ognizant Communication Corporation

An Interdisciplinary Journal


Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 9-18
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Landscape as Theme Park: Demographic Change, Tourism, Urbanization, and the Fate of Communities in 21st Century Japan

Jerry Eades and Malcolm Cooper

Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan

Abstract: In this article the authors address a simple question: What will the already observable demographic changes mean for tourism in Japan, apart from the presence of older people? Indeed, if the population will be nearly halved in the next 50 years, one must actually address the question of whether many of the more peripheral communities in Japan will survive at all, or whether they resemble the ghost villages in Shiga prefecture to the east of Lake Biwa. Some pointers to the fate of these communities can already be discerned in a series of studies carried out in the last 20 years. On the basis of selected case studies this article projects this process over the next 50 years to see what the impact will be on the Japanese rural periphery and on patterns of tourism. Japan as a whole has an extraordinary concentration of theme parks and other tourist facilities based on notions of identity and heritage. The title of this article refers to the fact that many communities in Japan are already turning their landscapes into quasi, if not actual, theme parks in order to attract tourists, capital and, especially, more residents. Over the next 50 years this process of conversion could become a Darwinian struggle for survival as the population diminishes outside Japan's major cities.

Key words: Theme park; Identity; Heritage; Population change; Depopulation; Japan

Address correspondence to Professor Jerry Eades, College of Asia Pacific Studies, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu, Oita-ken 874-8577, Japan. Tel: 977-78-1049; Fax: 977 78-1123; E-mail: jse@apu.ac.jp

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 19-31
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Japanese Inns (Ryokan) in Atami (Japan) and the Shaping of Coming "Traditions"

Sylvie Guichard-Anguis

French National Center of Scientic Research, Laboratoire "Espaces Nature et Culture," Paris, France

Abstract: This article stems from the assumption that researching Japanese inns (ryokan) located in Atami (45,000 inhabitants, Shizuoka Prefecture) would allow the reader to understand what happens elsewhere among other ryokan in Japanese spas (onsen). After briefly introducing the history of spas in Japan, three different approaches constitute an attempt to explore the development of ryokan in Atami. From its historical origin to its most prosperous economic period between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, Atami has taken advantage of its location close to the capital to develop mainly as a recreational place, based on the spas' (onsen) function. Historically, lodging associated with this function came to take the form of Japanese inns (ryokan), characterized today by a great variety of scales and shapes. The several international hotels that have also been developed still represent a minority, as is the case in most of the recreational cities of Japan. The main historical periods of development are emphasized in order to understand the different layers of history to which the present inns belong. From the approximately 68 ryokan still in business compared to the 361 in 1972, three case studies are introduced to describe their diversity. The economic difficulties encountered nowadays by this kind of lodging in Atami and the different solutions sought show a tendency to create new patterns of lodging. In the new economic environment, they may offer opportunities to keep a balance between preserving some historical aspects of ryokan and creating new models for the future.

Key words: Ryokan; Hot springs; Lodging; Baths; Frequentation; Japan

Address correspondence to Sylvie Guichard-Anguis, Chargé de recherche, French National Center of Scientic Research, Laboratoire "Espaces Nature et Culture," CNRS/Paris 4 Paris-Sorbonne, Institut de Géographie, 191, rue Saint Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Tel/Fax: 33 1 44 32 14 43; E-mail: Espace.Culture@paris4.sorbonne.fr or sguichard_anguis@hotmail.com

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 33-43
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Japanese Working Holiday Makers in Australia: Subculture and Resistance

Arpad Maksay

School of Political and Social Inquiry and School of Asian Studies and Languages, Monash University, Australia

Abstract: This article explores the experiences of Japanese youth in Australia on working holiday visas. Unlike previous studies, which have concentrated on the structural effects that Working Holiday Makers (WHMs) have on employment and tourism, this study adopts an approach that focuses on individual working holiday makers. The research was qualitative and aimed to reveal junctures for understanding and theorizing Japanese WHMs. The main hypothesis is that as a group, Japanese WHMs form a distinctive subculture within Australia. In relation to subculture, they form and maintain social links and a strong sense of collective identity with other Japanese WHMs. In particular, the trip around Australia is understood as the central ritual as well as the context within which the subculture is formed.

Key words: Japanese youth; Working holiday; Subculture; Resistance; Rituals; Australia

Address correspondence to Arpad Maksay, Rm. 201 Applause 1-29-2 Haramachi, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo-To, Japan 152-0011. Tel/Fax: 61-3-3791-1285; E-mail: maksay@hotmail.com

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 45-56
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Japanese Backpacking: The Emergence of a New Market Sector--A Queensland Case Study

Bruce Prideaux1 and Hideki Shiga2

1School of Business Studies, James Cook University, Australia
2Hideki Shiga, School of Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Queensland, Australia

Abstract: This article reports on a study of Japanese backpackers conducted in Queensland, arguing that this backpacker sector has a range of characteristics that differ from Western backpackers who, to date, have constituted the main representatives of this segment visiting Australia. The research identified a number of areas where the characteristics of Japanese backpackers varied from those of the overall backpacker population in Australia. One major point of difference was the emphasis placed by this market segment on learning English and a preference for activities that focused on the environment rather than other activities such as soft adventure.

Key words: Backpackers; Japanese; Queensland; Cross-cultural studies; Australia

Address correspondence to Professor Bruce Prideaux, School of Business Studies, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns Mail Centre, Cairns, QLD 4870, Australia. Tel: 61-7-4042-1039; Fax: 61-7-4042-1080; E-mail: Bruce.Prideaux@jcu.edu.au

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 57-65
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Applying Importance-Performance Analysis for Japanese Senior Travelers to Hawaii

Yuko Okata,1 Yuka Inui,2 Samuel V. Lankford,2 and Kathy Scholl3

1Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Japan
2Sustainable Tourism and Environmental Program, University of Northern Iowa, USA
3School of Health, Physical Education & Leisure Services, University of Iowa, USA

Abstract: Seniors are a growing segment among Japanese outbound travelers. Given that Hawaii is one of the most visited destinations by Japanese travelers, it is expected that the proportion of seniors will continue to grow in accordance with social trends of aging adults in Japan. The purpose of this article is to examine the satisfaction of Japanese senior travelers based on their expectations of important destination attributes of the Hawaiian Islands in relation to the travelers' performance judgment of these attributes. This study employs an Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) to determine critical attributes of this destination. A focus group with tourism industry professionals resulted in 15 distinct attributes of Hawaii as a tourist destination. Respondents rated the importance level of each attribute on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = not important to 6 = extremely important. In addition, respondents evaluated Hawaii's performance of these same destination attributes on another 6-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 = very poor to 6 = excellent. Questions also focused on the travelers' trip-related characteristics and demographics. Respondents were selected from Japanese travelers who were 20 years or older, and had visited Hawaii for pleasure travel. Of the 211 questionnaires collected, 73 of the surveys were completed by Japanese travelers over the age of 50. Of this group, senior travelers were mostly satisfied with the destination attributes of Hawaii, specifically those factors that were related to Hawaii's natural resources as well as the characteristics related to a comfortable trip. Interestingly, the features related to physical activities such as golfing, water sports, and outdoor activities were not viewed as important travel destination attributes for Hawaii for both seniors and the younger Japanese travelers. On the other hand, improvement in local transportation and accommodations were destination attributes that travelers felt needed attention. These results provide some useful insights for developing effective marketing strategies to attract Japanese senior travelers to Hawaii, as well as the usefulness of using the IPA methodology.

Key words: Senior travelers; Importance-performance analysis; Seniors; Japan; Hawaii; USA

Address correspondence to Dr. Sam Lankford, Professor and Director, Sustainable Tourism and the Environmental Program (STEP), University of Northern Iowa, 203 Wellness Recreation Center, Cedar Falls, IA 50614, USA. Tel: (319)-273-6480; Fax: (319)-273-5958; E-mail: sam.lankford@uni.edu

Tourism Review International, Volume 11, pp. 67-83
1544-2721/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Dialectics of Japanese Overseas Tourists: Transformation in Holiday Making

Noriko Takai-Tokunaga

Department of Geography, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, The University of Reading, UK

Abstract: This research examines transformational process of tourist experience in the context of fast changing Japanese outbound tourism. The Western perspective of this market is predominantly that of organized mass tourists. However, as the market matures, a diverse style of overseas holiday making among the Japanese becomes increasingly evident: more independent and versatile tourists have recently emerged. A qualitative approach based on the constructivist perspective was chosen because a standardized survey research was recognized as being neither able to reveal the complex and interwoven processes and mechanisms of such transformation nor an evolutionary scenario of the Japanese outbound market. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 Japanese citizens who had holidayed to Britain. Thematic coding and narrative analysis were applied to the interview data to identify essential thematic domains for understanding critical factors that have affected their transformation of holiday making. It was recognized that the Japanese tourist lives through a dialectical-optimizing transformational process of holiday making in order to seek an optimal holiday experience. Collective changes and recent trends in Japanese outbound tourism may reflect an aggregation of such an individual's transformational process.

Key words: Tourist transformation; Japanese outbound tourism; Qualitative research; Dialectics of tourist experience; UK

Address correspondence to Noriko Takai-Tokunaga, 705 Tokyo Audium, 2-17-1 Kachidoki, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0054, Japan. Tel: 3-6220-3902; E-mail: Noriko_takai@za.aeonnet.ne.jp