Tourism in Marine Environments 8(4) Abstracts

Return to Tourism in Marine Environments main page>

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 173–188
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13631129554901
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Riding the Wave: History, Definitions, and a Proposed Typology of Surf-Riding Tourism

Mark B. Orams and Nick Towner

New Zealand Tourism Research Institute and School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

Surfing has evolved from a fringe counterculture recreational activity to a multibillion dollar global industry with a diverse range of equipment and millions of participants. The growth and influence of surfing, in its myriad of forms, has not been widely researched and is scarcely reported in the academic literature. This article reviews the history and development of surfing, offers definitions of surf-riding and surf-riding tourism, and proposes a typology that classifies surf-riding on the basis of four categories. Hard-core surf-riders are dedicated, focused, and have high levels of ability and commitment. Recreational surf-riders range from competent to expert in ability, but they seek the “stoke” of surfing through participation, surfing a wide range of wave types and surfing as well as they can. Casual surf-riders are novices who engage in surf-riding or attempting to ride waves as part of a wider beach and water recreational experience. “Kooks” are surf-riders characterized by a mismatch between their ability and the conditions they venture out into. Each of these types of surf-riders represents a different sector of the surf-riding tourism market. The surf-riding typology proposed in this article can be used as a basis for understanding the activities more clearly and as a framework for future research.

Key words: Surfing; Waves; Coastal; Model; Marine

Address correspondence to Mark B. Orams, New Zealand Tourism Research Institute and School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9-921-9999, ext. 6410; Fax: +64 9-921-9962; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 189–198
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13631129554947
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Change in Focus of Attention Among Whale-Watch Passengers Occurs as a Function of Temporal Phase of the Tour

Janelle M. Hrycik and Paul H. Forestell

Long Island University (LIU) Post, Brookville, NY, USA

This article examines how the focus of attention of whale-watch passengers changes as a tour progresses, based on the premise that effective interpretation programs should be sensitive to changes in passenger mindset during the course of a tour. Spontaneous questions asked by 823 passengers during 24 whale-watch tours off the New England coast during the summer of 2007 were recorded. The 24 tours carried 7,256 passengers during the 2-month study period. Content analysis of the 823 questions indicated that focus of attention varied in a predictable fashion during the tour. This suggests that whale-watch interpretation programs intending to influence passenger awareness of marine mammals, their ocean habitat, and the importance of marine conservation should be sensitive to the changes in focus of attention that occur throughout a tour.

Key words: Whale watching; Tourism; Interpretation; Education; Conservation

Address correspondence to Janelle M. Hrycik at her current address: Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, P.O. Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada. Tel: 902-494-2830; Fax: 902-494-3877; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 199–205
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13631129555027
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Potential Areas for Whale Watching in Korean Waters

Kyung-Jun Song

Institute of Cetacean Research, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Republic of Korea

Data from sighting surveys reveal there are four potential areas for whale watching in Korean waters (Jeju Island, Ulsan, Pohang, and coastal areas in the Yellow Sea). In order to compare potential areas and species for whale watching in Korean waters, I considered 1) rate of sightings per trip; 2) behavior of species for whale watching; 3) tourism infrastructure; and 4) weather conditions. Based on data obtained from a sighting survey in Jeju Island, the rate of sightings for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was 71.9%, and this value was higher than that for cetacean species in other areas in Korean waters. This was considered to indicate a good probability of sightings, although it is relatively lower than those (for other species) in established whale-watching countries such as the US, Australia, and Japan (usually above 90.0% in these countries). Additionally, the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins around Jeju Island and common dolphins in the coastal area of Ulsan and Pohang showed no avoidance behavior to boats and rode their bow waves. Jeju Island and Ulsan are considered to be appropriate areas for whale watching because there is good tourism infrastructure and related attractions such as an aquarium and whale experience hall. I conclude that the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins around Jeju Island provide the best opportunity for whale watching in Korean waters. An additional whale-watching opportunity is provided by the common dolphins in the coastal area of Ulsan.

Key words: Whale watching; Republic of Korea; Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin; Jeju Island; Common dolphin; Ulsan

Address correspondence to Kyung-Jun Song, Institute of Cetacean Research, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82-52-259-1925; Fax: +82-52-259-1687; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 207–217
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13631129555063
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2011–2012

Carol Scarpaci* and E. C. M. Parsons†‡

*School of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Werribee Campus, Victoria, Australia
†Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
‡University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Glasgow, UK

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published over the past year, since June 2011.

Key words: Whale watching; Code of conduct; Regulations; Management; Whale watchers; Protected areas; Whaling

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it