Tourism in Marine Environments 8(1-2) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 1/2, pp. 7–18
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13262430523983
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Diver Characteristics, Motivations, and Attitudes: Chuuk Lagoon

Joanne Edney

School of Environmental Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Australia

This study sought to gain an insight into the sociodemographic characteristics, motivations, and attitudes of divers to Chuuk Lagoon (Federated States of Micronesia). It did this by conducting a survey of divers participating in dive trips on a live aboard vessel at Chuuk Lagoon and supporting and enriching this data with in-depth interviews. Divers were primarily motivated to see historically significant shipwrecks, artifacts, marine life, penetrate wrecks, and to enjoy the peace and tranquility of the underwater environment. The interviews with wreck divers supported these findings and emphasized the importance of the historical aspect of wreck diving: notably seeing history and the human dimension of wrecks. Management controls over wrecks, such as penalties, permits, and dive guides, were generally supported.

Key words: Wreck diving; Scuba diving; Motivations; Human dimensions; Micronesia

Address correspondence to Joanne Edney, c/o Dr. Jonathon Howard, PO Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia. Tel: +6 1 451 459 909; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 1/2, pp. 19–32
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13262430524027
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Flourishing Through Scuba: Understanding the Pursuit of Dive Experiences

Balvinder Kaur Kler* and John Tribe†

*School of Business & Economics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
†School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

This article presents evidence for a new facet of our understanding of why scuba divers pursue their interest so fervently and are willing to travel to do so. The perennial question of why people travel is addressed through the concept of eudaimonia, the good life, or flourishing, an idea originating with Aristotle but currently enjoying renewed interest in the context of positive psychology and well-being tourism. Results of a qualitative study are presented through themes that resonate with the authentic happiness model used to evaluate long-term satisfaction, happiness, or eudaimonia. Exploratory findings indicate that participants gain meaning and fulfillment from the acts of learning and personal growth, and they are motivated to dive because this special interest promotes positive experiences, which may lead to the good life.

Key words: Well-being; Eudaimonia; Scuba divers; Learning; Personal growth

Address correspondence to Balvinder Kaur Kler, School of Business & Economics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. Tel: +60128032649; Fax: +6088320360; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 1/2, pp. 33–46
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13262430524063
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring Place Attachment: An Underwater Perspective

Emily C. Moskwa

Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla Norrie, South Australia

Local residents and tourists alike are bound to landscapes through a sense of place. These place attachments are widely reported to generate responses to environmental practices and a sense of stewardship. Using an online questionnaire, this study surveyed 178 scuba divers in South Australia to consider the construct of place attachment from an underwater perspective. Results revealed local divers had higher place identity attachments than visitors, indicating stronger emotional and affective bonds to dive sites. However, it was the visiting divers who recorded higher place dependence attachments, indicating stronger connections to the instrumental qualities of the dive sites when compared to other places.

Key words: Scuba diving; Place attachment; Place identity; Place dependence; Dive tourism

Address correspondence to Emily C. Moskwa, Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Nicolson Avenue, Whyalla Norrie, South Australia 5608. Tel: (08) 8302 5184; Fax: (08) 8302 5082; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 1/2, pp. 47–60
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13262430524108
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Resource Attributes That Contribute to Nonresident Diver Satisfaction in the Florida Keys, USA

Shona Paterson ,* Sarah Young,* David K. Loomis ,* and William Obenour†

*Institute for Coastal Science and Policy, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
†Recreation and Leisure Studies Department, Center for Sustainable Tourism, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

Scuba diving is a popular form of marine-based tourism contributing over $1 billion annually to the tourism industry in the Florida Keys. This research explores diver characteristics, how segmentation into meaningful subgroups can be achieved, and how various factors affect satisfaction. Data were collected from nonresident divers and a 10-item index was created based on respondents’ satisfaction. Discrepancy was calculated using the same items, and a specialization index was used to subgroup the respondents. Data were analyzed using step-wise regression. Results revealed that discrepancies for individual items contributed to satisfaction, which differed according to specialization level. This suggests that satisfaction is related to both discrepancies between expectations and experiences, and specialization level, providing avenues for strategic marketing and management.

Key words: Scuba diving; Satisfaction; Specialization; Florida Keys

Address correspondence to David K. Loomis, Ph.D., Institute for Coastal Science and Policy, 250 Flanagan Building, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858-4353, USA. Tel: 01-252-737-4263; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 1/2, pp. 61–76
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13262430524144
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Forming Scuba Diving Environmental Codes of Conduct: What Entry-Level Divers Are Taught in Their First Certification Course

Kelsey M. Johansen and Rhonda L. Koster

School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada

Research on dive tourism has focused on diver impacts, predive briefings, and dive master interference. Recognizing diver impacts on marine environments, entry-level certification courses discuss them and encourage low-impact diving; several espouse a code of conduct. Dive tourists, a significant portion of the diving population, are unlikely to move beyond basic certification. It is essential to impart sufficient knowledge for them to form codes of conduct in these courses. Using content analysis, this article examines environmental content across three agencies entry-level manuals. It highlights their environmental messages (positive, missed, and conflicting) and concludes that not all courses impart the knowledge required for divers to form personal codes of conduct.

Key words: Scuba diving; Environmental codes of conduct; Certification courses

Address correspondences to Kelsey M. Johansen, c/o School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Rd., Thunder Bay, Canada P7B 5J2. Tel: 1-807-627-3734; Fax: 1-807-346-7836; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 1/2, pp. 77–90
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13262430524180
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Scuba Diving and Marine Conservation: Collaboration at Two Australian Subtropical Destinations

Zan Hammerton,* Kay Dimmock,† Christine Hahn,† Steven J. Dalton,*‡ and Stephen D. A. Smith*‡

*School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia
†School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia
‡National Marine Science Centre, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia

Divers are increasingly becoming involved in marine conservation, often doing so as part of their recreational activities. Two New South Wales (NSW) volunteer underwater conservation groups [Solitary Islands Underwater Research Group Inc. (SURG) and Byron Underwater Research Groups (BURG)] were studied to characterize members’ motivations to assist with conservation in subtropical/temperate marine environments. The collaboration between private and government organizations at two dive destinations was explored to reveal implications towards marine conservation outcomes. Primary motivations to engage in marine conservation programs were a desire to contribute to environmental conservation and to increase personal knowledge and diving skill-base. The volunteer work of these two underwater research groups builds on existing monitoring programs within local marine protected areas with benefits possible through collaboration at each diving destination.

Key words: Scuba diving; Marine tourism; Conservation; NSW volunteer organizations

Address correspondence to Zan Hammerton, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. Tel: +61 2 6687 1984; Fax: +61 2 6621 2669; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 1/2, pp. 91–109
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13262430524225
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Dive Tourism in Luganville, Vanuatu: Shocks, Stressors, and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Louise Munk Klint,* Min Jiang,* Alexandra Law,* Terry DeLacy,* Sebastian Filep,* Emma Calgaro,† Dale Dominey-Howes,‡ and David Harrison§

*Centre for Tourism and Services Research, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
†Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
‡Australian Tsunami Research Center and Natural Hazards Research Laboratory, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
§School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

Luganville is a developing dive tourism destination region (DTDR) in Vanuatu, which relies on tourism. This article reports on the shocks and stressors faced by Luganville’s dive tourism sector and climate change’s exacerbation of these. The study’s methodology was based on rapid rural appraisal and case study principles, involving methods of semistructured interviews, group discussions, and personal observations. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Key shocks identified include cyclones, earthquakes, effect on demand due to media footage, and changes to international flights. Main stressors were starfish outbreaks and environmental degradation. Unlike the indigenous communities, expatriates show little concern for the potential impact of climate change, presenting response challenges that must incorporate different perspectives to develop effective adaptation options.

Key words: Dive tourism; Climate change; Vulnerability; Shocks and stressors; Vanuatu

Address correspondence to Louise Munk Klint, Centre for Tourism and Services Research, 20 Geelong Rd., Footscray, VIC 3011, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it