Tourism in Marine Environments 8(3) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 111–126
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13388607171204
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Value Orientations and Normative Evaluations of Individuals Visiting Coral Reef Areas in Hawai`i

Robyn L. Ceurvorst* and Mark D. Needham†

*Department of Environment and Society, Utah State University, Moab, UT, USA
†Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

This article uses data from a survey of 1,422 individuals visiting six coral reef areas in Hawai`i to examine their value orientations (e.g., protection–use, biocentric–anthropocentric) toward these areas and how these orientations influence their norms regarding use densities at these areas. Belief statements measured value orientations (e.g., “coral reefs have value whether humans are present or not”) and photographs of increasing use densities measured norms. The largest number of users had strong protectionist orientations toward reef areas and these individuals were more likely to feel that higher use densities should not be allowed in these areas, had more crystallization or consensus about use densities that should and should not be allowed, and believed more strongly that use levels were important to manage at these areas.

Key words: Norms; Encounters; Value orientations; Coral reefs; Indicators; Standards of quality

Address correspondence to Dr. Mark D. Needham, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Tel: +1-541-737-1498; Fax: +1-541-737-1393; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 127–143
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13491835451412
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourists’ Intention of Returning to a Visited Destination: Cruise Ship Passengers n Cartagena De Indias, Colombia

Juan Gabriel Brida and Paolo Coletti

Competence Centre in Tourism Management and Tourism Economics (TOMTE), School of Economics and Management, Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy

This study contributes to the growing literature on repeat visitation by examining the factors that affect a cruise ship passenger’s stated likelihood of returning to a visited port as a stayover tourist. Results from a survey on cruise ship passengers that stopped in Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) during the second semester of 2009 suggest that about one half of the respondents plan a return trip to the area. We show that the probability of returning to the destination depends positively on the residence geographic area, on the level of satisfaction declared by the passenger, on the time spent out the ship, and especially on whether the tourist usually travels in cruises. The average visitor wanting to return as stayover tourist is thus male, lives in the Caribbean area, is highly educated, young, on his first cruise, on an self-organized visit, and has spend a lot of time in port and experienced satisfactory services and security.

Key words: Cruise industry; Cartagena de Indias; Repeat visitation; Logit

Address correspondence to Dr. Juan Gabriel Brida, Competence Centre in Tourism Management and Tourism Economics (TOMTE), School of Economics and Management, Free University of Bolzano, Universitätsplatz 1 - piazza Università, 1, I - 39100 Bolzano, Italy. Tel.:+39 0471 013492; Fax: +39 0471 013009; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 145–151
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13491835451458
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Promotion of Ecotourism Principles by Whale-Watching Companies’ Marketing Efforts

Nhial Tiitmamer Kur and Glen T. Hvenegaard

Department of Science, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, Camrose, Alberta, Canada

For the whale-watching industry to be managed according to ecotourism principles, it should focus on nature-based attractions, provide environmental education, and promote environmental, economic, and social sustainability. Using 62 whale-watching brochures from 1998, 2005, and 2010, the study analyzed how whale-watching companies on Vancouver Island, Canada, marketed their businesses in line with these three ecotourism principles. The results suggest that Vancouver Island whale-watching companies promote most ecotourism principles, primarily those orientated to nature-based attractions and environmental education, but more attention could be paid to sustainability. The total number of environmental education activities and environmental sustainability initiatives increased over time, but most individual variables addressing the ecotourism principles did not change over time.

Key words: Whale watching; Ecotourism; Principles; Brochures; Conservation; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Glen T. Hvenegaard, Department of Science, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, 4901-46 Avenue, Camrose, AB T4V 2R3 Canada. Tel: 780-679-1574; Fax: 780-679-1590; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 153–160
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13491835451494
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Commentary

Killer Whale Killers

E. C. M. Parsons*†

*Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
†University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Glasgow, UK

In February 2010, a SeaWorld trainer was killed by a killer whale (Orcinus orca). The particular killer whale involved has been involved in three of the four human deaths attributed to killer whales in captivity. A second trainer had been killed just 9 weeks earlier by a SeaWorld killer whale on loan to a facility in the Canary Islands. As a result of the most recent incident, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration cited SeaWorld in August 2010 for a willful violation of the US Occupational Safety and Health Act, because of the potential and specific dangers the agency considered killer whales to pose to trainers. SeaWorld appealed the citation, which went to court in September/November 2011. In addition, the controversy over holding killer whales in captivity led the US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Insular Affairs, Oceans and Wildlife to hold an oversight hearing in April 2010.

Key words: Killer whale; Orcinus orca; Trainer deaths; SeaWorld; Congressional hearing; Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 161–171
1544-273X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427312X13491835451539
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright ©2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2010–2011

Carol Scarpaci* and E. C. M. Parsons†‡

*School of Engineering and Science (Applied Ecology), Victoria University, Victoria, Australia
†Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
‡University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Glasgow, UK

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published in the year since June 2010.

Key words: Whale watching; Code-of-conduct; Regulations; Management; Whale watchers; Protected areas

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it