ognizant Communication Corporation

A Journal of Science Serving Legislative, Regulatory, and Judicial Systems
Human Advancement · Environmental Protection  · Industrial Development

Volume 7, Number 6, 2001

Technology, Vol. 7, pp. 609-631, 2001
1072-9240/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Effects of Four Federally Supported Projects on Selected Flora and Fauna in the Washington, DC Area

James Beers, Richard Mitchell, and James Tate

Richard Mitchell Associates, McLean, VA 22101

Four projects--Potomac River Federal Navigation Project Maintenance Dredging; Woodrow Wilson Bridge improvement; National Harbor; and the Washington Aqueduct--were evaluated for their effect on plants and animals listed as federally endangered or threatened, or which may qualify for federal protection. The species considered were: the Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus); the American shad (Alosa sapidissima); the hickory shad (Alosa mediocra); the dwarf wedge mussel (Alasmidonta heterodon); the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia); Hay's Spring amphipod (Stygobromus hayi); the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus); the northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon, a unique Virginia population thereof); the wood turtle (Clemmys insculpta); Canby's dropwort (Oxypolis canbyi); the sensitive joint vetch (Aeschynomene virginica); the small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides); and swamp pink (Helonias bullata). In addition to assessing the separate effects of each project on selected plants, animals, and their habitat, this article also assesses the cumulative effects of these projects. The study found that rather than contributing to conservation of endangered and threatened species in the study area, the federal projects and actions examined make recovery more difficult, and in some cases may result in the extirpation of the species in the study area. The study concludes that these projects harm listed species, and that to avoid this harm certain actions related to these projects need to be modified or eliminated. Adverse effects of these activities--when considered cumulatively--present an acute threat to certain species and to their habitat. Some species affected by the projects merit consideration for listing as endangered or threatened. Furthermore, the processes by which these actions were permitted failed to protect endangered species, and should be reviewed by an independent body to ensure that the protective measures mandated by the Endangered Species Act are adequately enforced in the study area.

Key words: Endangered species; Threatened species; Federal projects; Protective measures

Technology, Vol. 7, pp. 633-644, 2001
1072-9240/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Emission of TVOCs From Consumer Products

Hai Guo and Frank Murray

School of Environmental Science, Division of Science and Engineering, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia

An environmental test chamber with controlled climate conditions is used to investigate the time dependence of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) emissions from 10 different consumer products, which are the most representative products available on the Australian market. TVOCs emissions from these consumer products are compared. The main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from some of these products are detected by GC/MS. A double-exponential model is developed to evaluate the characteristics of emissions of TVOCs from these consumer products. The double-exponential model facilitates an understanding of the mechanism of physical processes of the emission from consumer products and the calculation of a variety of emission parameters. The emission data obtained can be used to predict indoor air quality.

Key words: Total volatile organic compounds; Consumer products; Chamber; Emissions; Modeling

Address correspondence to Hai Guo at his current address: Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, New York University, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987. Tel: (914) 731-3574; Fax: (914) 351-5472; E-Mail: guohai@env.med.nyu.edu

Technology, Vol. 7, pp. 645-655, 2001
1072-9240/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
Radon-Prone Geological Formations and Implications for Cave Users

Gavin K. Gillmore,1 Malcolm Sperrin,2 Paul Phillips,3 and Antony Denman4

1Senior Lecturer in Earth Science, School of Environmental Science, University 1College Northampton, Northampton, NN2 7AL, UK
2Medical Physicist, Department of Medical Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN1 4JU, UK
3Reader in Environmental Science, School of Environmental Science, University College Northampton, Northampton, NN2 7AL, UK
4Visiting Fellow, School of Environmental Science, University College Northampton and Head of Department of Medical Physics, Northampton General Hospital, Cliftonville, Northampton, NN1 5BD, UK

This article presents a survey performed in a relatively ``low radon risk'' geographical area of the UK and quantifies the risk of radioactive exposure in this cave environment. High radon levels, up to 12,552 Bq m-3, have been measured in parts of a cave system, but this concentration is likely to underestimate the levels in many other parts of the subterranean network studied, for reasons associated with cave architecture and meteorology. This study confirms previous conclusions that long-term recreational users of deep caves, as opposed to rock shelters, are at risk to exposure from radon. Annual dose to certain groups of recreational cave users has been calculated to be as high as 120 mSv. The study also demonstrates that there is variation both within and between caves in the same system as a result of subtleties of the bedrock geology, fault patterns, and weathering. This article sets out a theoretical model to aid in our understanding of radon exposure in caves.

Key words: Radon hazard; Geology; Caves; Carboniferous Limestone; Mendip Hills; Swildon's Hole

Address correspondence to Gavin K. Gillmore. Tel: +44 (0)1604 735500, ext. 2501; Fax: +44 (0)1604 720636; E-mail: gavin.gillmore@northampton.ac.uk

Technology, Vol. 7, pp. 657-672, 2001
1072-9240/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Updates and Extensions to Tests of the Linear-No Threshold Theory

Bernard L. Cohen

Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260

Two weaknesses in a 1995 article on tests of the linear-no threshold theory of radiation carcinogenesis are pointed out. One is addressed by introducing more recent cancer mortality statistics, and the other is addressed by introducing 450 newly available potential confounding factors. The later cancer statistics give results very similar to the original ones for the nation as a whole, but do cause significant changes for some geographic areas. None of the new confounding variables helps to explain the large discrepancy with predictions of the linear-no threshold theory, nor does the use of more recent cancer statistics.

Key words: Linear-no threshold theory; Radiation carcinogenesis; Confounding factors

Address correspondence to Bernard L. Cohen. Tel: (412) 624-9245; Fax: (412) 624-9163; E-mail: blc+@pitt.edu