Part 1: Depression years..................................... 1
The corn cob pipe............................................. 3
I have a name!.................................................. 5
Acorn cakes and firefalls................................... 9
Scholarship: A miracle!.................................... 11
Part 2: World War II
and the beginning of travel............................... 15
Lizzie - trusted friend....................................... 17
Pearl Harbor and pear picking.......................... 18
The Carthew influence...................................... 23
Part 3: The post-industrial era........................... 25
The Mukluk Telegraph...................................... 27
First flight and the Eskimo yoyo...................... 29
Sleeping in a bathtub...................................... 33
The green Hillman Minx and Spizzerinktum........ 46
The Fulbright year........................................... 56
Around the world in 80 days!........................... 84
Looking for paradise..................................... 102
New enterprise and escape hatch................... 109
The beginning of research.............................. 112
Dr. Smith...................................................... 121
Life is a skill: The building blocks................... 125
Dr. Smith learns to fly.................................... 131
Three Stone Blades....................................... 133
Baggage master for Jet Age Tours................. 145
The roof of the world..................................... 145
The mother of tourism research...................... 161
Africa, the 6th continent................................. 163
The merry monks of the DMZ......................... 181
Birds in tuxedos............................................ 187
From Antarctica to rice farming in California.... 198
Stuck at 81°N................................................ 200
The largest tourist gathering in the world......... 206
What next?.................................................... 207
My legacy........................................................ 209
Figure 1.1 Independence of Former Colonial Possessions: Post-World War II
Figure 1.2 International arrivals and gross receipts: 1950-2010
Figure 1.3 Valene Smith 1927, Spokane, Washington.
Figure 1.4 "Tabuce" at Yosemite National Park making Indian acorn cakes.(photo courtesy of Yosemite National Park archives)
Figure 2.1 1950-"Lizzie" carried us safely to Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Mother and I competed in a salmon fishing derby.
Figure 2.2 1947-A family photo: Valene, father Ernest and mother Lucy.
Figure 2.3 1947-Valene as a young instructor.
Figure 3.1 1950-"Lizzie" aboard an Alaska steamship, en route from Seattle to Kenai Peninsula.
Figure 3.2 1950-Map of Alaska showing Wien Airlines Alaska tour route.
Figure 3.3 1950-Bering Straits-Eskimo woman butchering seal for food and clothing.
Figure 3.4 1950-Kotzebue on Bering Sea-A scene of native Eskimo fish nets and fish drying racks.
Figure 3.5 1951-Renault 4CV-Our "little" car travelled 9,000 miles in Europe in 10 weeks, including: Sweden to Italy and the British Isles.
Figure 3.6 1951-Valene's International drivers license issue in France.
Figure 3.7 1951-Map of France showing cave sites in Dordogne and Les Eyzies.
Figure 3.8 1951-Lascaux Cave-Humpback bison, native to Dordogne. (location: Nave, left-hand wall)
Figure 3.9 1951-Musee de l'Homme (Museum of Man) in Les Eyzies situated under the large, free-standing statue of Paleolithic man.
Figure 3.10 1951-American Express Company, Place de l'Opera, Paris served as the informal used car market for innovative tourists.
Figure 3.11 1951-Agriculture was a hands on industry as Yugoslavia had suffered disastrously during World War II and the economy was still weak at that time.
Figure 3.12 Circa 1988-This picture represents one of several cave paintings of the Last Supper, restored for the increasing tourism trade to Cappadocia in Eastern Turkey.
Figure 3.13 1952-Carcassonne, in southern France, is the largest fortified city in Europe. Occupied since the Neolithic, it's the only one never conquered by an invader.
In 1977 it became a World Heritage Site.
Figure 3.14 1953-University of Peshawar founded in 1950. Further construction was ongoing.
Figure 3.15 1953-Islamia College served as a training school for the elite male students with a goal for international business and politics. It had benefitted from several decades of British faculty and language instruction.
Figure 3.16 1953-Dean's Hotel built in 1913 was a world renowned land mark that had hosted Winston Churchill, Rudyard Kipling, and the Quaid-i-Azam. The fine cuisine and beautiful gardens made it our comfortable home for 9 months, despite high ceiling fans in summer and small wood fireplaces against the winter cold.
Figure 3.17 1953-The "Butler" at the Dean's Hotel in his traditional Pathan hat, maintained a high level of personal service for all guests.
Figure 3.18 1953-The gate to the city of Peshawar, which was well known for its vast bazaars of copper and leather goods.
Figure 3.19 1953-Even in 1953 camel caravans like this continued to come from the west.
Figure 3.20 1953-Map of north India and Pakistan showing the roads we traveled.
Figure 3.21 1954-Traditional elephant ride to the Amber Palace in Jaipur.
Figure 3.22 1954-The silver table and chairs in the Maharaja's palace in Udaipur.
Figure 3.23-3.24 Hawkers along the road flagged down the occasional tourist car, such as ours, to display their entertainment (snake charmers and dancing bears for a fee.
Figure 3.25 1953-Mother in her resourceful way, thought to disassemble the tailpipe and muffler so we could proceed toward Lahore. Fortunately, a Pakistani army officer with his chauffer came to our aid.
Figure 3.26 1953-My primary assignment at the university was the MA course in methods of teaching. The classroom was divided because of Purdah. The women wore veils in hallways but were uncovered in class and were separated from the male students (all of whom were teachers in Moslem boys schools). I stood in the middle of the classroom and if I stepped from one side to the other, out went the cry, "I can't see you!"
Figure 3.27 1953-Khyber Pass-More than 100 armies are said to have entered India through the Khyber Pass, including Alexander the Great. When I proposed a field trip as a part of methods of teaching, the entire university and staff went with me, by train, to the Afghan border and back.
Figure 3.28 1954-Kashmir-Guest housing centered near the capital Srinagar, the principal shopping center for Kashmir.
Figure 3.29 1954-Srinagar-Our 2 bedroom houseboat was beautifully furnished with hand carved furniture of local woods and fine carpets.
Figure 3.30 1954-Kashmir-Vendors, aboard shikaras, passed frequently. Some with handicrafts for sale, others with local produce for the cookhouses.
Figure 3.31 1954-Our military escorts on bivouac in the Hindu Kush Mountains in Pakistan.
Figure 3.32 1956-Multifold brochure produced by American Express to advertise this first time global adventure, by air, around the world. 80 days for $4,930.
Figure 3.33 1957-All dressed up (women in hats, gloves and high heels; men in suits and ties) and a world to see.
Figure 3.34 1957-Taiwan-The National Press (here the China Post) was beginning to recognize the growing importance of tourism, both economically and politically, in the post-war era.
Figure 3.35 1957-Agra, India-The Taj Mahal with our tour party in the foreground.
Figure 3.36 1957-The gun factory near Peshawar. It served Silk Road travelers for centuries, providing en route protection.
Figure 3.37 1957-Japan-Visits to Japanese houses provided a source of income for war widows and an opportunity to understand their internal decor.
Figure 3.38 1959-Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, accessible with the use of cables.
Figure 3.39 1961-Yalta, USSR-Russian Orthodox Church.
Figure 3.40 1965-Kotzubue, Alaska-Elwood Honeycutt, the school janitor, was a widely recognized community leader and a fine hunter. He became one of my best male informants.
Figure 3.41 1966-Chico, California-Jet Age Travel Service, located on the road to the Chico Airport which had daily flights to San Francisco.
Figure 3.42 1967-Gambell, Alaska-Auk (bird skin) parka made by Hilda Aninguyou. It is now housed in the Phoebe Epperson Hurst Museum on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
Figure 3.43 1969-Point Hope, Alaska-Ira Latour and his Arriflex camera.
Figure 3.44 1970-Ira Latour, Valene Smith and Ed Golay ready to depart Chico Airport in the Cessna C206, en route to Point Hope Alaska, to film "Three Stone Blades."
Figure 3.45 1970-Point Hope, Alaska-A bleak landscape with our one-room shack and an umiak frame.
Figure 3.46 1970-Point Hope, Alaska-Our drinking water was processed from a 50 gallon drum of snow, purchased for $30, then boiled and strained through cheese cloth.
Figure 3.47 1970-Point Hope, Alaska-Nannies igloo was a whale ribbed house covered with sod for insulation. A style that dates back 1,000 years.
Figure 3.48 1970-Point Hope, Alaska-The interior of Nannies igloo shows the whale bone ribs that support the walls and roof. Sod is good insulation against the cold.
Figure 3.49 1970-Point Hope, Alaska-Cooking a wedding dinner with a canned ham flown in from Fairbanks.
Figure 3.50 1970-Kotzebue, Alaska-Leaving for California we stopped in Kotzebue to tell Freda, "The film is in the can." (filming completed)
Figure 3.51 Regional location map of central Asia.
Figure 3.52 1974-Streams draining from the mountains were often ferried by local residents using makeshift oxen bladder boats.
Figure 3.53 1974-The road to Hunza (pre Karakoram Highway) under construction. The state of the road ahead suggested long waits for passage.
Figure 3.54 1974-A view of Hunza landscape with its narrow valleys and high mountains.
Figure 3.55 1974-Hunza-The world knows Hunza because of its reputation for the medical value of dried apricot pits for longevity.
Figure 3.56 Map of Greenland.
Figure 3.57 1980-Umanak Fjord, Greenland-Burial site of Ed Golay.
Figure 3.58 1980-Godthab, Greenland-10,000 residents of Godthab area were relocated into this several storied housing complex. Residents among them asked, "Where do we keep our dogs?" The subsistence life style seemed at an end for many.
Figure 3.59 Map of West Africa, including the cruise route of the Lindblad Polaris, from Dakar to Douala.
Figure 3.60 1985-The operating room at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital.
Figure 3.61 1990-Tamanrasset, Algeria-Welcome guards on horseback and camel at the ceremonial entry gate to the city.
Figure 3.62 1990-The World Tourism delegates were given a 2-day tour, by new white Toyotas, through the Tamanrasset World Heritage Site to view Paleolithic rock carvings dating back 25,000 years.
Figure 3.63 1987-Banaue, Northern Luzon, Philippines-The terraced rice fields are world famous and have been cultivated for centuries.
Figure 3.64 1981-Route of the semi-circumnavigation of the continent of Antarctica (a journey I repeated again in 1991).
Figure 3.65 1981-The World Discoverer was often described by its passengers as, the most comfortable ship afloat.
Figure 3.66 1981-"Arctowski" the Polish station is located on the peninsula where the weather is more mild. The Poles were experimenting with potential food production in greenhouses.
Figure 3.67 Exhibits at the Palmer station included the wingless fly.
Figure 3.68 Exhibits at the Palmer station included algae which is the only natural color in all of Antarctica.
Figure 3.69 1981-Cape Royds, Antarctica-Shackleton's hut.
Figure 3.70 No description of Antarctica is complete without at least one penguin picture.
Figure 3.71 1993-Russian icebreaker Kapitan Khlebnikov, had the capability of breaking ice at a depth of approximately 12 feet. It was one of the vessels that long served the Russians as a part of the trail of icebreakers that carried supplies to Russian cities on the Siberian coast.
Figure 3.72 2003-Qussiarsuk, Greenland-To increase tourism to Greenland, the original settlement of Erik the Red was reconstructed. (Photo by Glenn Golay)
Figure 3.73 2003-Qussiarsuk, Greenland-The small church shown here (inside/outside) was the first Christian church established in the New World. (Photo by Glen Golay)
Figure 3.74 2014-Chico, CA-Valene at the Valene L. Smith Museum of Anthropology on the campus of the California State University, Chico.
Stereopticon: Entry to a life of travel and tourism research
By Valene Smith. Cognizant Communication Corporation (www.cognizantcommunication.com)
2015, vi + 211 pp. (photos, maps, figures) $28.75 Pbk. ISBN: 978-1-882345-67-0.
Reviewed by Margaret Swain in ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH, VOLUME 55, November 2015, ) pp. 184–185
Valene Smith’s memoir is not some politically correct Horatia Alger story. Rather, it is an engaging yarn about achieving bold goals while promoting academic study of what she loves to do, tourism. Her open curiosity, training in geography and anthropology, and work in the global travel sector coalesced into something later called ‘‘Tourism Studies.” As she notes in the Foreword, the writing is anecdotal, moving from one tale to the next, reading more like conversations than a text. Often a fascination with place wins out over a straight march through the three eras that define Valene Smith: the Great Depression, WW II, and the Post-industrial Age. She would like her readers to understand that these were times that happened to real people, that tourism is something we all participate in, and it is all worth studying. We learn about a North American woman whose intelligence and family dynamics propelled her into successfully combined careers, literally a foundational story for our field.
The Library of Congress catalogs the book as follows: 1. Smith, Valene L. 2. Travel agents—United States—Biography 3. Travelers—United States—Biography 4. Tourism—Study and teaching 5. Tourism—Research. A succinct assessment is also mirrored in the illustrations: 37 travel or tourism photos; 20 photos of Valene/family; and 17 photos of teaching and research, with 7 maps and 2 figures. The narrative begins with her formative years through early professional life. She conjures up her childhood (p. 7), living in her parents’ tiny apartment in California, and her most valued possession, a stereopticon with slides of Arctic, African, and Asian cultures that entranced her. This marvelous device transformed the mundane, allowed her to imagine unseen worlds that would shape her future. After university, her first teaching job was in 1947 at Los Angeles City College (LACC). In 1950, Valene completed her MA in geography and drove from California to Alaska on vacation. The next few years are a virtual blur while she both taught and traveled widely in Europe, buying and reselling cars to traverse the continent and make two failed attempts to drive from Paris to India. Then came her 1953–54 Fulbright award in Pakistan, followed by teaching her innovative LACC course on ‘‘Travel Geography: Europe” in 1955, paired with leading her first academic tour. This experience expanded to leading her first Around-the-World Tour in 1957 and opening her own travel agency in 1959.
Valene’s mother, Lucy, is literally her constant companion who traveled extensively, worked along side, and shared many life experiences. These ranged from early trips to Alaska, to the year in Pakistan, to typing Valene’s anthropology PhD dissertation for the University of Utah (1966), to partnering in their travel agency for several decades, which they moved north when Valene began her position as a professor of anthropology at California State University, Chico (also 1966). The multiple voices used in her narrative vary from daughter, as when lamenting that at age 90 her mother was disappointed to not make a tour to Antarctica; to academic researcher commenting on a specific findings or field relationships; to friend/spouse relating her personal journeys; to tour guide recounting colorful travelogues and post-colonial commentaries; sometimes all in one paragraph. They all represent ValeneLucy Smith, whose consistent refrain is ‘‘it’s interesting,” a touchstone for why she pursues an option, takes a trip, gains a new skill – her modus operandi
Valene Smith is a hybrid of industry and academia with little patience for abstract theorizing. Rather, she prefers practical orders of information that can be used to further understanding of human behavior and life conditions. Her favorite aphorisms include ‘‘life is a skill” and ‘‘learn by doing, teach by being.” An excellent example of her pragmatic approach is seen in how she negotiates gender issues in her autobiography. Gender is not a specific topic despite the fact that Valene Smith is an exemplar for women practitioners of Tourism Studies, in a field where gender discrimination continues to limit opportunities for women in the academy and industry. Lack of analysis does not mean she finds women’s lives unproblematic. Take the quotation heading Part 1: ‘‘The world is a book, (S)He who stays home reads only one page.” She writes (p. 113) that ‘‘growing up, I saw only three options for women as an alternative to housewife and mother: secretary, nurse, or teacher. . . obviously the one that I had chosen. But the New World that I was seeing everywhere across the globe suggested that many more opportunities were developing for women in new industries.” Her unconventional fascination with vehicles and independent travel later included learning how to fly a plane. She married her flight instructor and co-pilot Ed Golay while working as an anthropologist with Inuit communities in Alaska.
Ideas about the ‘‘4 Hs of tourism” (p. 101) – habitat, heritage, history, and handicrafts – evolved from her informal lectures as an academic tour guide. The concept of ‘‘hosts and guests” and various typologies of tourism and tourists grew out of her later academic work as anthropologist studying tourism. When approaching a publisher for her edited collection, Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (Smith, 1977), she commented in a letter that there is something new in anthropology besides sex and drugs: tourism (p. 162).
What I would have liked to have more of in this account is greater focus on accomplishments including Chico’s academic program on tourism beginning in 1980, her consistent collaboration with Annals of Tourism Research founding Editor-in-Chief Jafar Jafari from their first meeting in 1975 (p. 163), and her multi-generational Elder’s Workshop films project from1976, released in 2010 with the Inuit community she documented. She entitles a section heading ‘‘Mother of Tourism Studies” (p. 161) but does not elaborate on where that phrase came from, or how she earned it. Certainly her support of the Valene L. Smith Museum of Anthropology at Chico (p. 210), a training and exhibition space, beautifully balances her interest in teaching anthropology and promoting tourism education. Her answer to the question of what next for tourism focuses on space travel and her love for the Arctic. Valene Smith’s autobiography addresses fundamental questions for all of us engaged in Tourism Studies: what drew us in, why do we do what we do, and what does it matter?
Smith, V. (1977). Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Women and Gender Studies, University of California – Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Assigned 6 March 2015. Submitted 1 July 2015. Accepted 7 July 2015
Available online 12 September 2015
Stereopticon: Entry to a Life of Travel and Tourism Research (Putnam Valley, NY: Cognizant Communications, 2015)
Valene L. Smith
Reviewed by Sharon Gmelch, University of San Francisco & Union College
Stereopticon: Entry to a Life of Travel and Tourism Research is anthropologist Valene L. Smith’s unconventional autobiography. As the author states in the Foreward, it is “not a consistent history, rather a collection of personal anecdotes” from her far-flung travels over the course of a lifetime.
Born in 1926 on Valentine’s Day (and named for it), Valene L. Smith is best known in anthropological circles for her contributions to the academic study of tourism. In 1974 she initiated the first sessions on tourism at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association in Mexico City which resulted in the edited collection Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977) her “first venture in publication” and one that put tourism studies on anthropology’s map. (A second, updated edition of the book was published in 1989.)
Valene Smith’s route to anthropology was unusual. She graduated from the University of California Los Angeles in 1946 with a BA in geography (and a minor in geology) and soon obtained a job grading papers for a summer course that geographer Arthur Carthew was teaching at Los Angeles City College. Afterwards, he offered her a teaching job at LA City College which she accepted, preparing for one of the course she would teach in the spring semester by auditing it in the Fall. She formally joined the faculty in January 1947 and taught at LA City College for the next 18 years, earning her MA in geography from UCLA in 1950.
While teaching at LA City College, she began to think of herself as an anthropologist. Describing a visit to Lascaux Cave in the summer of 1951, she remarks, “I felt very rewarded for the effort that I had made as a young anthropology professor to reach France to see the Paleolithic in its reality” (p. 42). But it wasn’t until 1965 that she formally studied anthropology when she enrolled in the Anthropology Department at the University of Utah--while on sabbatical from LA City College--to begin work for her PhD. Three months later she was in Alaska “to make a study of the Kotzebue community in terms of population, survival needs, sources of income, employment, and history” (p. 123). She stayed in Kotzebue for the summer returning to Salt Lake City in September to attend fall classes and begin writing her dissertation. The following April she took her comprehensive exams and by mid-May had also completed her dissertation (Kotzebue: A Modern Alaskan Eskimo Community). In a little over a year, she had obtained her PhD and had become a credentialed anthropologist. It was after this that she learned of an opening in anthropology at California State University, Chico, visited the campus to interview and was hired. She taught there from 1967 until her retirement in the late 1990s.
It is an understatement to say that Valene Smith has travelled widely. Her book recounts travel experiences to many countries on every continent, including Antarctica. Much of her early travel—first within the US and then aboard--was undertaken with her parents, particularly her mother Lucy, to whom she was very close. Her mother even accompanied her to Pakistan for 10 months in 1953 while Valene Smith was a Fulbright lecturer. (She taught a course in oceanography to young men at Islamia College and a course on teaching methods to male and female graduate students—a curtain dividing the class room--at the new University of Peshawar.) In 1955 she began leading her own tour groups, initially as part of a LA City College’s “travel geography” program, first to Europe and then around the world. In 1959, together with an associate at American Express and the help of her family, she opened her own travel agency, Jet Age Travel Service, in Hollywood, California. When she moved with her parents to Chico in 1967 to take up her new teaching position, they opened an agency by the same name there.
Stereopticon begins like most autobiographies with a chronological discussion of the author’s childhood, early education, and family life. As readers we learn about her close relationship and many travel adventures with her parents, particularly her mother Lucy. As the book progresses, however, it reads more like a travelogue with descriptions of places, historical snippets, and brief observations about customs or people she encountered but very little about her inner life or important relationships. In 1970, at age 44, she married her former flight instructor Ed Godlay (she learned to fly in 1967) in Point Hope, Alaska. He died ten years later after a fall while they were on a trip to Greenland. Her discussion of this event and its aftermath struck this reader as rather clinical with references to “the body” and “the remains” rather than to Ed or my husband. Two more marriages follow but are barely dealt with.
Stereopticon’s account of the author’s travels and experiences adopts the perspective of a tourist or tour operator more than that of an anthropologist or tourism researcher. The author makes frequent note of the cost of her travels and of items purchased which adds to the touristic tone of the work. Writing about Saigon in 1954, which she visited with her mother at the end of her Fulbright in Pakistan, she only says: “In Saigon, where the war was continuing, the streets were filled with vendors selling sterling silver and gemstones for a fraction of their value. Unfortunately, we were too poor to take advantage of the bargains” (p. 84). At times she refers to her “anthropological perspective,” without elaborating or being clear about what she means. For example, “From my anthropological perspective, the West Coast of South America has always been more interesting than the flat, more industrialized sections of the eastern part of the continent. Although Rio and Buenos Aires are fascinating cities of great cultural interest, their landmass seems more like American housing and cultivation while the West Coast offers greater diversity” (p. 107).
Only occasionally does the text refer, and then briefly, to research the author has conducted on tourism. She mentions the “4-Hs of tourism” (habitat, heritage, history, and handicrafts) which she developed as an organizing tool to analyze tourism in different contexts (p. 101). She describes sending a mail survey to 100 countries in 1960 asking about their training programs for tour guides, later publishing the results in a report. This was followed by a short article in The Professional Geographer in 1961 on the need for “geographically trained tourist guides.” As stated earlier, Valene L. Smith is best known as the editor of the pioneering 1977 collection Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (2nd edition 1989) which includes her article “Eskimo Tourism: Micro Models and Marginal Men,” although she does not discuss that here. In 2000 she wrote an article on space tourism for Tourism Recreation Research after attending a NASA conference. Unfortunately, Stereopticon lacks a bibliography or complete list of the author’s publications.
The book is generously illustrated with more than 70 color and black and white photographs taken by the author. It would have benefitted, however, from more careful proofreading and copy editing. In the latter part of the book, it is sometimes confusing who “we” refers to and the chronology is not always easy to follow. After discussing Algeria in 1989, for example, the narrative shifts to China and other parts of Asia in 1978. The author also makes a few, if minor, mistakes. On page 57 she states that the early film “The Man of Aran” is about the migratory Pathans of Pakistan; “Man of Aran” is actually about Ireland’s Aran Islanders. Perhaps she was thinking of “Grass: A Nation’s Battle for Life,” although this 1925 film documents the migratory Bakhtiari of Iran.
One thing Stereopticon clearly demonstrates is that Valene L. Smith has led a full and exciting life. Through the stories she shares with readers it is evident that she has been from the very beginning of her life adventurous, confident, curious, and resourceful. A committed teacher as well as tourism researcher and world traveler, she has generously supported CSU Chico’s Valene L. Smith Museum of Anthropology over the years for the benefit of future generations of students. After a fellow traveler told her in 1957 about the imaginary “L.I.A.S. club” to which he belonged, she adopted “Life Is A Skill” as a personal motto, and she has been very skilled at it indeed.
With degrees in anthropology and geography, Valene L. Smith, Professor Emeritus, California State University Chico taught at LA City College (1947-67) and CSU, Chico (1967-1998). Writings include the acclaimed book, Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (1977) which broke new ground by viewing tourism through the lens of anthropology. Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues in the 21st Century (2001), updated her conclusions as world cultures and conditions changed. She is Consulting Editor of the Tourism Dynamic Series: The Challenges of People and Places. This interdisciplinary 60 plus book series focused on the dynamics of tourism as a social, economic and environmental force affecting virtually all peoples on earth. Memberships include International Academy for the Study of Tourism (founding member), SFAA and AAA. Her legacy is the endowed