Tourism Analysis 23(2) Abstracts

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Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 177-181
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504517
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Prospect: The Future of Critical Tourism Studies: Reflections on the Road Ahead

Senija Causevic,* Lynn Minnaert,† Nigel Morgan,‡ and Annette Pritchard§

*School of Finance and Management, SOAS, University of London, London, UK
Tisch Center for Hospitality and Tourism, New York University, New York, NY, USA
‡School of Management, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
§Independent Scholar, Cardiff, UK

Since its inception in 2005, Critical Tourism Studies (CTS) has profiled itself as a network of scholars who share a vision of producing and promoting social change in and through tourism practice, research, and education. It has sought to legitimize the critical school of thought in tourism studies, and to provide an inclusive environment for the alternative voices in the academy. Six CTS conferences later, a vibrant and inclusive network of scholars has emerged, representing a wide range of institutions and tourism interests. Yet as the network matures, the question has emerged on what the future holds for CTS. Has the network achieved its goals? Has it helped make the academy become more accepting of critical tourism research? Has it remained an inclusive environment for alternative voices in tourism studies? And if it has achieved its goals, does that now make the network redundant? We reflect here on what lies ahead, and which challenges we face in creating a renaissance in critical tourism studies. We will consider how these ideas can help us in elaborating on the critique of critical tourism studies itself.

Key words: Critical theory; Tourism; Interdisciplinary; Academic activism

Address correspondence to Senija Causevic, Lecturer, School of Finance and Management, SOAS, University of London, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H OXG, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 183-187
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504535
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Ten Years of Critical Tourism Studies: Reflections on the Road Less Traveled

Nigel Morgan,* Annette Pritchard,† Senija Causevic,‡ and Lynn Minnaert§

*Department of Business, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
†Independent Scholar, Cardiff, UK
‡School of Finance and Management, SOAS University of London, London, UK
§Tisch Center for Hospitality and Tourism, New York University, New York, NY, USA

This introduction to the Special Issue describes and reviews the development of the Critical Tourism Studies Network and its unfolding values-led humanist and transformative perspective. It defines its philosophical roots and its inquiry–learning–action nexus, before briefly outlining the evolution and trajectory of tourism studies as a field of inquiry to provide context for the critical turn. The introduction concludes by summarizing the approaches and methodologies employed in the six articles of the collection, all of which provide both insights into the current state of critical tourism studies and glimpses of some of the challenges that lie ahead for the field of tourism studies.

Key words: Epistemology; Critical tourism; Tourism theory; Humanist perspective

Address correspondence to Nigel Morgan, Department of Business, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK. Fax: +44(1792) 602990; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 189-199
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504544
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Academic Activism in Tourism Studies: Critical Narratives From Four Researchers

Rob Hales,*1 Dianne Dredge,†2 Freya Higgins-Desbiolles,‡2 and Tazim Jamal§2

*Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia
†Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark
‡University of South Australia Business School, University of South Australia, Australia
§Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

A climate of neoliberalism challenges the work of scholars whose research focuses on societal well-being through embedded community research and critical analysis of public policy, planning, and industry practices, what we call academic activism. This article draws on the autoethnographic insights and critical narratives of four tourism scholars to describe and analyze in a systematic manner the experiences of these researchers each engaged in what they consider to be academic activism. Our aim is to bring into focus and raise as matters of concern the future of tourism research in the neoliberal university and the need for greater critical and reflexive engagement by researchers in their positionality and agency. Although the contexts in which we work and our experiences differ greatly, the article identifies common themes, challenges, and opportunities within our approaches to research and action. Four emergent themes arose through the narrative analysis that helped to structure insights and findings: experiential journeys that shaped our current academic positionality and philosophical approaches to research and practice; a preference for embedded situated methodologies; a reflexive understanding of our political positioning; and a critical situated approach to understanding the external influences upon our research and strivings to contribute to the public good. The article raises challenging questions on the meaning of tourism research and the “public good” in the neoliberal university, and what being an academic activist entails in this context.

Key words: Academic activism; Tourism studies; Neoliberalism; Narrative analysis; Public good

1Principal author.
2Equal contribution from all authors (subsequent author names are listed in alphabetical order).
Address correspondence to Rob Hales, Griffith Business School, N50, Room 1.42a, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia 4111. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 201-213
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504553
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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The Everyday Instillations of Worldmaking: New Vistas of Understanding on the Declarative Reach of Tourism

Keith Hollinshead and Rukeya Suleman

Bedfordshire Business School, Putteridge Bury Campus, Luton, UK

In this article the authors trace the development of attention that has been given to renovated constructions of Goodman’s old concept of “worldmaking,” as had been originally used in the arts and aesthetics in the 1970s. They reveal how the subject of worldmaking entered the lexicon of Tourism Studies at the turn of century through the transdisciplinary/postdisciplinary applications of Hollinshead vis-à-vis understandings of what is normalized and/or naturalized through the everyday/ordinary activities of tourism (and through the mundane/banal orientations of Tourism Studies, itself). In defining what worldmaking is seen to be nowadays—as those inherited but contested acts of instillation or instillment that version the world (or rather, which privilege certain vistas over peoples, places, pasts, and presents over other visions)—Hollinshead and Suleman clarify that observers in Tourism Studies have actually been commenting on the essentializingand objectifying political character of the storylines and projections of tourism for a much longer time than the last decade (or couple of decades), although they recognize that it is only recently that the particular term worldmaking has come into explicit use, itself. Having scrutinized how worldmaking ideas are treated in tourism/Tourism Studies these days, this article then examines how parallel inscriptive fields to Tourism Studies (such as Cultural Studies/Media Studies/Literary Studies) also richly articulate ideas about worldmaking agency, even though the subject was seemingly adopted rather later in those other domains. It closes with the provision of a number of potential research agendas into the ordinary/everyplace worldmaking instillations of tourism for researchers (and practitioners) in Tourism Studies, whether their critical mindedness is “pure and conceptual” or “applied and operational.”

Key words: Worldmaking authority; Collaborative consciousness; Declarative power; Symbolic order; Configuration; Canonicity; Collective murmur

Address correspondence to Prof. Keith Hollinshead, Prof. of Public Culture, Bedfordshire Business School, Putteridge Bury Campus, Luton LU2 8LE, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 215-225
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504562
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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The Political Economy of Tourism: Children’s Neglected Role

Fiona Eva Bakas

GOVCOPP, CCArq, Centre for Social Studies, Coimbra University, Coimbra, Portugal

Addressing the theme of tourism as a social force, this article approaches a subject upon which limited research has been undertaken: children’s role as economic actors in tourism. As the concept of children as economic actors comes into antithesis with UN models of childhood as a care-free time, family business literature illustrates how children often do take on economic roles. Based on empirical research conducted in Crete, Greece in 2012, the ways in which the political economy of tourism shapes and is shaped by children’s roles as economic actors is explored. A feminist economics angle is adopted, viewing productive and social reproductive elements as of equal importance for representations of the economic reality. Participant observation over a 3-month period and 14 ethnographic interviews with tourism microentrepreneurs who make handicrafts primarily for sale as souvenirs inform this article. Thematic analysis highlights how tourism’s intense and seasonal nature accentuates cultural expectations and economic pressures, bringing about a metamorphosis in children’s roles. Although when they are very young, children themselves constitute a major social reproduction task, when they are older, they have a significant input into the political economy of tourism as they transform into replacement entrepreneurs and domestic helpers during the busy peak season. Investigating how children’s economic roles are seasonally formed and the effect children’s economic activities have on their parents’ gendered entrepreneurial roles, this article provides an exciting insight into children’s roles within tourism labor.

Keywords: Gender; Crete; Ethnography; Handicraft entrepreneurs

Address correspondence to Dr. Fiona Eva Bakas, Postdoctoral Researcher, GOVCOPP, CCArq, CES (Centre for Social Studies), Coimbra University, Colégio S. Jerónimo, Ap. 3087, 3000-995 Coimbra, Portugal. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 227-237
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504571
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Critical Tourism Studies and The World: Sense, Praxis, and the Politics of Creation

Adam Doering* and Jundan (Jasmine) Zhang†

*Center for Tourism Research, Wakayama University, Wakayama, Japan
†Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Sweden

Over the past decade Critical Tourism Studies (CTS) has endeavored to create a better “tourism world” while also drawing attention to tourism’s “worldmaking” force. However, the question of “the world” itself has escaped the critical lens of CTS. Reading Jean-Luc Nancy’s philosophy of the world alongside Jia Zhangke’s 2004 film The World, this article aims to develop an open and emergent sense of the world for CTS to consider. We do this in four parts. First, we introduce Nancy’s “sense of the world” as always already in creation through our immanent relations with one another. Secondly, the relationship between world, creation, and praxis is addressed. Through a close reading of the emancipatory praxis and critical pedagogy common to CTS, we question the underlying assumption that the world comes into creation only when it is named, represented, and negotiated. Thirdly, we speculate on how an alternative “praxis” might unfold once this reconsidered sense of the world is taken into account. With the help of an exemplary long take scene in The World we detail three key features that give texture to Nancy’s idea of the world as praxis: relationality, exposure, and spacing. We conclude by returning to the end of the film, or its “opening,” in an effort to open up unfamiliar routes to reinvigorate the critical and creative agenda that underpins CTS.

Key words: Critical Tourism Studies (CTS); Relationality; Praxis; Jean-Luc Nancy; Critical pedagogy; Worldmaking

Address correspondence to Adam Doering, Center for Tourism Research, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama City, Wakayama, 640-8510, Japan. Tel: +81 73-457-7025. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 239-248
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504580
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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The Ethics of Excellence in Tourism Research: A Reflexive Analysis and Implications for Early Career Researchers

Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Queensland, Australia

Set against the framework of today’s competitive research environment, this article focuses on a less discussed category of ethics within tourism: that of the researcher as a professional. “Data” are presented as reflexive considerations on the ethical challenges and dilemmas an early career researcher faced during her transition from the early to mid-career phase. Personal experiences are compared to a multidisciplinary literature on ethics, education, knowledge production, and distribution. This article concludes that it is possible for early career researchers in the current tourism academic climate to remain ethical and successful at the same time—if they engage constantly and reflexively with the ethical questions that surround their own identity, power, and responsibility as academics. The article also asks that the tourism research community and institutional structures place more emphasis on the discussion of ethics and codes of conduct.

Keywords: Ethics; Reflexivity; Early career researcher; Female; Asian

Address correspondence to Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Building N72, Room 0.29, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia. Fax: +67 7 37356743; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 249-259
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504599
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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A Critical Look at the State of Tourism Studies in Anthropology in Latin America and the Caribbean1

Carla Guerrón Montero

Anthropology Department, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA

Anthropology has expanded by including within its purview the study of tourism. Although tourism is a subject of relative recent concern among anthropologists, anthropological scholarship on tourism has contributed greatly to tourism studies. In this conceptual article, I offer a preliminary study of the state of tourism studies and anthropology in Latin America and the Caribbean, based on a survey of literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese in Latin America, the US, and Europe. My primary concern is to discuss the relationship between tourism studies and anthropology in studying Latin America and the Caribbean. I conclude proposing that for the anthropology of tourism to advance towards more vibrant development, there needs to be an equal and multilingual dialogue among scholars, practitioners, and tourism stakeholders in the Global North and South, as well as a conceptualization of tourism as one aspect of a larger spectrum of movements, representations, and practices.

Key words: Anthropology of tourism; Tourism studies; Latin America; Caribbean

Address correspondence to Carla Guerrón Montero, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Delaware, 135 Munroe Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 261-274
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504607
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Research Note

A Comprehensive Review of the North American Hotel Industry: An Application of the Value Chain Model

Sunny Sun, Rob Law, and Markus Schuckert

School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

This study provides an update on the North American hotel industry. It adopts content analysis by analyzing retrieved articles according to the adjusted Porter’s value chain model. Major findings showed that most of the previous studies merely investigated one or two topics within the value chain model, and the connections between different types of activities have been largely ignored. Findings on the methodology revealed that nearly 80% of the retrieved articles used primary sources, and more than 85% of these articles applied quantitative data analysis. Future studies should analyze the value chain in its entirety and investigate the relationships among different topics (i.e., interdisciplinary research). Hotel managers may consider the value chain in its entirety and not merely its separate components to facilitate overall strategic decision making.

Key words: Traditional accommodation; Competitive strategy; Information technology; Content analysis

Address correspondence to Markus Schuckert, School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TST-East, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR. Tel: (852) 3400 2321; Fax: (852) 2362 9362; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 275-282
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313504616
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Research Note

Development and Validation of the Tourism e-Microentrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale

Bruno S. Ferreira,* Duarte B. Morais,*† Jeffrey M. Pollack,‡ and Kyle S. Bunds*

*Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
†Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
‡Department of Management, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

With the emergence of tourism sharing economy platforms like People-First Tourism, Vayable, Airbnb, and Uber, there are now a much greater number of microentrepreneurs engaged in selling products and services directly to tourists. The limited existing literature examining these individuals suggests that they are often inspired by noneconomic motives such as freedom, passion, or lifestyle, rather than the desire to rapidly grow a venture and maximize revenue. Accordingly, given that tourism microentrepreneurs have different goals and business models relative to typical entrepreneurs, this study adapted extant entrepreneurial self-efficacy measures to the context of tourism e-microentrepreneurship to develop the tourism e-microentrepreneurial self-efficacy (TeMSE) scale. Our new 13-item scale provides insights into a unique and burgeoning group of tourism actors, namely measuring their beliefs in their ability to successfully perform the various roles and tasks of microentrepreneurship in the tourism sharing economy.

Key words: Tourism; Entrepreneurship; Microentrepreneurship; e-Microentrepreneurship; Self-efficacy

Address correspondence to Bruno S. Ferreira, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, 2820 Faucette Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 283-288
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15210313771322
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Research Note

Effect of Terrorism and Travel Warning on Kenyan Tourism Demand

Brian Masinde* and Steven Buigut†

*Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Jomo Kenyatta
University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
†School of Business, American University in Dubai, Dubai, UAE

Security concerns especially from terrorism events and travel warnings against the country presents a challenge to the tourism industry in Kenya. This study applies the Arellano-Bond difference GMM model to analyze the effects of terrorism and travel warning on demand for tourism in Kenya. Quarterly arrivals data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics from 22 source countries covering the period 2010q1 to 2015q4 are used. The study focuses on travel warnings by the UK and US. The results obtained show that terrorism events, represented by fatalities, significantly reduce tourism demand. The adverse effect lasts at least through to the following quarter. Travel warnings also show a negative effect on tourist arrivals in the country. However, the evolution of its effect over time seems to depend on which country issued the warning. For a UK warning, the bulk of the impact comes in the following quarter, while for a US travel warning the negative effect is mainly in the same quarter. The sector appears to recover more quickly from a US travel warning relative to a UK warning.

Key words: Terrorism; Travel warning; Dynamic panel model; Tourism demand; Kenya

Address correspondence to Steven Buigut, School of Business, American University in Dubai, 28282, Dubai, UAE. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it