Tourism Review International 22(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 22, pp. 3-21
1544-2721/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15202734130413
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism, Macroeconomics, Growth, and the St. Louis Equation

Manuel Vanegas Sr.

Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA

This study tested the following research questions: (a) Is tourism development helping to untangle the exogenous from the endogenous of monetary and fiscal policies behavior? (b) Is tourism development a determinant of economic growth in the presence of the macroeconomic variables? (c) Is there a stable long-run relationship among economic growth, tourism development, monetary, and fiscal policies in Nicaragua? (d) Is there a presence of Granger causality? Using nominal and real values, this study tested the adequacy of the expanded St. Louis equation with three methodologies: the Almon lag-distributed methodology; the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration; and the Granger methodology was applied to investigate causality. The data covered the period 1960–2016. First, the results have indicated that tourism development and monetary policy bear the task of the short-run adjustment to a long-run equilibrium. In the long-run, a 1% of sustained growth rate in tourism development would imply an estimated increase in gross domestic product (in real terms) of nearly 0.41%. Second, there is a log-run relationship among economic growth, monetary policy, fiscal policy, and tourism developments. Third, the results confirm the hypothesis that tourism development is an important, direct, and independent economic sector in explaining economic activity changes, in the case of Nicaragua. Fourth, there is unidirectional or one-way (TR → GDP) Granger causal effect running from tourism development to economic growth. This study has provided useful guidance for policymakers engaged in tourism policy formulation, a modeling and quantitative reference material to academia, and other researchers who might be interested in conducting research in similar or related areas of the study.

Key words: Growth; Tourism; Macroeconomics; ARDL methodology; Granger causality

Address correspondence to Dr. Manuel Vanegas Sr., Adjunct Professor, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. Tel: +1-602-785-1688; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 22, pp. 23-39
1544-2721/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15202734130422
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Hotel Responses to Negative Online Reviews Affect Customers’ Perception of Hotel Image and Behavioral Intent: An Exploratory Investigation

Fang Meng,* Robin B. Dipietro,* John H. Gerdes Jr.,† Sheryl Kline,‡ and Tiffany Avant*

*School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
†Department of Integrated Information Technology, College of Engineering and Computing, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
‡Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Management, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA

Online guest reviews have become an important facet of consideration when customers decide on a hotel. However, limited research has been done to examine how hotel management’s responses to comments posted to online review sites such as TripAdvisor influence customers’ hotel perception and choice. This pilot study uses a semiexperimental approach to investigate how customers’ perceived hotel image, attitude, and hypothetical intent to stay are impacted by three different hotel responses to negative guest online feedback, respectively, including “no response,” “negative response,” and “service recovery response” scenarios. The results reveal that providing a service recovery response to negative online reviews enhanced hotel image, attitude, and hypothetical intent to stay at the hotel. Comparatively, respondents’ hotel image and attitude toward the hotel were ranked lowest under the “no response” strategy, which indicates that any hotel response, even negative, would be better than taking no action. This study provides valuable implications and strategies for academics and hotel management in terms of addressing negative online reviews.

Key words: Hotels’ response; Negative online review; Hotel image; Attitude; Hypothetical intent to stay

Address correspondence to Fang Meng, Ph.D., School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Carolina Coliseum Room 1000, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA. Tel: +1 (803) 777-0631; Fax: +1 (803) 777-6427; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 22, pp. 41-48
1544-2721/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15202734130431
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Effect of Delisting a Hotel Market From Online Travel Agency Websites: Evidence From Columbus, Georgia

Brumby McLeod,* Stephen W. Litvin,* Kirk C. Heriot† Andres Jauregui,‡ and Erin Dempsey*

* Hospitality & Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
†Turner College of Business, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA, USA
‡School of Economics, Fresno State University, Fresno, CA, USA

The purpose of this article is to further explore the relationship and balance of power between online travel agencies (OTAs) and hotel properties, specifically addressing and generally supporting the established but contentious concept of the billboard effect. The research also introduces the concept of chain immunity, an ancillary benefit that unlisted hotels receive as a function of the billboard effect. The empirical study conducted suggests that OTAs have less power than is generally perceived versus hotels. The findings further provide hoteliers with strong justification to support experimentation with their property’s sales distribution systems as they seek to determine the most effective balance of OTA versus Brand.com promotional efforts for their properties.

Key words: Online travel agencies (OTAs); Hotel performance; Billboard effect; Distribution channels; Chain immunity

Address correspondence to Stephen W. Litvin, Professor, Hospitality & Tourism Management School of Business, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 22, pp. 49-66
1544-2721/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15202734130440
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Assessing the Sustainability of Tourism Systems: A Social–Ecological Approach

Gyan P. Nyaupane,* Surya Poudel,* and Dallen J. Timothy*†

*School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
†School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Tourism destinations operate as a complex system, consisting of multiple interacting components that are nonlinear, cross-scale, evolving, and interdependent. The purpose of this article is to deconstruct the complex tourism system so that the important components of the system can be identified and critically evaluated. The research was conducted in two popular tourism destination communities in Nepal—Ghandruk and Sauraha—using a systemic and holistic approach called a social–ecological system (SES) framework to analyze the structures, processes, and outcomes of tourism. Data collection involved 45 face-to-face, semistructured interviews and a review of published and unpublished archival documents. This article further expanded Ostrom’s SES framework to systematically analyze the sustainability of complex and dynamic tourism systems that would be useful to evaluate destinations’ sustainability performance. The findings show that tourism brought mixed, mostly positive and some negative, sociocultural, economic, and ecological outcomes in both communities. Overall, tourism development is progressing towards sustainability in these destinations, though present conditions do not meet the ideal state envisioned by the concept of sustainable tourism. The theoretical, methodological, and policy implications of the SES framework are discussed.

Key words: Sustainable tourism; Social–ecological system (SES) framework; Systems approach; Tourism system; Governance; Stakeholders; Collaboration; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Gyan P. Nyaupane, Ph.D., Professor, School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Ave., Ste. 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Tel: +1 (602) 496-0166;

Fax: +1 (602) 496-0953; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 22, pp. 67-79
1544-2721/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15202734130459
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Wine Tourism Experience in New Zealand: An Investigation of Chinese Visitors’ Interest and Engagement

Joanna Fountain

Department of Tourism, Sport and Society, Faculty of Environment, Society and Design, Lincoln University, Lincoln, Christchurch, New Zealand

This study explores Chinese visitors’ interest in engaging in wine tourism during their time in New Zealand. Informed by existing empirical and conceptual research into the wine tourism experience, a survey of 203 Chinese visitors in New Zealand (short-term holidaymakers and students) reveals that they have relatively limited interest in wine tourism overall, but a growing proportion of them are visiting wineries during their time in New Zealand. The main appeal of wineries for Chinese visitors is the opportunity to relax and enjoy the scenery, although learning about wine and wine making, tasting wine, and hearing stories about wine are of interest also. This is the case particularly among the student sample, who show greater interest and engagement in wine tourism than the short-stay holidaymakers. Recognizing that the Chinese market is not homogeneous, and that their needs may differ from other visitor segments, this article outlines opportunities to develop winery experiences and provide service and hospitality which best meets their needs.

Key words: Wine tourism experiences; Chinese visitors; New Zealand

Address correspondence to Joanna Fountain, Senior Lecturer in Tourism Management, Postgraduate Studies Coordinator, Department of Tourism, Sport and Society, Faculty of Environment, Society and Design, Rm 703, 7th Floor, Forbes Building, PO Box 85084, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand. Tel +6434230487; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 22, pp. 81-95
1544-2721/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15202734130468
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Wine Tourism in Burgundy, France: An Analysis of Marketing Practices

Liz Thach* and Laurence Cogan-Marie†

*Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA
†Burgundy School of Wine & Spirits Business, Dijon, France

The purpose of this research study was to assess the development of wine tourism in Burgundy, France. As a famous wine region, Burgundy has traditionally focused on the export of their product and has not been as proactive as other wine regions in the promotion of tourism. However, this is slowly changing as the industry begins to transform itself and create more welcoming experiences for tourists. The methodology involved both quantitative and qualitative approaches. An analysis of 133 winery websites was conducted to assess readiness for wine tourism. In addition, a series of 18 in-depth interviews with various sized wineries was completed to analyze existing marketing practices, including direct to consumer sales derived from wine tourism. Finally, an online content analysis of existing Burgundian wine tourism organizations was conducted. Results show that some Burgundy wineries are serving as trailblazers in opening cellar doors and offering more tours and experiences to wine tourists. However, the website analysis suggests that Burgundian wineries should upgrade their digital marketing strategies to attract more tourists and create more positive brand perception. From a regional branding viewpoint, Burgundy seems to be excelling at differentiating themselves from other wine regions and creating a compelling brand proposition.

Key wordsWine tourism marketing; Burgundy; Transition; Direct to consumer (DTC) sales

Address correspondence to Dr. Liz Thach, M.W., Distinguished Professor of Wine, Professor of Management, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it