Event Tourism : Concepts, International Case Studies, and Research

Donald Getz, Ph.D.

ISBN: 978-1-882345-60-1


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How to Use This Book

Chapter 1. Introduction to Event Tourism
Learning Objectives
Five Big Challenges
Events and Tourism
What Is Event Tourism?
Why Study Event Tourism?
Links to Other Forms of Special Interest Travel
Careers in Event Tourism
Integrating the Elements of Event Tourism
Events as Instruments of Policy and Strategy
Justifications for Public Sector Intervention
Definitions and Typologies
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 2. Demand and the Event Tourist
Learning Objectives
The Demand-Side Approach
Trends and Forces
The Event Tourist
Why People Travel to Events
Serious Leisure, Social Worlds, and Involvement
The Event Tourist Career Trajectory
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 3. Planning for Event Tourism: The Destination Perspective
Learning Objectives
Who Does Event Tourism Planning and Development?
Development Roles of Government, DMOs, and Event Development Agencies
Comparative and Competitive Advantages
Supply-Side Approach and Strategies
Strategic Planning Process for Event Tourism
Research for Event Tourism Planning
Case Study EventScotland
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 4. Development of Event Tourism

Learning Objectives
What Is Development?
Marketing and Branding
Bidding on Events
Creating Your Own Events
Servicing Events
Facilitating and Growing the Events Sector
Leveraging Events, and the Legacy
Developing and Managing a Portfolio of Events
Case Study: Queensland Events Corporation and Gold Coast Events
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 5. Creating and Marketing Events as Tourist Attractions

Learning Objectives
Tourism Marketing Audit
Marketing Mix
Branding and Positioning
Creating a Tourist Orientation for Events
Research and Design for an Iconic Destination Ecotourism Event
Feasibility and Risk Management
Marketing Planning, and Measuring Demand
Segmentation and Selecting Target Markets
Marketing Strategies
Visitor Surveys for Market Intelligence and Evaluation
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 6. Sport Event Tourism
Learning Objectives
The Fan: Motivation and Experiences
Athletic Participants: Motivation and Experiences
Major Studies of Sport and Sport Event Tourism
Development of Sport Event Tourism
Case Study: TransRockies Events
Sport Venues
Case Study of the Calgary Sport Tourism Authority
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 7. Business Events (Meetings, Conventions, Exhibitions)
Learning Objectives
Meetings and Conventions
World’s Fairs (Expos)
Convention and Exhibition Centers
Attracting Business Events
Case Study: Visit Denver
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 8. Festivals, Arts, and Entertainment
Learning Objectives
Themes and Research on Festivals and Tourism
Festivals, Culture, and Urban Policy
Motivations to Attend Festivals and Cultural Celebrations
Large-Scale Surveys
Impacts of Festival Tourism
Case Study: Woodford—A Green Festival
Case Study: Edinburgh Festivals—Excerpts From the Edinburgh Festivals Impact Study
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 9. Evaluation and Impact Assessment
Learning Objectives
Evaluation Concepts and Return on Investment
What Is an Event Worth?
Measures and Methods for Evaluation
Evaluating Event Portfolios
Social and Cultural Outcomes and Impact Assessment
Environmental Outcomes and Impact Assessment
A New Paradigm for Event Tourism Evaluation
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 10.
Economic Impact Assessment and Cost–Benefit Evaluation
Learning Objectives
Limitations and Misleading Presumptions of Event Economic Impact Assessments
Economic Impact Evaluation Process
Why Mega-Events Fail to Deliver the Promise
Evaluation of Costs and Benefits
Use and Nonuse Values
Summary and Study Guide

Chapter 11. Summary and Conclusions
Five Big Challenges
Future Scenarios
A Research Agenda
Final Study Questions



List of Figures

1.1 Event Studies, Event Management, and Event Tourism
1.2 Linking events to closely related fields
1.3 Special interests, tourism and events
1.4 Event Tourism within the Event Studies framework
1.5 The Event Tourism system model
1.6 Major and secondary roles of events as instruments of policy and strategy
1.7 Typology and planned events and venues: A portfolio approach
2.1 Demand-side approach to Event Tourism
2.2 Forces propelling and constraining Event Tourism
2.3 Consumer decision-making process for Event Tourism
2.4 The mediating effects of social networking on Event Tourism
3.1 Roles and strategic choices in developing Event Tourism
3.2 Supple-side approach
3.3 Strategic planning process for Event Tourism
4.1 Event Tourism development process
4.2 Interrelationships of image, reputation, branding, and positioning
4.3 Event bidding strategy and the comfort zone
4.4 Event bidding process
4.5 Event Tourism portfolio of events by type, season, target markets, and value
4.6 Ossian’s Matrix
4.7 Managing an Event Tourism portfolio
4.8 Events and place attachment
5.1 The marketing mix for tourist-oriented events
5.2 Positioning as a destination event
5.3 Concept for a destination ecotourism event: Overall destination appeal and activities
5.4 Marketing planning process for tourist-oriented events
5.5 Segmentation variables for Event Tourism
8.1 Woodford Festival attendance trend
8.2 Woodford Festival: The blended festivalscape
8.3 Woodford Festival visitor origins
8.4 Woodford Festival age distribution of attendees
8.5 Woodford Festival attendees, first-time versus repeat visitation
9.1 From single-event to portfolio evaluation

List of Tables

1.1 Specific forms of special interest tourism and events
1.2 Event Tourism career paths
1.3 Event Tourism stakeholders, Queensland, Australia
2.1 Dimensions of the hypothetical event tourist career trajectory and empirical evidence
3.1 Comparative and competitive advantages
3.2 Fundamentals of supply-side strategies and management
3.3 Sample goals and objectives for Event Tourism
4.1 Stakeholder roles in media management to promote the destination
4.2 Attraction goals and process for creating Hallmark events
4.3 Image and branding goals and process for creating Hallmark events
4.4 Community goals and process for creating Hallmark events
4.5 Marketing goals and process for creating Hallmark events
4.6 Organization and ownership goals and process for creating Hallmark events
4.7 Sustainability goals and process for creating Hallmark events
4.8 Leveraging goals and methods
5.1 Packaging framework for tourist-oriented events
6.1 Trends in Sport, and Implications for Event Tourism
7.1 Largest exhibition and convention centers in China
8.1 Average audience expenditure at Edinburgh Festivals, per person per day, and average length of stay in Edinburgh and Scotland, 2010
8.2 Proportion of visitors to the Edinburgh Festivals, by place of origin, whose expenditure is additional to Edinburgh and Scotland, 2010
8.3 Proportion of staying visitors (audience members) from outside Scotland to the Edinburgh Festivals, 2010
9.1 Basic data needs and methods for event evaluation

List of Photos

2.1 Senior Games, Gainesville, Florida
3.1 Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival
3.2 Edinburgh Festival Fringe, high street performer
3.3 Mountain Bike World Cup, Fort William, Scotland
4.1 Gold Coast Airport Marathon
4.2 Pan Pacific Masters Games, Dragon Boat Race, Gold Coast
5.1 Inaugural West Coast Whitebait Festival 2011 in Reefton, New Zealand
6.1 TransRockies Challenge 2012, Stage 2 start, Fernie, British Columbia
6.2 GORE-TEX® TransRockies Run 2011, Stage 3 start, Leadville, Colorado
6.3 World Championship of Junior Hockey, Calgary 2012
6.4 Chuckwagon Races at the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede
6.5 Bob-sledding at Calgary’s Canada Olympic Park
7.1 Canton Fair, Guangzhou, China
7.2 Denver, live concert in Central Park
7.3 Denver, Ellie Caulkins Opera House
7.4 Denver, the Colorado Rockies compete at Coors Field
7.5 Denver, the Colorado Convention Center
8.1 Belfast, MTV Titanic Sounds concert
8.2 Woodford Festival crowd parade
8.3 Woodford Festival: The Goanna
8.4 Woodford Festival location map
8.5 Woodford Festival site map
8.6 Woodford Festival reception
8.7 Woodford Festival camping
8.8 Woodford Festival facilities
8.9 Woodford Festival poster
8.10 Woodford Festival closing ceremony
8.11 Cavalia

"Event Tourism: Concepts, International Case Studies, and Research has been an immediate addition to the recommended texts for the undergraduate and postgraduate event studies topics taught here at Flinders University. The field of event tourism has not been so thoroughly and forensically examined before. In addressing that gap, Donald Getz has provided a consistently strong text that identifies a way forward for the academic research community, for event industry practitioners and for tourism and event organisations alike. Getz argues for a paradigm shift in thinking about how a portfolio of events can be used to deliver a range of positive impacts: socio-cultural; environmental; and economic. It is a compelling read and will become another classic event text alongside many of his previous works."

Steve Brown 
Head of Tourism
Flinders University
June 3, 2013


"Donald Getz has produced a text that has been desperately needed in travel and tourism as well as in event management programs for some time. This is not only the first book connecting the fields of tourism and events, but it is a textbook that can be a valuable asset to event academics, practitioners, and students globally. Getz has succeeded in integrating the concepts and ideas from his previous book, Event Management & Event Tourism, along with the current research on tourism’s increasing awareness of the importance events play in successful tourism development.

This book is intended for use as a text and as such will be a great tool for both students and academics. This well-written text reviews the current literature and research in both fields and is an excellent teaching resource. One of the strengths of this textbook is with its organization. The early chapters in the text provide students with the knowledge and background to understand Event Tourism. The text, which is organized around the notion of supply and demand, gives students a logical way of understanding the event industry from an event producer’s perspective. Getz addresses the very important topic of documenting event impact from both social and economic approaches. In addition, he provides insights related to guiding students through the event evaluation process. This book will enable students to learn and be tested on chapter concepts. To focus the students with respect to the content in a chapter he provides learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter and concludes with a summary and study questions. Each chapter also includes useful case studies that help to explain and emphasize the concepts presented in each chapter. These case studies will assist instructors with developing assignments to further apply the material. Finally, the author provides supplementary readings and online resources on the topics covered in the chapters.

Overall, I would say any academic program in tourism and events should utilize this text in a course in Event Tourism in their curriculum if they want to ensure their students are prepared in one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry globally. I would recommend this book as a text to be used in Event Tourism."

Kenneth F. Backman, Ph.D.
Editor-in Chief, Event Management
Professor, Clemson University
June 2013