Tourism Analysis 24(2) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 115-130
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15391984820468
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Effect of Tourism and Economic Growth in Fiji: Accounting for Capital, Labor, and Structural Breaks

Nikeel Kumar,*† Ronald Ravinesh Kumar,‡ Arvind Patel,‡ and Peter Josef Stauvermann§

*Department of Economics, University of Fiji, Lautoka, Fiji
†School of Economics, Faculty of Business & Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
‡School of Accounting & Finance, Faculty of Business & Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
§Department of Global Business & Economics, Changwon National University, Changwon, Republic of Korea

Fiji’s tourism industry has evolved considerably in the past 30 years with past and present governments striving to support and promote the sector despite competing development priorities. This study examines the effects of tourism on the economic growth of Fiji, a small island economy, over the period 1975 to 2015. Using a neoclassical framework and the autoregressive distributed lag bound procedure, the short-run and the long-run effects are explored while accounting for structural breaks. The long-run and short-run results indicate that a 1% increase in visitor arrivals contributes about 0.13% and 0.20% to the per capita income, respectively. Additionally, a unidirectional causality from economic growth to tourism, and a mutually reinforcing effect between capital investment and tourism are noted. Thus, greater impact of tourism on the economic growth can be realized through tourism-related investment activities such as improvements in airports, roads, transportation, telecommunications, financial sector, technology, and natural parks and beaches.

Key words: International visitor arrivals; Economic growth; Causality; Fiji; Autoregressive distributed lag model

Address correspondence to Ronald Ravinesh Kumar, School of Accounting & Finance, Faculty of Business & Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Campus, Room S263, Laucala Bay Road, Suva, Fiji. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 131-145
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15391984820486
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Symbolic Consumption of Cultural Quarters

Kuang-Peng Hung,* Annie Chen,† and Norman Peng‡

*Business Administration, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan
†Roehampton Business School, University of Roehampton, London, UK
‡Glasgow School for Business and Society, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK

Cultural tourism destinations, such as cultural quarters, have become an important part of postmodern society because tourists are more interested in cultural tourism than they have been in the past. The purpose of this research is to examine tourists’ cultural quarters revisit or recommendation intentions. Building on self-congruity theory, this research incorporates a “cultural contact” variable into symbolic consumption in the tourism destination brands model to examine tourists’ cultural quarters revisit or recommendation intentions. In total, 400 Taiwanese tourists were recruited. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the proposed model. The results demonstrate that ideal self-congruence, brand identification, lifestyle congruence, and cultural contact influence tourists’ satisfaction, which in turn affects their behavioral intentions. In addition, cultural contact positively moderates the relationship between satisfaction and intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications of this study are discussed in the context of the cultural tourism literature.

Key words: Cultural quarters; Cultural contact; Symbolic consumption; Self-congruity theory

Address correspondence to Annie Chen, Roehampton Business School, University of Roehampton, Roehampton Lane, London SW15 5PJ, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 147-159
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915491
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Points of Interest Recommendations Based on Check-In Motivations

Khadija Ali Vakeel* and Sanjog Ray†

Spiegel Digital & Database Research Center, Medill Integrated Marketing Communication, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
†Indian Institute of Management Indore, Indore, India

During a trip, tourists are mostly dependent on their mobile phone to select their next points of interest (POI). A mobile application that recommends POIs such as tourist attractions or restaurants is based on the user’s location data such as check-in history. This article recommends a novel approach to leverage the check-in data captured by location-based social networks (LBSNs) with an aim to improve POI recommendations through personalized explanations. The proposed algorithm generates a user’s motivation profile, and its applicability is presented by analyzing a dataset extracted from a popular LBSN. A between-subject experiment (N = 182) is conducted that shows explanations generated using a user’s motivation profile increase transparency, which leads to intent to use the LBSN. Perceived usefulness of the LBSN also increases intent to use. The study indicates that when suggesting a POI, recommender system developers include explanations based on user’s motivation behavior profile.

Key words: Location-based social networks (LBSNs); Points of interest recommendations; Motivation aware; Explanations

Address correspondence to Sanjog Ray, Faculty, Indian Institute of Management Indore, A-202, Faculty Block A, Prabandh Shikhar, Rau. Indore (MP), 453331, India. Fax: +91-731-2439800; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 161-176
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915518
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Online Reputation and Destination Competitiveness: The Case of Spain

Jose Francisco Perles-Ribes,* Ana Belen Ramon-Rodriguez,* Luis Moreno-Izquierdo,* and Maria Jesus Such-Devesa†

*Department of Applied Economic Analysis, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
†Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain

This article empirically explores the relationship existing between the online reputation and tourism competitiveness of Spanish coastal tourism destinations. It is based on big data from comments made by tourists in social media. The existing literature suggests that, in theory, a destination’s online reputation plays a key role in promoting its competitiveness. However, the results obtained in this study reflect, for the Spanish case, that this effect is today still very small and other determinants of competitiveness exist that are more relevant in promoting a true competitive advantage of destinations.

Key words: Online reputation; Destination competitiveness; Social media; Tourist perceptions; Big data, Spain

Address correspondence to Jose Francisco Perles-Ribes, Faculty of Economics and Business Sciences. University of Alicante, Campus San Vicente del Raspeig. 03080 Alicante, Spain. Tel: 96 590 36 09; Fax: 96 590 93 22; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 177-192
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915527
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Analysis of Food Tourists’ Behavior Among Unobserved Heterogeneous Groups

Pei Zhang,* Jamie A. Levitt,† Robin B. Dipietro,‡ and Fang Meng‡

*Department of Retailing and Tourism Management, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
†Department of Food Science and Nutrition, California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA, USA
‡School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

This study assessed key factors that influence food tourists’ intention to consume local cuisine while traveling. This study also aimed to determine if there was any underlying heterogeneity in food tourists for market segmentation purposes. Food tourists were surveyed at four restaurants in the southeastern US and 450 responses were obtained. Overall, frequency of past behavior had the strongest positive influence on food tourists’ intentions to consume local cuisine. A partial least squares prediction-orientated segmentation analysis revealed two segments among food tourists. The first group is more influenced by factors related to tourists’ previous travel experiences, including the positive effects of frequency of past behavior and self-identity, and the negative effects of familiarity. The second group is more influenced by factors related to tourists’ daily experiences including the positive effects of food involvement, motivation and novelty. Implications for academics and practitioners are discussed in detail.

Key words: Food tourists; Local cuisine; Behavioral intention; Partial least squares; Prediction-oriented segmentation

Address correspondence to Pei Zhang, Assistant Professor, Department of Retailing and Tourism Management, University of Kentucky, 304C Erikson Hall, 135 Graham Ave., Lexington, KY 40506, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 193-211
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915536
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Impact of Millennium Floods on Vacation Decisions in a Coastal Tourism Destination: The Case of South Carolina, USA

Chuhan (Renee) Wang,* Ercan Sirakaya-Turk,† and Serdar Aydin‡

*School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
†The College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
‡Health Services and Policy Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Would tourists travel to disaster stricken areas? Proposing a holistic model, this study aims to examine the impact of tourists’ cognitive images, emotions, motivations, and familiarity with the disaster on tourists’ future visit and recommendation intentions after the catastrophic floods in South Carolina. The Pleasure–Arousal–Dominance (PAD) model is advanced by integrating push-and-pull factor compendium and examining the role of social media. A stratified sample of 1,106 representative “tourists” from key markets to South Carolina was obtained using an online survey. The findings show that tourists’ cognitive images, negative emotions, perceived changes in South Carolina after the floods, and familiarity with the floods exert a significant impact on both visit and recommendation intentions. The social media involvement positively moderates the relationship between negative emotions and recommending intentions as well as between familiarity with the floods and behavioral intentions.

Key wordsDestination choice; Cognitive images; Emotions; Travel motivations; Familiarity; Social media involvement; Travel intention; Word of mouth

Address correspondence to Chuhan (Renee) Wang, Ph.D. Candidate, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, 1010C Carolina Coliseum, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 213-225
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915545
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Switching Barriers in Online Travel Agencies: The Impact on Positive Word of Mouth

Leticia Suárez-Álva rez,* Ana Belén del Río-Lanza,* Rodolfo Vázquez-Casielles,* and Ana María Díaz-Martín†

*Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Departamento de Administración de Empresas, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
†Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Departamento de Financiación e Investigación Comercial, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

This research attempts to clarify the different approaches followed in the literature to describe switching barriers. It helps identify and shed light on the wide variety of barriers that firms must manage. The study evaluates the role of switching barriers in online environments, distinguishing between positive and negative barriers, and examines the factors that favor positive recommendations to other customers. To test the causal relationships between switching barriers, trust, affective commitment, and positive recommendations, a model was constructed and estimated using the SEM methodology. The findings show that positive switching barriers affect positive recommendations both directly and indirectly through their effect on trust. Negative switching barriers, in contrast, only have a direct and negative effect on positive recommendations. It is fundamental for virtual travel agencies to be trained to recognize when their customers are staying willingly and when they feel locked into their relationships.

Key wordsSwitching barriers; Online travel agencies; Trust; Commitment; Word of mouth

Address correspondence to Leticia Suárez-Álvarez, Associate Professor, Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Departamento de Administración de Empresas, Avenida del Cristo s/n, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. Tel: +34 985 10 39 16; Fax: +34 985 10 37 08; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 227-242
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915554
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Price Determinants of Airbnb Listings: Evidence From Hong Kong

Yuan Cai,* Yongbo Zhou,* Jianyu (Jenny) Ma,† and Noel Scott‡

*Department of Tourism, School of Social Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
†Department of Tourism Management, School of Tourism, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China
‡Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia

Price determinants of Airbnb listings is still in its infancy and Asian markets are underexplored. Based on existing literature, this article examines the impacts of five groups of explanatory variables on Airbnb price in Hong Kong: listing attributes, host attributes, rental policies, listing reputation, and listing location. Hedonic price regression highlights that: (a) compared with previous studies, the effect of room type on Airbnb price is exceptionally high in Hong Kong, due to the “the luxury of spaciousness” in this overpopulated city; (b) contradictory to previous findings, hosts’ listings count have a negative effect on Airbnb listing price in Hong Kong, which can be explained by external (Hong Kong’s fiercely competitive environment for multilisting Airbnb hosts) and internal (multilisting hosts’ trade-off between booking opportunity and listing price) factors; (c) in Hong Kong, only low-end Airbnb rentals benefit from locational factors, indicating the heterogeneous effects of location on Airbnb pricing. These findings shed new light from previous studies and the authors provide possible explanations from theoretical and practical perspectives.

Key words: Airbnb; Sharing economy; Hospitality industry; Hedonic price model; Hong Kong

Address correspondence to Yuan Cai, Master student, Department of Tourism, School of Social Science, Soochow University, Dushu Lake Campus, Room 5505, Building 1005, Suzhou 215123, P.R. China. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 243-248
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915563
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

“Exotic Colonialism” in the Age of the Asian Traveler

Keith Kay Hin Tan* and Paolo Mura†

*Faculty of Built Environment, Engineering, Technology & Design, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
†College of Communication and Media Sciences, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE

This article is an examination of the impact of intra-Asian travel on monuments tied to colonialism in Asia. The study highlights emergent changes surrounding perceptions of tourism and what is seen as “exotic” as well as “authentic” in Asia vis-à-vis the burgeoning feeling of postcolonial guilt in the contemporary West. Citing the example of architectural monuments tied to colonial era Christian missionaries in Malaysia and Singapore, the research suggests that the 21st century is witness to a developing “postcolonial paradox” where the cultural norms and values of the prewar West are becoming more readily acceptable in parts of developing Asia than in the West itself. As “traditional values” become increasingly superseded by “progressive values” in the Western world, the premise is that the rise of the intra-Asian traveler will nevertheless allow for a belated appreciation of monuments celebrating the principles, if not the politics, of the Imperial age in Asia.

Key words: Asian traveler; Authenticity; Exotic colonialism; Christian monuments; Heritage; Historiography

Address correspondence to Keith Kay Hin Tan, Faculty of Built Environment, Engineering, Technology & Design, Taylor’s University, No.1 Jalan Taylor’s, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. Tel: 60 3 5629 5252; Fax: 60 3 5629 5477;

E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 24, pp. 249-254
1083-5423/19 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15525055915581
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2019 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Influence of Customer-Based Brand Equity on Destination Loyalty in Malaysian Urban Destinations

Philip Pong Weng Wong

School of Hospitality, Tourism, and Culinary Arts, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

A destination that possess a positive brand equity and strong competitiveness attributes will have an advantage over its competitors in attracting a bigger share of the tourism market. This study seeks to evaluate the customer-based brand equity (CBBE) of selected urban destinations in Malaysia and also to examine the relationship between the different dimensions of CBBE and destination loyalty. Results from a regression analysis confirm the positive relationships between CBBE attributes and destination loyalty.

Key words: Customer-based brand equity; Urban destinations; Destination branding; Destination marketing; Destination loyalty

Address correspondence to Philip Pong Weng Wong, School of Hospitality, Tourism, and Culinary Arts, Taylor’s University, No. 1 Jalan Taylor’s Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. Tel: 603-5629 5420; Fax: 603-5629 5522; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it