Tourism in Marine Environments 10(3-4) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 149–157
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892649
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Segmenting Luxury Cruise Tourists Based on Their Motivations

James F. Petrick and Angela M. Durko

Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

People cruise for many different reasons. For cruise line management, understanding what these motives are, and specifically which segments have different motives, is extremely important in engineering appropriate on-board experiences and marketing efforts. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to measure common motives for cruising, in order to develop segments of cruisers based on these motives. A secondary purpose was to look for differences between the profiles of the resultant groups. Results of a cluster analysis of nine primary motives for cruise travel revealed five clusters termed: Relaxers, Socializers, Cultured, Unmotivated, and Highly Motivated. Each of the groups was found to be different demographically, and in their travel behavior, yet no differences were found in how they evaluated their cruise experiences. Implications for both developing cruise programming and marketing are discussed.

Key words: Luxury cruise tourists; Segmentation; Motivation

Address correspondence to James F. Petrick, Professor & Research Fellow, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, TAMU 2261, College Station, TX, USA. Tel: (979) 845-8806; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 159–175
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892694
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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The Local and Long-Haul Cruise Passenger Market Segments: What Are the Implications of Their Emergence for Cruise Destinations?

James Henry, Robert Hamlin, and Elizabeth Simpson

Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

This article investigates the emergence of two distinct segments in the global cruise market: the local passenger, who lives within the region that they cruise to take a cruise, and the long-haul cruise passenger, who flies from their region to take a cruise in another region. The research examined the relative prior cruise behavior and relative intention of passengers to return to New Zealand as a destination. Four hundred and seventy-nine cruise passengers from nine cruise ship arrivals were interviewed in a single destination, Dunedin, New Zealand. Three hundred and sixty-four were local to the Australasian region, and 115 were long-haul arrivals, primarily from North America and the UK. The research revealed very large differences in prior behavior and future intentions between the two segments. Long-haul passengers were typically much more experienced cruisers and had a very much lower intention to return than did their local equivalents. These findings are consistent with cruise berth providers’ expectations that the industry is developing into a global industry with multiple significant passenger source/destination regions and two distinct global mass cruise passenger segments: long haul and local. The implications for cruise destinations and direction for further research are discussed.

Key words: Cruise passenger segment destination; Return economic impact

Address correspondence to Dr. James Henry, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9010, New Zealand. Tel: +64 3479 8154; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 177–187
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892720
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Land Ahoy: How Cruise Passengers Decide on Their Shore Experience

Maree Thyne, James Henry, and Nikki Lloyd

Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Today, the cruise industry has become one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry with an ever increasing number of international ports-of-call welcoming cruise ships to their shore. Whereas once the cost of a cruise ship vacation included accommodation, meals, entertainment, and onshore activities, pressure to reduce prices and increasing competition has meant that onshore activities are mostly no longer included in the overall ticket price. As a result, passengers individually decide and purchase any onshore activities they may wish to engage in (although much of this “purchasing” takes place on board, which means the cruise ship collects a large fee for making the sale). While there has been an abundance of academic literature that has focused on the information search processes general tourists undertake, there is a gap in the literature surrounding the processes that cruise ship passengers undertake both before and during their cruise. To understand passenger information search procedures, we undertook in-depth interviews with cruise passengers during their cruise. In total, 140 interviews were undertaken, with a main objective being to understand the amount of information sourced on the destinations that were being visited as ports of call. This article reports on the analysis of the results and discusses the implications for port development as well as cruise marketing.

Key words: Cruise passengers; Onshore activities; Information search process; Ports of call

Address correspondence to Maree Thyne, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 189–199
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892766
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Big Ships, Small Towns: Understanding Cruise Port Development in Falmouth, Jamaica

Matthew Kerswill and Heather Mair

Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada

Cruise ships and associated developments are topics of growing scholarly and public interest. It is increasingly important to understand how these developments affect the local community. The Historic Port of Falmouth was developed through a partnership between Royal Caribbean and the Port Authority of Jamaica in 2011 and is the largest purpose-built port of call in the Caribbean. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the impacts of the new development in Falmouth, Jamaica from the perspective of those who live there. Three subthemes emanating from data analysis are: big promises, big disappointments; access denied; and all is not lost at sea. After presenting these themes, we introduce the overarching theme of “big ships, big bubble” and further develop Weaver’s notion of “containment” as a way to capture the mix of powerlessness and hopefulness as it was expressed by members of this community.

Key words: Cruise tourism; Jamaica; Tourism impacts; Ports; Containment

Address correspondence to Heather Mair, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, 200 University Ave West, University of Waterloo, Waterloo ON, N2L 3G1, Canada. Tel: 519-888-4567, ext. 35917; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 201–210
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892810
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Legitimization Through Corporate Philanthropy: A Cruise Case Study

Clare Weeden

School of Sport & Service Management, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, UK

Corporate philanthropy (CP) describes the voluntary action of a company to donate time and/or financial resources to a societal cause. Originally aligned with altruistic intention, CP is increasingly used to deflect criticism away from industries with reputations for poor environmental, social, or economic management. The cruise sector’s policies on human resources, environmental management, and taxation, and their use of private enclave resorts as ports of call in the Caribbean are considered by many stakeholders to be financially and socially exclusionary. To mitigate such censure, and to support claims for good corporate citizenship, cruise firms are increasingly embracing philanthropic projects. Royal Caribbean International (RCI) has funded a school in Haiti since 2010. Acknowledging the complexity of Haiti’s economic, social, and political context, and the challenges associated with unpicking corporate intention, this article draws on legitimacy theory to interpret RCI’s school project in Haiti. The article argues RCI’s financial support of the school is designed to confer social legitimacy on its operations in Haiti. The article concludes with recommendations for RCI to significantly amend its business model away from the use of enclave resorts.

Key words: Corporate philanthropy (CP); Corporate social responsibility; Cruise tourism; Enclave; Haiti; Legitimacy theory; Royal Caribbean International (RCI)

Address correspondence to Dr. Clare Weeden, School of Sport & Service Management, University of Brighton, Darley Road, Eastbourne, BN20 7UR, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1273 643667; Fax: +44(0)1273 643649; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 211–223
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892856
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Making Waves: Examining the Interface Between Cruise Tourism and Destination Community in Akaroa, New Zealand

Jude Wilson, Michael C. Shone, David G. Simmons, and Emma Stewart

Lincoln University, Christchurch, New Zealand

This article reports on a study of community attitudes to cruise tourism in Akaroa, New Zealand. An important dimension of this study is the significant rate of growth in cruise arrivals over a short period of time as the result of the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes. Data were collected via a postal survey of the Akaroa community, and yielded a response rate of 56.6% (n = 316). The results indicate that despite the recent growth in arrivals, the Akaroa community holds a largely favorable opinion of cruise tourism. Importantly, the impacts identified by respondents were more closely aligned to threats to their identity as a destination, rather than problems with tourism, per se.

Key words: Akaroa; Cruise tourism; Destination community; Impacts

Address correspondence to Dr. Jude Wilson, Lincoln University, PO Box 85084, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand. Tel: +64 3 423 0502; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 225–240
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892883
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Governance of Expedition Cruise Ship Tourism in the Arctic: A Comparison of the Canadian and Russian Arctic

Albina Pashkevich,* Jackie Dawson,† and Emma J. Stewart‡

*School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden
†Department of Geography, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
‡Faculty of Environment, Society and Design, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand

Expedition style cruise tourism represents a significant proportion of shipping activity across the Arctic. This article compares and contrasts governance structures that manage the cruise sector from case studies located in the Canadian (Nunavut) and the Russian Arctic (Murmansk and Arkhangelsk regions). Analysis of sources, including interviews with key stakeholders, strategic tourism plans, and an inventory of institutional governance reveals that in both these locations there is no central authority to govern the growth of the industry, no specific cruise or yacht management plans, and no site guidelines for highly visited shore locations (other than in protected areas). The article concludes that under current conditions there are significant barriers to supporting development of the expedition cruise sector in both these Arctic regions.

Key words: Canadian Arctic; Russian Arctic; Expedition cruise tourism; Governance; AMSA marine navigation scenarios

Address correspondence to Albina Pashkevich, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 241–254
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892928
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Cruise Tourism in Iceland and the North Atlantic: Gateways to the Arctic and the Challenges to Port Readiness Programs

Edward H. Huijbens

School of Business and Science/Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, University of AkureyriAkureyri, Iceland

This article details the findings of research undertaken on cruise ship operations around Iceland and in the North Atlantic in the year 2013 and until the end of the summer season 2014. The focus of the research was on the socioeconomic impact of cruise ship arrivals on small and/or peripheral destinations in Iceland, set within the context of cruise tourism development in the North Atlantic and the Arctic more broadly. The article details who can expect to receive benefits from cruise ship arrivals in a peripheral destination in Iceland. The findings demonstrate that Iceland is largely dependent on big cruise ships for the accrued benefit, yet opportunities exist for smaller harbors to cater to expedition-type vessels, vessels that are indeed doing arctic exploration, and Iceland could function as the gateway harbor, with well-developed infrastructure for these purposes.

Key words: Iceland; Cruise tourism; Arctic; Port readiness; Gateway

Address correspondence to Edward H. Huijbens, Professor/Director, School of Business and Science/Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, University of AkureyriBorgum v/Nordurslod, 600 Akureyri, Iceland. Tel: +354 460 8930; Fax: +354 460 8919; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, pp. 255–265
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14181438892973
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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A Question of Equilibrium: Cruise Employees at Sea

Philip Gibson and Lawrence Perkins

School of Tourism and Hospitality, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, UK

This research article investigates the effect that extended social interactions, found among the crew on board cruise ships, has on workplace engagement. Extended social interactions relate to the relatively lengthy contracts that are experienced by seafarers and the resultant implications of working and socializing in close proximity with colleagues. The project reflected on the limited context-specific literature that focused on job satisfaction, engagement, and occupational communities and more generic theory relating to managing employment relations, employee engagement, and employee commitment. An online survey was used to identify crewmembers’ perceptions of the extended social interaction. The research concluded that the extended social interactions found on board cruise ships had a largely favorable impact on workplace engagement. Furthermore, respondents were overwhelmingly positive when considering the effect that their working relationships had on the professional setting.

Key words: Extended social interactions; Cruise ships crew; Engagement

Address correspondence to Dr. Philip Gibson, Academic Director University Hotel School and Associate Head of School (Teaching and Learning) School of Tourism and Hospitality, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, UK, PL48AA. Tel: +44(0)752 585617; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it