|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM REVIEW INTERNATIONAL
An Interdisciplinary Journal
VOLUME 10, NUMBERS 1/2
Tourism Review International, Volume 10, pp. 39-46
1544-2721/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Knowledge Management for Tourism Crises and Disasters
Nina Mistilis1 and Pauline Sheldon2
1School of Marketing, University of South Wales, Australia
2School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Abstract: This article focuses on the need for destinations to create a knowledge-based system to assist with crisis and disaster management. After laying out the unique needs of the tourism industry for knowledge when disaster strikes, the article describes a knowledge framework designed to assist in such situations. This framework suggests three separate knowledge bases to deal with the three stages of a disaster. Knowledge Base 1, the precrisis stage, deals with knowledge retrieval and storage; Knowledge Base 2, the stage during the crisis, deals with knowledge processing; and Knowledge Base 3, the postcrisis stage, deals with knowledge dissemination. The contents of each knowledge base are identified in detail and a recommendation for public sector leadership in implementation of such a system is discussed.
Key words: Knowledge management; Tourism crisis; Tourism disaster; Knowledge bases
Address correspondence to Dr. Nina Mistilis, Senior Lecturer, Tourism and Hospitality Unit, School of Marketing, University of South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Tel: 2-9385-2639; Fax: 2-9663-1985; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Effects of the Sars Crisis on the Economic Contribution of Tourism to Australia
Larry Dwyer,1 Peter Forsyth,2 and Ray Spurr3
1Department of Economics, University of New South Wales,
2Department of Economics, Monash University, VIC, Australia
3Sustainable Tourism CRC, School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia
Abstract: In a context of uncertainty over traveler security, tourism experienced two major crises in 2003--the Iraq War and SARS. While the relative impacts of a complex array of impacts on travel decision making are almost impossible to dissect, this article explores the economic effects of the SARS crisis on tourism to Australia. Although the crisis resulted in less inbound tourism, it also has lead to reduced outbound tourism. The net economic impacts on the nation depend upon the extent to which cancelled or postponed outbound travel are allocated to savings, to domestic tourism, or to the purchases of other goods and services. Using a computable general equilibrium model of the Australian economy, simulations of the impacts of the events suggest that the net effects were not as severe as were perceived by tourism stakeholders.
Key words: Economic impacts; SARS; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Tourism crises; Destination management; Australia
Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer, Qantas Professor of Travel and Tourism Economics, School of Economics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel: 2-9385-2636; Fax: 2-9313-6337; E-mail: email@example.com
Understanding Tourism Crisis: Case Studies of Bali and Phuket
Centre for Disaster Studies, School of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography, James Cook University, Australia
Abstract: With the scale and abundance of recent crises, effective destination management has become a highly topical issue within the tourism industry. Risk management is generally promoted as a valuable method of hazard reduction, yet the planning capability of any destination is only truly determined in real conditions of duress. An integrated crisis management approach extends beyond strategies of prevention and preparation to actively facilitate comprehensive response, recovery, and resilience strategies. Case studies of authentic tourism crisis can assist in understanding and providing practical lessons for reducing vulnerability and sustained adversity. Although the recent tourism crises experienced by both Bali and Phuket were "triggered" by separate and distinctive events, analysis of the subsequent issues and concerns demonstrate the benefits of a more proactive and integrated approach to destination management strategies.
Key words: Crisis management; Tourism crisis; Destination case studies; Bali; Phuket; Indonesia; Thailand
Address correspondence to Yetta Gurtner, Centre for Disaster Studies, School of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography (TESAG), James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. Tel: +61-7-4781-4587; Fax: +61-7-4781-4020; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Post-tsunami Tourism Strategies for the Maldives
Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Curtin University, WA, Australia
Abstract: This article describes the impacts on the tourism industry in the Maldives following the tsunami of December 26th, 2004 and the formulation of strategies for tourism in response to the disaster. An application of lessons learned from previous disasters that have impacted on tourism, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Bali bombings, provides the basis for developing short-, medium-, and long-term tourism strategies for the Maldives. A generic framework and set of key issues for destinations facing disaster situations was presented in a workshop with key stakeholders in the Maldives. The fieldwork was facilitated by the Maldives Association of Tourism Industry during January and February 2005 at a critical point for the tourism industry, just 1 month after the disaster. Key stakeholders in the Maldives tourism industry, including government representatives, resort managers, and members of the Maldives Chamber of Commerce & Industry, were engaged and tourism strategies and actions were developed. In addition, an initial assessment of the physical and financial impact of the tsunami based on primary and secondary sources was undertaken to support the case for funding and implementation of the tourism strategies identified. Specific short-, medium-, and long-term strategies and actions are listed, including a short-term communications strategy to project primary and solidarity messages to tourists and travel intermediaries (airlines, travel agents, and tour operators). An assessment of the effectiveness of the communications strategy, as indicated by the monthly changes in international visitor arrivals for the first half of 2005, provides insights into the diversity of market responses that can follow a natural disaster.
Key words: Tourism strategy; Tsunami; Maldives
Address correspondence to Professor Jack Carlsen, Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Curtin University, PO Box U 1987 Perth, WA 6845, Australia. Tel: 8-9266-1132; Fax: 8-9266-3833; E-mail: email@example.com
Proactive Crises Management Tools: Ecolabel and Green Globe 21 Experiences From New Zealand
Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Abstract: This article addresses the theme of crisis management in tourism by adopting a proactive rather than a reactive perspective. As such, it examines ecolabels as one of the proactive mitigation mechanisms with the capacity to contribute to the creation of a more sustainable future. Specifically, ecolabels are examined in the context of New Zealand with the aim of providing a better understanding of consumer attitudes and levels of awareness. The findings are generated by a questionnaire survey of international and domestic visitors to Wellington and reveal awareness levels of ecolabels to be small and ecolabel knowledge to be inherently confused. An in-depth examination of the most widely represented ecolabel, Green Globe 21, produced similarly sobering results. However, in the context of previous ecolabel studies these findings can be regarded as encouraging because the level of awareness reported by international visitors appears to have increased over the last 2 years. Exploring the notion of "greenwash" as a potential inhibitor to greater ecolabel uptake, the majority of respondents report no distrust, thus suggesting that consumer skepticism of ecolabels may be overestimated.
Key words: Ecolabels; Environmental certification; Green Globe 21; Consumer awareness; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Dr. Christian Schott, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Tel: +64-4-463 5719; Fax: +64-4-463 5180; Email: Christian.Schott@vuw.ac.nz
Tourism in a Small Community: Risks and Benefits
Leo Jago,1 Liz Fredline,2 and Margaret Deery1
1Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Faculty of
Business and Law, Victoria University, Australia
2Service Industry Research Centre, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, Australia
Abstract: This article presents the findings from a Sustainable Tourism Co-operative Research Centre study into the risks associated with the impacts of tourism on the quality of life of residents in a small community in the Australian state of Tasmania. This state is known for its pristine environment and potential difficulty in coping with large numbers of visitors to popular areas. One of the icon regions in the state is the Coles Bay town and the adjacent Freycinet National Park. This research investigates community attitudes to tourism and the potential benefits and risks to this iconic region if the tourism levels are not managed. It discusses the development of indictors to monitor these risks and the problems associated with tourism development. The article provides details of the findings from the community workshops and a survey to the community's ratepayers. In so doing, the article elaborates on the community perceptions of tourism and the potential risk to both the environment and the community well-being.
Key words: Quality of life; Small community; Tourism management; Risks and benefits; Tasmania, Australia
Address correspondence to Dr. Liz Fredline, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, PMB50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia. Tel: +61-7-555-28732; Fax: +61-7-555-28171; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Stakeholder Response Strategies to Climate Change Impacts on the Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Tourism Destinations
Nancy Loman Scanlon
School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Abstract: This study addresses climate change impacts on the sustainability of environmental assets and the economic benefits of such to tourism destinations. Representing an increasing percentage of national, regional, and local economics, this impact becomes important measured in tax income, employment rates, and financial multiplier effects. Impact on the sustainability of the environment of a destination and the inconsistent availability of natural resources for recreational purposes is identified in terms of climatic change in Central Europe. This study offers strategies to assist tourism destinations in responding to key issues of climate change; the frequency of unpredictable weather patterns, changing trends in visitor destination selection, and the challenge to deliver a consistent visitor "experience."
Key words: Climate change; Sustainability; Strategic response strategy
Address correspondence to Dr. Nancy Loman Scanlon, School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2560 Campus Road, George Hall, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Tel: (808) 956-6611; Fax: (808) 956-5378; E-mail: email@example.com
Sustainable Innovations at Tourist Destinatons
Yoram Krozer and Else Christensen-Redzepovic
Cartesius Institute, Institute for Sustainable Innovations of the Netherlands Technical Universities
Abstract: This article discusses how and why tourist destination can generate income without risking environmental degradation. It is based on a small island in the Netherlands that attracted mass tourism, generated high income, and satisfied tourists' and experts' opinions about environmental quality of the island over the past century. General lessons are drawn. The key in the development has been the community's strategy that presented the environment as a destination of high value. The strategy enabled regulations and sustainable innovations to maintain environmental quality as a common good of the island. Stakeholders opt for use of environment in marketing, better facilities, cleaner and safer mobility, and agrotourism. Tests in water saving and marketing indicate benefits of the options. A model on innovators' decision making shows how community determines sustainability of the destination.
Key words: Tourism; Sustainable development; Environment; Innovations; Small islands; The Netherlands
Address correspondence to Dr. Yoram Krozer, Cartesius Institute, Druifstreek 72, 8911 LH Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (0)58 2849000; Fax: +31 (0)58 2168130; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Analyzing the Risk of Drowning at Surf Beaches
Department of Management, Monash University, VIC, Australia
Abstract: A clear understanding of the nature of risk in outdoor adventure tourism activities will assist the development of injury prevention strategies and so increase tourist safety. Using the example of surf beach drowning, a risk analysis process is outlined to identify the source and nature of hazards and related risks inherent to this setting. The process applies Haddon's Matrix to identify candidate risk factors related to either participants engaged in water-based activities or the surf beach environment. Causal risk factors are then distinguished using a risk balloon analogy. The final phase of the process assesses whether causal risk factors are modifiable for the purpose of developing injury prevention programs.
Key words: Tourist risk; Hazard profile; Safety; Beaches; Drowning; Australia
Address correspondence to Damian Morgan, Department of Management,
Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Gippsland Campus,
Building 5N, Northways Road, Churchill, VIC 3842, Australia. Tel: +61-3-990-26624;
Fax: +61-3-990-27154; E-mail: email@example.com