Tourism in Marine Environments 10(1-2) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 5–20
1544-273X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441626
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Effects of Vessels on Harbor Seals in Glacier Bay National Park

Colleen Young,* Scott M. Gende,† and James T. Harvey*

*Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, San Jose State University, Moss Landing, CA, USA
†Glacier Bay Field Station, National Park Service, Juneau, AK, USA

We evaluated the effectiveness of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)-related vessel regulations in GlacierBay National Park. We observed 100% compliance with area closures intended to minimize disturbance to dependent pups, yet dependent pups were still present in the inlet after the area was opened to vessels. Compliance with the 463 meter (m) minimum approach distance regulation by vessels was low (22%), although 33% of vessel–seal encounters resulted in disturbance when vessels were still >463 m from seals. Ice cover was the best predictor of disturbance. Our results indicated that vessel regulations might be variably effective due to biological irrelevance, noncompliance, or environmental factors. MPA regulations should be evaluated to ensure achievement of conservation objectives.

Key words: Disturbance; Harbor seal; Vessel regulations; Compliance

Address correspondence to Colleen Young at her current address: California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, 1451 Shaffer Rd., Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA. Tel: 001-831-212-7010; Fax: 001-831-469-1723; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 21–30
1544-273X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441662
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Will Whale Watchers Sacrifice Personal Experience to Minimize Harm to Whales?

Megan Kessler,* Robert Harcourt,† and Wylie Bradford‡

*Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW, Australia
†Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW, Australia
‡Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW, Australia

Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) watchers off Sydney, Australia were surveyed using stated preference techniques to investigate whether they were prepared to prioritize minimizing impact on whales over other factors of their whale-watching experience. Differences between shore- and boat-based whale watchers (343 and 1,133 participants, respectively) to hypothetical whale-watching situations were investigated. Both groups had a strong preference for minimizing impact on the animals. Boat-based whale watchers placed a slightly higher priority on receiving environmental education. Both groups expressed a preference for approaching closer to the whales than currently permitted (i.e., to 50 m), but the high levels of satisfaction of boat-based whale watchers suggest closer approach distances are not necessary to ensure a positive whale-watching experience.

Key words: Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae); Whale watching; Participant expectations; Conjoint analysis

Address correspondence to Megan Kessler, Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia. Tel: +61 (0)2 9850 7970; Fax: +61 (0)2 9850 7972; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 31–48
1544-273X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441707
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Development of an Interpretive Experience to Foster Positive Tourist Encounters and Manage Turtle Tourism in Northwest Western Australia: Implications for Further Research

L. Smith,* D. Newsome,* and D. Lee†

*School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia
†Tourism Programme, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia

In understanding the importance of interpretation in guiding sustainable turtle tourism, this article reports on the effect of an interpretation program, the Jurabi Turtle Experience (JTE), on the behavior of turtle-watching tourists at the Jurabi Coastal Park, on the Northwest Cape of Western Australia. Ninety-seven turtle-watching tourists in the Jurabi Coastal Park, including people who attended the JTE and others who did not, were sampled during the peak turtle nesting season (December–January) using participant observation and a questionnaire. People participating in the JTE showed increased compliance with a behavioral code of conduct for turtle watching and higher satisfaction with the experience compared with people who did not participate. These increases strengthen the case for continuing the JTE and possibly requiring all Jurabi Coastal Park visitors to participate in a JTE-like experience.

Key words: Turtle watching; Wildlife tourism; Interpretation

Address correspondence to D. Newsome, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 49–70
1544-273X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441743
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring Tourism as a Potential Development Strategy for an Artisanal Fishing Community in the Philippines: The Case of Barangay Victory in Bolinao

Brooke A. Porter*† and Mark B. Orams*

*School of Hospitality and Tourism and New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
†Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines

Development strategies for remote artisanal fishing communities in the less developed world often promote tourism as an alternative livelihood. However, little is known regarding the perspectives of fisherfolk in these communities on tourism as a potential livelihood. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research into fisherfolks’ understanding of tourism, how they identify their roles for potential involvement in tourism, and their desire to be “developed.” This article reports on a case study of Barangay Victory, a remote fishing-based community in the Bolinao region of the Philippines. Twenty-one face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with community members. Methods were grounded within participatory action research and phenomenological inquiry. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Using a deductive approach, data sets were manually coded and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results demonstrate that residents rely heavily upon marine resources but, despite a reported declining fishery, the majority of fisherfolk remain satisfied with fishing as an occupation. Furthermore, although respondents stated a general willingness to engage in tourism development, the understanding of tourism (both the term itself and its potential role as a livelihood) was minimal. Thus, when considering the potential of tourism as a development strategy, though participant responses were positive, the results from this study have been interpreted as a yes that means a no. This lack of understanding of tourism as well as the expressed contentment with fishing as an occupation needs to be carefully considered when development strategies propose a livelihood shift towards tourism.

Key words: Artisanal fishing; Tourism potential; Development strategy; Philippines

Address correspondence to Brooke A. Porter, School of Hospitality and Tourism and New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, AUT University, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 71–83
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441789
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Shark Diving in the Azores: Challenge and Opportunity

Julia Bentz,* Philip Dearden,† Erich Ritter,‡ and Helena Calado§

*CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, Department of Economics and Management, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
†Marine Protected Area Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
‡Shark Research Institute, Florida Office, Pensacola, FL, USA
§CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, Department of Biology, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal

Many shark species are highly endangered. The main cause of mortality is fishing. Shark tourism is growing worldwide and has the potential to provide incentive-based conservation for some shark species but fishing remains a major challenge. In the Azores, sharks are still relatively abundant and a shark tourism industry has developed over the last few years. This article reports on the current status of shark diving, conflicts with fishing, dive industry management, and the potential future sustainability of shark diving in the Azores. Interviews with industry stakeholders show a rapidly emerging conflict with fisheries that threatens the future sustainability of the shark-diving industry. To facilitate the sustainable development of shark watching, partnerships among operators, local fishers, and the government are essential.

Key words: Shark diving; Sustainable management; Fishing; Marine wildlife tourism; Ecotourism; Conflicts

Address correspondence to Julia Bentz, CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, Department of Economics and Management, University of the Azores, R. Mae de Deus, 9500 Ponta Delgada, Portugal. Tel: +351 296 650 479; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 85–100
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441824
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Characteristics of Professional Scuba Dive Guides

Linda Andy,* Re-Yang Lee,† and Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng‡

*Graduate Institute of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Ph.D. Program, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
†Department of Land Management, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
‡Graduate Institute of Urban Planning, College of Public Affairs, National Taipei University, Taiwan

Because of the increasing number of scuba divers worldwide, satisfaction and safety issues are crucial for success in the tourism industry. This study established characteristics of scuba diving guides to achieve diver safety along with the environmental impact concerns related to this activity. A hybrid MCDM model was used to address dependent relationships among a set of criteria. Preferences of divers towards dive guides can be calculated using ANP and DEMATEL to determine the relative weights of each criterion. The result shows that diving skill is the crucial factor for professional dive guides, including the skill in leading dives and managing problems.

Key words: Scuba dive guides; Analytic network process (ANP); Decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL); Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM)

Address correspondence to Linda Andy, Graduate Institute of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Ph.D. Program, Feng Chia University, No. 100 Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen, Taichung, Taiwan 40724. Tel: +886 4 24517250, ext. 3256; Fax: +886 4 24510245; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 101–114
1544-273X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441860
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Experiences of Summer Visitors to Cape Rodney–Okakari Point (Goat Island) Marine Reserve, Auckland, New Zealand

Sharon M. Race*† and Mark B. Orams*

*New Zealand Tourism Research Institute and School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
†Tourism Management Programme, Auckland Institute of Studies (AIS), Auckland, New Zealand

Cape Rodney–Okakari Point (Goat Island) Marine Reserve, established in 1975, is New Zealand’s oldest and most visited marine protected area (MPA). This study reports on the experiences of its visitors. A self-reply questionnaire (n = 305) using the real-time satisfaction (RTS) measurement was utilized to investigate peak summer visitors’ activities, satisfaction levels, and knowledge of marine protection. Results revealed a diversity of visitors who primarily identify the reserve as a place to “swim with the fish.” Visitors were mostly satisfied, but were dissatisfied with a number of aspects, primarily overcrowding and the lack of parking. Results indicated there is support for stronger managerial approaches to limit visitor numbers and restrict activities such as commercial tourism.

Key words: Marine reserve; Marine protected area; Satisfaction; Ecotourism

Address correspondence to Mark B. Orams, New Zealand Tourism Research Institute and School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9-921-9999, ext. 6410; Fax: +64 9-921-9962; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 115–120
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441905
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Learn While Cruising: Experiential Learning Opportunities for Teaching Cruise Tourism Courses

Gui Lohmann

Griffith
Aviation & Griffith Institute for Tourism (GIFT), Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

This article follows up on the seminal experience written by Weeden, Woolley, and Lester in 2011 where a cruise field trip was undertaken with a group of undergraduate students in the UK. It presents the reflections of students who undertook a cruise field trip carried out in Australia with 24 undergraduate students. While some of the experiential learning findings obtained in this research (n = 22) support what was presented from the smaller sample of the above-mentioned article (n = 8)—facilitation of group cohesion and first-hand understanding of managerial and operational aspects of the cruise sector—new pedagogical opportunities were also identified.

Key words: Cruise field trip; Experiential learning; Intense teaching; Tourism and hospitality education

Address correspondence to Gui Lohmann, Griffith Aviation, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan-Brisbane, QLD, 4111, Australia. Tel: +61 7 3735-4059; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, pp. 121–140
1544-273X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427314X14056884441941
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2012–2013

Carol Scarpaci* and E. C. M. Parsons†

*College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia
†Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published over the past year, since June 2012.

Key words: Whale watching; Code of conduct; Regulations; Management; Swim-with-dolphin/whale tourism; Whale watchers; Illegal feeding; Whale ecotourism

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it