Tourism Analysis 24(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 3-12
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631909
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Dependency of Spanish Urban Hotels on Booking.Com

Juan Pedro Mellinas

Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas, Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja, La Rioja, Spain

There is an increasing dependency of hotels on online travel agencies (OTAs) around the world, particularly in Booking.com when we focus on Europe, but there is a lack of information about accurate data related to market share of OTAs. Moreover, it is not possible to access individual information about hotels’ dependency on OTAs because it is confidential. An indicator, based on the number of reviews of each hotel on Booking.com (RpR), is proposed as a proxy for hotel reservations. It does not provide the exact number of reservations made through Booking.com, but allows comparing dependency levels. Results from Spanish urban hotels suggest higher dependency percentage than in previous research using surveys at a European level. Independent hotels and hotels with small size or low star category are clearly more dependent on Booking.com. The RpR could be used as a benchmarking tool for hotels when comparing with competitors and can also function as an indicator of the evolution of the dependence on OTAs for individual hotels. The methodology described can be applied to other OTAs that have a similar reviewing system, like Expedia, Agoda or HRS, which would provide estimations about competitors’ distribution mix.

Key wordsReviews; Hotels; Dependency; Booking.com; Online travel agencies (OTAs)

Address correspondence to Juan Pedro Mellinas, Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas, Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja, Av. de la Paz, 137, 26004 Logroño, La Rioja, Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 13-26
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631891
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Impact of Airbnb on Customers’ Behavior in the UK Hotel Industry

Luqi Li and Saloomeh Tabari

Sheffield Business School, Department of Service Sector, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK

The sharing economy is nowadays disrupting the hotel industry. Airbnb is one of the best examples of such an issue. In order to find approaches for hotels to mitigate the threat from these new accommodation forms, the present article focuses on the major elements influencing customers to choose this new platform and other related aspects affecting the future of the hotel industry. Previous studies have looked at how Airbnb influences customer behavior, but this is one of the first studies dealing with an analysis of the impact of Airbnb on the UK hotel industry. In this way, the article majorly focuses on evaluating the impact of this new accommodation and services platform on customers’ behavior within the UK hotel industry. Particularly, it seeks to determine how the hospitality and hotel sectors can mitigate the threats posed by Airbnb. As a result, the article also provides managerial and industrial recommendations of the research findings.

Key words: Sharing economy; Customers’ behavior; Guests’ choices; Airbnb; UK hotel industry

Address correspondence to Saloomeh Tabari, Sheffield Business School, Department of Service Sector, Sheffield Hallam University, Room 7338, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 114 225 3370; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 27-41
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631918
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Social Media, Customers’ Experience, and Hotel Loyalty Programs

Noelia Sanchez-Casado,* Andres Artal-Tur,† and Eva Tomaseti-Solano*

*Department of Business Management, Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain
†Department of Economics, Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain

In the last decade, hospitality companies have broadly adopted new technologies and social media tools for marketing purposes. One important application is the engagement with customers through a relationship approach. In this article, we focus on understanding how hotels employ these tools to boost their loyalty programs. First, we analyzed how the main Spanish hotel chains make use of social media in their marketing activities. In this stage, we employed information from the website and social media sites of hotel chains and their corresponding brands. Secondly, we tested for the influence of customers’ experience on declared satisfaction with loyalty programs. By relying on questionnaire data, we tested for three main working hypotheses analyzing the interactions among benefits of hotel loyalty programs, customers’ expertise with the hotel industry, and degree of satisfaction with those programs. The main results show that the degree of expertise of hotel customers clearly determines their level of satisfaction with loyalty programs. Managerial implications from the research remark on the effectiveness of social networks and the necessity of customizing the message according to the profile of the client to get higher impact of the campaigns.

Key words: Social media; Hospitality industry; Loyalty programs; Customer expertise; Overall satisfaction

Address correspondence to Andres Artal-Tur, Department of Economics, Technical University of Cartagena, 30201 Cartagena, Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 43-54
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631954
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Pictorial Analysis of the Projected Destination Image: Portugal on Instagram

Salar Kuhzady* and Vahid Ghasemi†‡

*Tourism Management, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey
†Department of Economics and Business, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
‡CEFAGE, Evora, Portugal

Destination image (DI) has an important role in destination choice. DI is considered as one of the main factors in destination competitiveness. The main aim of this study was to explore the projected image of Portugal as a tourism destination. The projected image was obtained through an analysis of the pictures of the official page of destination management organization of Portugal on Instagram (@visitportugal). The research used a sample of 1,306 photos. Samples included photographic and textual data. Visual content analysis and content analysis were adopted to analysis data. Appling content analysis for images refers to break a picture into a number of categories. The results showed that the projected destination images of Portugal were dominated by attributes

related to natural attractions. In addition, the geographical distribution of the DMO photos showed that 880 photos (67%) of all 1,306 DMO photos were associated with nine destinations. Food/drink category was the most engaging image for followers. Additionally, the findings indicated that the most common applied hashtags for describing Portugal as a tourism destination and inspire travelers to visit were related to nature-based activities (e.g., nature, river, beach, ocean, sea).

Key words: Pictorial analysis; Destination image (DI); Projected image; Portugal; Instagram

Address correspondence to Vahid Ghasemi, Department of Economics and Business, University of Cagliari, Via San Giorgio, 12. 09124, Cagliari, Italy. Tel: +39 348 805 2982; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 55-67
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631945
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Experience Innovation of Tourism Encounters

Flemming Sørensen* and Jens Friis Jensen†

*Department of Social Sciences and Business, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark †Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark This article discusses how tourism companies can change practices and thereby innovate employee–tourist encounters, changing them from traditional service encounters to encounters that focus on creating experiential value for tourists. The article combines service innovation, practice, and experience economy theory. The analysis is based on a multiple qualitative service innovation field experiment in five Danish tourism companies. The experiments showed how front-line employees in tourism companies could act as creative experts in innovation processes that focused on developing new reflective encounter practices aimed at experiential value creation. However, the experiments also illustrated how a number of factors influenced the process, including a trust-based organizational environment, an organizational setup in which front-line employees’ ideas could be developed and shared, organizational structures and mind-sets that supported front-line employees’ reflective practice, as well as more specific “rooms” for creativity, such as facilitated workshops. Conversely, strong service mind-sets acted as a barrier to change towards experience-focused encounter practices. The article suggests new strategic approaches to innovation practices in tourism companies. Involving front-line employees in innovation processes becomes central for tourism companies that want to go beyond service production and create new experiential value.

Key words: Innovation; Tourism; Encounters; Experience; Reflective practice; Experiment

Address correspondence to Flemming Sorensen, Department of Social Sciences and Business, Roskilde University, Building 25.3, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Tel: 46742000; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 69-79
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631972
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Customers’ Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction With Hotels: A Text-Mining Approach

Salar Kuhzady* and Vahid Ghasemi†‡

*Tourism Management, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey
†Department of Economics and Business, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
‡CEFAGE, Evora, Portugal

User-generated review of hotels plays an important role in the e-commerce and big data era. The digital and big data era has created novel sources of information that can be used by scholars for knowledge creation, business intelligence, and bringing meaning into unstructured big data. In addition to build a big picture on sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, this study aims to develop results that are more practical for hoteliers. A text-mining approach was applied. Reviews of 10 hotels were collected from TripAdvisor.com for Mazandaran province in Iran. The findings of the research show that “location” appearing 99 times, “room” 53 times, and “staff ” and “restaurant” 40 times are the most influential factors that determine positive reviews (customer satisfaction). At the same time, the main determinants of customer dissatisfaction were the words “restaurant,” “Wi-Fi,” and again “room.” Given these results, it can be said that customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction can coexist, as literature shows. In this respect, the factors (e.g., room & restaurant) that make customers satisfied have potential to also make them dissatisfied, if they are not provided and properly delivered. Managerial implications are also discussed.

Key words: Hotel satisfaction; Dissatisfaction; User-generated content; TripAdvisor; Electronic word of mouth (eWOM); Mazandaran, Iran

Address correspondence to Vahid Ghasemi, Department of Economics and Business, University of Cagliari, Via San Giorgio, 12. 09124, Cagliari, Italy. Tel: +39 348 805 2982; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 81-86
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631981
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Tourism Experiences During A Convention: A Case Study From South Korea

Meghan Beardsley,* Shinyong Jung,† Hyelin Kim,‡ and YEn-SOON Kim‡

*Howard Feiertag Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
†Department of Hospitality, Tourism, and Events, College of Professional Studies, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA
‡Harrah College of Hospitality, Department of Food & Beverage and Event Management, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Convention planners are struggling to contend with the fluid needs of clients and attendees in a competitive, evolving environment. Planners must continuously sculpt events, enhancing revisit appeal enough through offerings like external tourism programs. The purpose of this study is to understand the potential impact perceived preference for external tourism experiences has on a convention attendee’s behavioral intentions, such as revisit intention. Researchers used elements from 30 separate international conference websites to design a survey. A randomly selected 240 South Korean-hosted international conference attendees answered these pretested questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis identified four motivational factors with statistically significant impact on behavioral intention. The findings suggest that performances and historical attractions have the strongest impact on behavioral intentions. This study supports that perceived preference for external tourism experiences can successfully segment attendees. Theoretically, this study’s unique survey is usable for similar future studies in this context.

Key wordsPerceived preference; External tourism experience; Convention attendee

Address correspondence to Hyelin Kim, Harrah College of Hospitality, Department of Food & Beverage and Event Management, University of Nevada, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 87-92
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295631990
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

A Psychographic Segmentation of Kuwaiti Travelers Using Self-Organizing Maps

Yvette Reisinger,* Mohamed M. Mostafa,* and John P. Hayes†

*College of Business Administration, Gulf University for Science and Technology, West Mishref, Kuwait
†Rinker School of Business, Palm Beach Atlantic University, West Palm Beach, FL, USA

This study identifies distinct psychographic market segments of young Kuwaitis intending to travel to Western countries by applying the self-organizing maps (SOMs) technique. Young Kuwaitis represent a high-yield growing outbound tourism market. A self-completed questionnaire was randomly administered to 800 young Kuwaiti nationals. The effect of travel motivations, preferences for Muslim-friendly lifestyle and amenities, cognitive and affective destination image, and service quality on Kuwaitis’ travel decisions were examined. Travel satisfaction was also investigated. The resulting visual maps identified four segments. The study contributes to theory and knowledge by presenting a different approach to tourist market segmentation.

Key words: Self-organizing maps (SOMs); Segmentation; Psychographics; Arab travelers

Address correspondence to Yvette Reisinger, College of Business Administration, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Block 5, Building 1, Mubarak Al-Abdullah Area, West Mishref, Kuwait. Tel: +965-2530-7310; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 95-100
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458295632007
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Progressing a Child-Centred Research Agenda in Tourism Studies

Antonia Canosa,* Anne Graham,* and Erica Wilson†

*Centre for Children and Young People, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia
†School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

In this “hot issue” article, Canosa, Graham, and Wilson trace the historical conditions that have contributed to the marginalization of children and young people’s voices in broader social research. Developments in the field of childhood studies are examined by them with a particular focus on how this growing area of interdisciplinary scholarship has seemingly challenged entrenched assumptions about children and young people’s competence and triggered a major shift in understanding their agency, rights, well-being, and ability to contribute in a meaningful way to research about their lives. The Canosa, Graham, and Wilson review article ultimately reveals the existence of an evident gap that offers an opportunity for progressing a critical, robust and discrete child-centered research agenda that can add considerably to received knowledge within tourism studies.

Key words: Childhood studies; Children; Youth; Young people; Tourism; Critical tourism studies

Address correspondence to Antonia Canosa, Centre for Children and Young People, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore NSW 2480, Australia. Tel: +61 401815975; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 101-113
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15458296266364
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

The Actualization of the Critical Impulse in Critical Theory: Dialogical Rationality Around Rachel’s Tomb in Bethlehem, Palestine

Rami K. Isaac and Vincent Platenkamp

Centre for Sustainability, Tourism and Transport, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands

In this review article, Isaac and Platenkamp argue that during the 1930s and 1940s of the previous century, concepts like “critical” and “essence” were still defined and understood in the tradition of what increasing numbers of academics called “Critical Theory.” However, they suggest that since then the situation has significantly changed. In their view, while Critical Theory critically approaches the ideologies of the modern Western world, it has actually (itself) became a victim of this overwhelming critique of ideologies. To Isaac and Platenkamp, the main conceptualizations in and for Critical Theory have been weakened by a content inflation in the new historical phase of postmodernism. Thus, for instance, as a concept “criticism” had been revitalized to (down to?) a relativist position. In this review article, Isaac and Platenkamp suggest that academics in Tourism Studies now inherently claim to be “critical” by just appropriating the mere qualification critical, ipso facto. In this light, the old vital value of “Essence” thereby has become a superficial concept of old primitive ideologies, today, and it seems to have no meaningful function anymore in Tourism Studies. This review article thus aims to reintroduce the field of Tourism Studies to Marcuse’s original concept of Essence and discuss it vis-à-vis its interpretational confrontation with the said postmodernist position and thereby to the very revitalization of the qualification “critical.” Hence, Isaac and Platenkamp seek to save this qualification from the postmodernist attacks on the universality of the Critical Theoretical position by drawing particular attention to Arendt’s concept of the agora, viz. as that kind of public space (comparable to the forum Romanum), in which people significantly present themselves as individuals with independent opinions. In this regard, Isaac and Platekamp are particularly disturbed by the recent flowering of the so called “Critical Turn” group (or network) within Tourism Studies since it appears to progress without a thorough understanding of Critical Theory, per se. They argue that classical thinkers of Critical Theory need to be addressed and understood if the Critical Turn group of scholars in Tourism Studies may decently/faithfully/meaningfully be deemed to be critical. In order to make their case, Isaac and Platenkamp highlight the case of Rachel’s Tomb in Bethlehem. They position the Tomb as a very important biblical tourism site (and agora) by and through which the revitalization of the “critical” may be incorruptibly recognized.

Key words: Agora; Rachel’s Tomb; Bethlehem; Critical essence; Modes 1, 2, 3

Address correspondence to Rami K. Isaac, Centre for Sustainability, Tourism and Transport, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Mgr. Hopmansstraat 2, 4817 JT, Breda, The Netherlands. Tel: +31765332205; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it