ognizant Communication Corporation


VOLUME 3, NUMBERS 3-4, 2000

Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 3, pp. 139-153, 2000
1098-3058/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Small is Beautiful? ICT and Tourism SMEs: A Comparative European Survey

Graeme Evans, Janet Bohrer, and Greg Richards

Centre for Leisure and Tourism Studies, University of North London, Stapleton House, 277-281 Holloway Road, London N7 8HN, England

Small tourism firms, it is claimed, are "lost in the electronic marketplace," in contrast to larger operators and transnationals, which dominate the application of CRS and e-commerce in tourism services. This article presents the findings of a comparative survey profiling the usage, plans, and training in ICT applications by tourism SMES in London, UK; Aragon, Spain; and The Netherlands. The determinants and barriers to ICT take-up are analyzed, with major variation found between different sectors of the tourism supply chain. While size matters, other factors influencing ICT usage suggest that SMTEs also have a more flexible and creative approach to online marketing, and that a destination area approach is best suited to supporting sustained ICT development at this level.

Key words: Information communications technology (ICT); Small and medium-sized tourism enterprises (SMTEs); Destination marketing/management systems

Address correspondence to Graeme Evans. Tel: 020 7753 7058; Fax: 020 7753 3240; E-mail: g.evans@unl.ac.uk (http://www.unl.ac.uk/celts)

Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 3, pp. 155-166, 2000
1098-3058/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Typology of Tourism-Related Web Sites: Its Theoretical Backgound and Implications

Bing Pan and Daniel Fesenmaier

National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, Department of Leisure Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 Huff Hall, 1206 S. Fourth St., Champaign, IL 61820

The application of information technology, especially the Internet, is changing our way of life and of doing business, particularly in the tourism area. A well-defined typology is necessary to clarify the structure of the online tourism domain, to facilitate the information search process of various Internet users in the tourism area, and to provide appropriate strategies for the development of different types of tourism-related Web sites. After an analysis of the nature of information, the authors advance a typology of tourism-related Web sites based on the information communication between different information users in tourism. The implications of this typology for tourism research and tourism-related Web site development are discussed.

Key words: Internet; Tourism; Typology; Information; Richness; User analysis

Address correspondence to Daniel R. Fesenmaier. Tel: (217) 244-3891; Fax: (217) 244-1935; E-mail: drfez@uiuc.edu

Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 3, pp. 167-176, 2000
1098-3058/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Perceptions of Marketing Managers of the Effectiveness of the Internet in Tourism and Hospitality

Timothy H. Jung and Richard Butler

School of Management Studies for the Service Sector, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK

The subject of the use of information technology (IT) in the tourism industry has become increasingly important in recent years. In its various forms, the advent of the Internet and its remarkable growth enables tourism organizations to reach customers worldwide with both ease and cost-effectiveness. This article investigates the perception by marketing managers of the Internet as a marketing tool and endeavors to identify how they measure the success rate of Web sites they have established. It begins by presenting a brief review of literature on technology acceptance models as a conceptual framework for the research and then discusses the main approaches to measuring the effectiveness of the Internet. The article then discusses the results of surveys of perceptions of a selection of marketing managers from different sectors of the tourism and hospitality industry about the Internet as a marketing tool and their attempts to measure the success of their Web sites. It concludes with some brief recommendations and implications for managers of Web sites.

Key words: Internet; World Wide Web; Web site evaluation; Marketing managers; Tourism; Hospitality

Address correspondence to Timothy Jung. Tel: +44(1483) 876 378; Fax: +44(1483) 876 301; E-mail: H.Jung@surrey.ac.uk

Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 3, pp. 177-193, 2000
1098-3058/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Evaluating Electronic Channels of Distribution in the Hotel Sector: A Delphi Study

Peter O'connor1 and Andrew J. Frew2

1IMHI, Group ESSEC, Avenue Bernard Hirsch, BP105, 95021 Cergy Pontoise CEDEX, France
2Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh

This article is based on the findings of the initial rounds of a Delphi study that focused on identifying a potential range of methods to help hotels both select and evaluate electronic channels of distribution. A review of the background to both electronic distribution in the industry and hotel distribution in particular is provided, highlighting important issues for hoteliers. The work demonstrates the need for and potential utility of a channel evaluation methodology. Construction of the Delphi and the selection process for participants is described along with key findings and interim conclusions.

Key words: Electronic distribution; Hotel industry; Evaluation methods; Delphi study

Address correspondence to Peter O'Connor. Tel: +33 1 3443 3177; Fax: +33 1 3443 1701; E-mail: oconnor@essec.fr

Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 3, pp. 195-211, 2000
1098-3058/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Benchmarking Hotel Operations on the Internet: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Karl W. Wöber

Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Austria, Augasse 2-6, 1090 Vienna, Austria

The purpose of this article is to present the applicability of Data Envelopment Analysis in an interactive benchmarking system. The decision support system that is used for this experimental study is accessible on the World Wide Web and based on data obtained from Austrian small and medium-sized hotel enterprises. The system was developed with financial support of the Austrian Chamber of Commerce and is operated by the Austrian Society for Applied Research in Tourism (ASART) at the Vienna University of Economics. It enables Austrian entrepreneurs as well as consultancy companies specializing in tourism to compare the performance of hotel and restaurant enterprises with others of a similar nature. In the present article the author gives a comprehensive description of the conceptual approach, the technical realization, and experiences and implications with the prototype version of the system.

Key words: Hospitality management; Small and medium enterprises (SMEs); Data envelopment analysis; Benchmarking; Decision support systems; Internet

Address correspondence to Karl Wöber. E-mail: karl.woeber@wu-wien.ac.at

Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 3, pp. 213-225, 2000
1098-3058/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Design of a Multilevel Intelligent Decision Support System for the Improvement of Tourist Satisfaction

Bozidar Klicek

Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb, Pavlinska 2, 42000 Varazdin, Croatia

Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) was used on survey data relating to tourists' attitudes and consumption in Croatia. The results of the KDD were exploited to develop 73 models of tourist satisfaction that achieved relatively high precision (average deviation of 6.4%). These models were then applied to simulate the ability to improve the total satisfaction of tourists by choosing a destination that was more appropriate to their preferences. The last simulation indicated that for 90% of tourists the degree of satisfaction could be improved by 25% to 160%. Finally, a second-generation intelligent system was conceptualized that uses the knowledge of tourist satisfaction models for decision making at the levels of: (a) a multimedia intelligent tourist advisor, (b) a destination management system, and (c) a system for optimizing national tourism promotion activities.

Key words: Tourism; Customer satisfaction; Decision support; Knowledge discovery in databases; Second-generation intelligent systems

Address correspondence to Bozidar Klicek. E-mail: bklicek@foi.hr