ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 123-136
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Aboriginal People, Gold, and Tourism: The Benefits of Inclusiveness for Goldfields Tourism in Regional Victoria

Ian D. Clark and David A. Cahir

University of Ballarat, Melbourne, Australia

In the 1960s Australian historians were criticized for being the "high priests" of a cult of forgetfulness, for neglecting Aboriginal history, and for excluding a whole quadrant of the landscape from their research. In this article, the authors argue that the same criticisms may be leveled at the interpretation of goldfields history. Taking the Goldfields Tourism Region in western Victoria as their focus, the authors show the richness of the Aboriginal side of the goldfields story, and show that their exclusion from this story is not due to a lack of material. On the contrary, the barriers that exclude Aboriginal experiences from goldfields tourism are based on the perception and choice of tourism agencies and managers. The practice of history of the Sovereign Hill Museums Association in Ballarat serves as a case study for this article. The authors argue that the heritage industry has a responsibility to ensure that Aboriginal experiences are not excluded from their interpretation. Just as the writing of mainstream history had for many years dispossessed Aboriginal peoples and kept them out of sight, and out of mind, it is time for the historiography of gold to reappraise its ideology and find a balance that no longer excludes Aboriginal themes that have a legitimate place in goldfields history. There are several ways that Sovereign Hill may present indigenous perspectives as it interprets the history of gold mining in Ballarat and Victoria from 1850. More information can be made available, by such means as a series of publications ranging from books to Web pages and activity sheets for children. Interpretive displays focusing on the specificity of Aboriginal people and gold, centered around the themes reviewed in this article, could be constructed. Aboriginal guides could interpret this rich heritage for visitors to the museum. Aboriginal people were present on the Ballarat goldfields, and elsewhere, in many capacities, as Native Police, as miners, guides, and gold finders, as wives and sexual partners, as farmers and entrepreneurs trading cultural items and food, and as local residents going about their everyday lives, staging corroborees and other forms of interaction with other inhabitants. Many of these interactions could be "activated" by Aboriginal people; for example, there is scope for activation of the corroborees staged in Ballarat in the 1850s, of the Aboriginal encounter of the traveling musical troupe as witnessed by Antoine Fauchery, of the trade between Aboriginal people and miners, and of the critical role played by the Aboriginal Native Police in maintaining law and order in Ballarat and other goldfields in the early 1850s.

Key words: Aboriginal history; Goldfields; Victoria

Address correspondence to Ian Clark, School of Business, University of Ballarat, Melbourne, Australia. Tel: 61-3-5327-9436; E-mail: i.clark@ballarat.edu.au

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 137-152
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Talking Authenticity: What Kind of Experiences Do Solitary Travelers in the Norwegian Lofoten Islands Regard as Authentic?

Mehmet Mehmetoglu and Kjell Olsen

Finnmark University College, Norway

This article examines how the concept of authenticity is perceived by solitary travelers in the Norwegian Lofoten Islands. Its aim is twofold. First, it provides an exhaustive literature review on authenticity that calls for further empirical investigation. Second, it explores how tourists themselves come to regard their experiences as authentic or inauthentic. The basic assumption is that authenticity becomes a shared narrative that is guided by the discursive propositions that can also be found in Western thought in general as well as in the writings about tourism and among scholars. The suggestion is that authenticity-a key motive for tourism-should be explored as a feature attributed to experiences within a discursive framework, rather than as something given. To examine authentic experiences of solitary travelers, grounded theory, applying an emic approach, is employed to gather the necessary data. Based on in-depth interviews carried out with 45 solo travelers, three comprehensive authentic experiences are empirically identified (i.e., defined as such by the informants): social relations (meeting people), nature, and solitude/personal achievement (to be alone/do it myself).

Key words: Authenticity; Authentic experiences; Emic approach; Grounded theory; Lofoten Islands; Solitary traveler

Address correspondence to Mehmet Mehmetoglu, Ph.D., Finnmark University College, Department of Tourism, 9509 Alta, Norway. Tel: +47 784 50 269; Fax: +47 784 34 438; E-mail: memet@hifm.no

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 153-162
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Constructing the Identity of a Nation: The Tourist Gaze at the Museum of Scotland

Fiona McLean1 and Steven Cooke2

1University of Stirling
2University of Hull

In an era of global instability and crises of national identity, the role of heritage tourism in creating images of national identity has become an important area for research. This article considers the role of heritage tourism in constructing national identity in the nation of Scotland through the lens of the Museum of Scotland. It describes the findings of qualitative research undertaken with potential and actual target consumers to the Museum of Scotland. Three research questions were addressed: Does the Museum of Scotland construct (1) a vision of a 'new' Scotland? (2) a symbol of a 'real' Scotland? (3) a collective identity of Scotland? The findings suggest that heritage visitors actively identify through their gaze, constructing multifarious meanings of national identity that are dynamic rather than static.

Key words: Heritage tourism; National identity; Museums; Consumption; Image

Address correspondence to Dr. Fiona McLean, Department of Marketing, University of Stirling, FK9 4LA Scotland. Tel: 01786 467393; Fax: 01786 464745; E-mail: f.c.mclean@stir.ac.uk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 163-172
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Garifuna Settlement Day: Tourism Attraction, National Celebration Day, or Manifestation of Ethnic Identity?

Carel Roessingh1 and Karin Bras2

1Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
2Inholland University

This article focuses on the way the government of Belize, a postcolony nation in Central America, has to maneuver between its aim to work towards a nation-state mentality and the existence of local ethnic manifestations, which emphasizes the internal diversity in this multiethnic society. The government and all kinds of (non)government-related organizations in Belize promote Belize as an attractive tourist destination. In doing so it is important to promote the variation of possibilities that are available in the country. Ethnic celebrations are one of them. As a tourist attraction these ethnic-related manifestations do have an economic value not only for both the government and business organizations, but also for local entrepreneurs. The authors suggest that the government has three arguments to encourage ethnic-related manifestations. As a result, the ethnic groups are able to take advantage of their special celebrations to attract tourists. In addition, these events are also an opportunity for local entrepreneurs to sell their ethnic merchandise to tourists. Finally, these special celebration days are a possibility for the tourists to get acquainted with local indigenous cultures.

Key words: Belize; Nation building; Ethnicity; Ethnic tourism; Authenticity

Address correspondence to Carel Roessingh, Department of Culture, Organisation and Management, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: 31-20-446729; Fax: 31-20-4446765. E-mail: ch.roessingh@fsw.vu.nl