deleting from an image. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original image.

Authors must adhere to the AI software’s specific usage policies and ensure correct content attribution.

Cognizant Communication Corporation and the Editorial Offices of its publications have adopted the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) position statement regarding Authorship and AI Tools: