Tourism in Marine Environments 9(3-4) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, pp. 117–128
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13818453739350
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Editorial

A Field Focuses on Destinations: Papers From the 7th International Coastal and Marine Tourism Congress

Marc L. Miller,* Jan Auyong,† Martijn Smeenge,‡ Ben Offringa,‡ Peter B. Myles,§ and Michael Lück¶

*School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
†Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
‡Academy for Tourism, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands
§Department of Development Studies, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
¶School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

The organizing theme of the 7th International Coastal and Marine Tourism Congress was “Planning, Designing, and Managing the Destination.” This editorial begins with a commentary on how “destination” has been conceptualized and defined over the last several decades in the multidisciplinary tourism literature. Six articles presented at CMT ’12 are introduced in this special double issue. Taken together they illustrate a variety of research questions and results bearing on the condition and future of coastal and marine tourism destinations.

Key words: Tourism system; Destination management; Destination image; Destination marketing; Landscape

Address correspondence to Marc L. Miller, School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, 3707 Brooklyn Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98105-6715, USA. Tel: +1 206 543 0113; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, pp. 129–142
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13818453739396
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Segmenting Adventure Tourists: A Cluster Analysis of Scuba Divers in Eastern Australia

Michael K. Tschapka and Christine L. Kern

Institute for Tourism and Leisure, University of Applied Sciences, HTW Chur, Switzerland

Scuba diving is a popular hard adventure activity in Australia, but only limited information exists about those who participate in this tourism activity. This research investigated involvement, sociodemographic characteristics, motivations, and setting preferences of scuba divers in Eastern Australia. Diving club members (n = 294) were surveyed through a web-based questionnaire. Based on the participants’ involvement, five clusters emerged that differed in the involvement components. It is recommended that a holistic examination of motivations and setting preferences of adventure tourists based on the concept of involvement is important for theory development and segmentation of this group of tourists. It will contribute to a better understanding of adventure tourists’ motivations and involvement.

Key words: Adventure tourism; Scuba diving; Involvement; Cluster analysis; Motivation

Address correspondence to Michael K. Tschapka, Weststrasse 21, 7000 Chur, Switzerland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, pp. 143–153
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13818453739431
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Environmental Practices of Sea Kayak Guides in British Columbia, Canada

Greg Simmonds and Rob Hood

Faculty of Adventure, Culinary Arts and Tourism, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

Seventeen commercial sea kayak guides were observed covertly on multiple trips in coastal British Columbia (BC), Canada. Behavioral observation criteria were developed from existing environmental best management practices (EBMPs). Guides demonstrated both common and less common low-impact practices that enabled interactive experiences desired by clients. However, not all observed behaviors demonstrated low-impact practices. Guide behavior was inconsistent relative to campfire management, wildlife interactions, and camp management. Although sea kayak guides appreciate the importance of reducing visitor impacts on wilderness environments, they have not yet consistently adopted EBMPs. Impact minimization programs can only be effective if applied in a consistent manner and therefore are essential for future viability of the industry.

Key words: Guide behavior; Commercial sea kayaking; Low impact; Best management practice

Address correspondence to Greg Simmonds, c/o Rob Hood, Faculty of Adventure, Culinary Arts and Tourism, Thomson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC V2C 0C8, Canada. Tel: +1 250 3715988; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, pp. 155–167
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13818453739477
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Managing Dune Landscape Changes at Jockey’s Ridge State Park, North Carolina

Ondrej Mitas,* Helena Mitasova,† Gene Brothers,‡ and Katherine Weaver§

*Academy for Tourism, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, North Brabant, The Netherlands
†Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
‡Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University in Raleigh, NC, USA
§Division Conservation Science Office, The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA, USA

Coastal dunes are challenging to manage due to their dynamic nature, vulnerable ecosystems, and recreational demand. A limited management approach was studied at Jockey’s Ridge, the largest active dune on the US Atlantic coast. Visitor experience data, digital elevation models, and informal stories and photos were integrated in a case study approach. Data revealed the value of an integrated management approach that preserved the dune as a unique “living” geomorphological feature with interventions limited to the park borders. The accessibility of the dune to visitors facilitated intense, enjoyable interactions with nature. Elevation data show that the management approach has maintained the dune’s unique naturally dynamic character, revealing the benefits of preserving processes rather than features.

Key words: Coastal dunes; Dynamic landscape; Visitor management; Visitor impacts; Conservation

Address correspondence to Ondrej Mitas, Academy for Tourism, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, PO Box, 3917, 4800 DX, Breda, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 655 877 189; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, pp. 169–179
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13818453739512
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Coastal Route Tourism: A Vehicle for Collaborative Economic Development in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Peter B. Myles

Department of Development Studies, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Route tourism is a market-driven approach for tourism destination development. The concept of tourist routes refers to an initiative to bring together a variety of activities and attractions under a unified theme and thus stimulate entrepreneurial opportunities through the development of ancillary products and services. Based on the development and promotion of a coastal route extending some 900 km along the diverse coastline of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa, this article suggests that the essential concept of coastal route tourism is simple—that of linking together a series of tourist attractions along a defined coastline in order to promote coastal and marine tourism by encouraging visitors to travel from one location to another.

Key words: Coastal route; Unified theme; Collaboration; Community participation; Pro-poor tourism

Address correspondence to Peter Myles, Tournet Africa, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, pp. 181–191
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13818453739558
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Stakeholder Collaboration in Tourism Development: The Case of Veerse Meer, The Netherlands

Marinka C. Van Den Bergh

Tourism Destination Management, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands

In this article current stakeholder collaboration in tourism development was investigated in the area Veerse Meer, a lake area situated in the southwest of the Netherlands. Since four local public organizations are involved in its development as well as multiple private stakeholders, it presents an interesting case to analyze options for collaboration. Through interviews and a discussion group with stakeholder representatives the research indicates that, despite an awareness of the importance of collaboration in tourism planning, collaboration is not seen as an effective strategy for the tourism development process in Veerse Meer. Different viewpoints, as well as the missing “sense of urgency,” are seen as major constraints for collaboration.

Key words: Stakeholders; Collaboration; Tourism development; Veerse Meer

Address correspondence to Marinka C. van den Bergh, Zeekraal 49, 4617 JC, Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands. Tel: 00316 14506477; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, pp. 193–202
1544-273X/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427313X13818453739594
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Marina Impacts on the Local Population and on Tourism Development in Horta (Azores Islands), Portugal

Luís Silveira and Norberto Santos

Centre of Studies of Geography and Territory Planning (CEGOT), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Horta was the first city of the Azores Islands (Portugal) to have a marina. Over time, yachts from all over the world have brought to this city more than the expected tourism economic impact. In fact, the existence of the marina developed a nautical culture in the local population, as well as a strong symbolic relationship with the sea. The marina has become the most important structure of the city and a brand of this island. Survey results show that Horta and the marina are seen by residents as a single integrated element.

Key words: Azores Islands; Horta; Marina; Yachting tourism; Development

Address correspondence to Luís Silveira, CEGOT–Centro de Estudos de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, University of Coimbra, Colégio de S. Jerónimo, Largo da Porta Férrea, 3004-530 Coimbra, Portugal. Tel: 00351 914133400; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it