Tourism in Marine Environments 11(2-3) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 89–100
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773328
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tequila! Social Control of Guest Movement by Live Music Performance on Cruise Ships

David Cashman

School of Education and the Arts, Central Queensland University, Mackay, Australia

Live musical performance forms the core of the cruise ship entertainment product, contributing to the constructed cruise experience. However, unlike much of the cruise experience, musical performance does not directly generate income. Such performances instead act as semiotic guides informing them, for example, that the afternoon may be spent lazing by the pool, or that evenings are constructed as high-class theatrical events, or as party time in the disco. Further, such musical performances encourage guests to attend spaces that generate income (such as bars, lido deck, and casinos) and dissuade them from attending spaces where income is unlikely to be generated (such as their cabin). This research considers the implementation of musical performances on cruise ships using two data sources. Qualitative data is drawn from ship programs describing the actual placement of music. Quantitative data is drawn from interviews with industry personnel describing the intentions of music placement. It finds that periods when guests are on board, such as evenings and sea days, engenders most of the musical performance. This produces revenue that reverts to the ship. Certain genres occur at different times on different days, such as Caribbean/Latin American-themed music occurring on sea days, or cocktail piano occurring in the evening, further acting as semiotic guides. This constructed artistic product attracts people to undertake a cruise, makes a cruise memorable, and informs their experience of the cruise ship tourism product.

Key words: Live music; Cruise; Consumption

Address correspondence to David Cashman, School of Education and the Arts, Central Queensland University, Mackay, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 101–108
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773364
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Motivation-Based Segmentation of Cruise Tourists: A Case Study on International Cruise Tourists Visiting Kuşadasi, Turkey

Meltem Caber,* Tahir Albayrak,† and Caner Unal‡

*Tourism Faculty, Tourism Guidance Programme, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
†Tourism Faculty, Tourism Management Programme, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
‡Tourism and Hotel Management Department, Social Sciences Institute, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

This study segments cruise tourists by their travel motivations. Two groups were obtained by cluster analysis from the sample of international cruise tourists visiting Kuşadası Harbour, Turkey. The first group members were named as Variety Focused, while the second group members were named as Utilitarian and Ambitious tourists, according to their motivations. Variety Focused people are mostly the elderly, social, and repeat cruise tourists who are motivated by escaping needs from their normal environment and routine daily life. Utilitarian and Ambitious people are the tourists at different age groups, who are socially active and benefit seeking. By knowing the main motivations of tourist

segments, cruise companies may generate specific services to meet the needs and expectations of the customers.

Key words: Cruise; Motivation; Market segmentation; Tourist

Address correspondence to Meltem Caber, Tourism Faculty, Tourism Guidance Programme, Akdeniz University, Dumlupınar Boulevard, 07058 Campus, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: +90.242.310 66 57; Fax: +90.242.227 46 70; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 109–122
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773409
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Segmenting Chinese Tourists With Perceived Constraints

Suiwen (Sharon) Zou and James F. Petrick

Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

The global cruise industry has witnessed a dramatic boom in China, yet little is known about potential Chinese cruisers. For international cruise lines that are targeting Chinese markets, understanding what and how constraints keep Chinese tourists from purchasing a cruise vacation is likely important for gaining market share. Thus, the purposes of this study were threefold: 1) documenting Chinese tourists’ constraints towards cruising; 2) segmenting Chinese tourists based on their perceived constraints; and 3) examining their differences in cruising images and intentions. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were utilized. Results revealed three clusters, termed: low, moderate, and high constraints. Each of the segments was found to be different in their cruising images and travel behavior. The characteristics of each segment and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Key words: Chinese tourists; Segmentation; Travel constraints; Cruising images; Travel intentions

Address correspondence to Suiwen Sharon Zou, Doctoral Student, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University 2261, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 123–135
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773445
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

It Was the Best of Times, it Was the Worst of Times: The Effects of Critical Incidents on Cruise Passengers’ Experiences

Steven Migacz, Angela Durko, and James Petrick

Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

As competition in the travel industry continues to expand, it is important to focus efforts on understanding what leads to customer satisfaction, repurchase intentions, and positive word of mouth (WOM) with the purpose of gaining customer loyalty. Previous research has revealed that travel experiences can be influenced, for better or worse, by one single incident. These critical incidents have been coined “moments of truth.” Findings revealed that, although respondents provided both positive and negative critical cruise experiences, only negative incidents were found to have a substantial effect on cruise passengers’ perceived value, satisfaction, WOM, and repurchase intentions. In addition, the findings align with the premise of prospect theory, which suggests negative critical incidents (losses) are the most impactful incidents on visitor retention. Managerial implications are offered as suggestions for curtailing the effects of negative incidents and enhancing the effects of positive experiences.

Key words: Critical incident technique; Satisfaction; Perceived value; Word of mouth (WOM); Repurchase intentions; Cruise; Customer journey mapping

Address correspondence to Dr. James Petrick, Professor, Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism, Texas A&M University, TAMU 2261, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA. Tel: (979) 845-8806; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 137–146
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773481
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Keeping the Customers Happy: The Importance of Morale on Cruise Ships

Philip Gibson, Wai Mun Lim, and Megan Holmes

School of Tourism and Hospitality, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK

Cruise businesses face unique challenges in providing vacations at sea. For a start, the business model is predicated upon the establishment and operation of a floating resort with guests enjoying high levels of service against an ever-changing backdrop. This article considers how perceptions of crew morale impact guest satisfaction with their cruise vacation. The research project reflected on theories concerning perceptions of service quality, the notions concerning service experience as theater, performativity and emotional labor, and the rather underresearched focus on the meaning and implication of morale. An online survey, completed by over 800 respondents, confirmed the importance that guests capture an impression that crew are happy in their workplace. There is a connection between an impression of high morale with guest satisfaction, both in terms of service quality and the overall cruise experience. This research draws attention to the challenge of maintaining high levels of performance for lengthy contracts. It also demonstrates that most cruise passengers are aware of, and sensitive to, crew morale.

Key words: Cruise employees; Staff morale; Customer satisfaction

Address correspondence to Dr. Philip Gibson, School of Tourism and Hospitality, Plymouth University, CYK322, Cookworthy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 147–159
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773526
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Troubled Seas: The Politics of Activism Related to the Cruise Industry

Ross A. Klein and Kathleen C. Sitter

Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada

Although most port cities seek and work to grow cruise tourism, in some cases there is broad-based public activism against cruise ships and cruise tourism. This article looks at 10 case studies where grassroots movements have confronted cruise tourism, with varying degrees of success. The study seeks to understand factors associated with the success of some groups and the lack of success of others. In addition to looking at traditional methods of community activism, the analysis looks at the use and effectiveness of social media in campaigns where it is used. The article concludes with implications for success based on a range of strategies and internal and external factors.

Key words: Cruise tourism; Cruise ships; Cruise industry; Social activism; Political activism

Address correspondence to Ross A. Klein, Ph.D., Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada A1C 5S7. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 161–179
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773562
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Action Research for Sustainable Cruise Tourism Development: The Black Sea Region Case Study

Alexis Papathanassis* and Nicoleta Ramona Bundă†

*Institute for Marine Tourism, Bremerhaven University, Bremerhaven, Germany
†Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania

Tourism in general, and cruise tourism in particular, constitute an attractive developmental option for emerging, postcommunist, and/or postindustrial economies. Yet existing tourism-related literature on destination development focuses on rather generic theoretical concepts (e.g., Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle, 6As, and Cluster Theory) coupled by an array of explorative case studies. From a policy-making perspective, bridging the gap between operationalizing generic theoretical/analytical frameworks while generalizing from a fragmented case study body of knowledge to plan meaningful action, represents a challenge. Within the context of an EU-funded cruise tourism development project for the Black Sea region, this article utilizes action research to meet this challenge and subsequently proposes complementary (to the analytical existing frameworks) organizational concepts and implementation guidelines. The aim here is to provide a more complete, applicable set of tools for destination development practitioners. Moreover, in terms of facilitating destination development, our research proposes a modified role for higher education institutions, which extends beyond merely that of a “labor supplier” to that of a driver for the “learning destination.”

Key words: Black Sea region; Cruise(s); Tourism; Destination; Development; Action research

Address correspondence to Alexis Papathanassis, Institute for Marine Tourism, Bremerhaven University, Bremerhaven, Germany. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 181–187
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773607
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Australia’s Cruising Phenomenon

Ross Dowling

School of Business & Law, Centre for Innovative Practice, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia

The cruise industry in Australia is in a period of unprecedented boom. Australia is now the world’s fastest-growing source of cruise passengers, with numbers increasing 20.4% in 2014 to reach 1,003,256 cruisers. This achievement has been driven by a 20% annual average growth for the past 12 years. The country has also retained its position as the world leader for market penetration, with an equivalent of 4.25% of Australians taking a cruise last year, significantly ahead of the well-established North American market, which ranked second with a market penetration rate of 3.4%. Australia is now the fourth largest source market for cruise passengers, accounting for 4.5% of global cruisers, behind North America (54.2%), Germany (8%), and UK/Ireland (7.4%).

Key words: Cruise tourism, Australia

Address correspondence to Ross Dowling, Edith Cowan University, School of Business & Law, Centre for Innovative Practice, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 189–195
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773643
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes: How a Cruise May Benefit Passengers’ Health and Relationships

Angela Durko and James Petrick

Recreation, Parks and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Emerging research has revealed the importance of the benefits to travel, beyond that of a simple vacation getaway. Because the US remains one of the few developed countries without a formal vacation policy for working adults, research investigating the overall benefits of travel, from health to relationship and life satisfaction benefits, may serve as the justification needed to become more accepting using and granting vacation days. The current study utilized a post hoc pretest approach to survey 548 passengers at the end of a week-long Caribbean cruise to compare their perceived stress levels, overall health conditions, and relationship satisfaction pre- and postvacation. Additionally, passengers’ repurchase and word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions, vacation satisfaction, and perceptions of value were investigated. The study showed positive changes in levels of stress, health, and relationship satisfaction following the week-long cruise. Reduction of stress for an individual was shown to be the most significant predictor of intention to cruise with the same cruise line again and the best indication of positive WOM following the cruise. Self-reported improvements in overall health and stress levels after the cruise were positive and significant indicators of an individual’s perception of the value of the vacation. Finally, improvements in stress and relationship satisfaction were found positive significant predictors of overall cruise satisfaction. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

Key words: Benefits; Cruise; Relationships; Satisfaction; Value; Repurchase intentions; Word of mouth (WOM)

Address correspondence to Dr. Angela Durko, Lecturer, Recreation, Parks and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 197–205
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773689
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Messages in the Bottle: Customers’ Reactions to Expertise, Blame, and Compensation After a Severe Cruising Crisis

Joelle Soulard and James F. Petrick

Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

This study experimentally examined the effects of expertness, source of accident, and compensation on the ratings of a cruise line’s brand image and potential cruisers’ intentions to purchase. Participants (n = 213) were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental conditions presented as written testimonies from cruise passengers recalling a severe crisis they experienced while at sea. The main effect for recovery was significant (p < 0.05) in terms of both brand image and purchase intentions. There was also a significant interaction between the storytellers’ expertise and blame attribution (p < 0.05) in terms of both purchase intentions and brand image. Results offer both theoretical and practical insights in terms of advertising strategies and crisis management for cruise lines.

Key words: Cruise; Cruise lines; Accidents; Crises; Recovery; Brand image; Purchase intentions

Address correspondence to James F. Petrick, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Texas A&M University, 600 John Kimbrough Boulevard, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Tel: (979) 845-5411; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 2/3, pp. 207–214
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X14513374773724
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Cruise Ship Labor: Cruise Line Disclosure of Employee Well-Being-Related Initiatives and Performance

Danuta De Grosbois

Department of Tourism Management, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada

Employment on cruise ships has been a subject of many studies pointing out problems with working conditions, health and safety issues, and advancement opportunities. The cruise industry is under growing pressure to address these issues, due to, among other things, the newly implemented International Labor Organization (ILO) Maritime Labour Convention, 2006, commonly called the Seafarers Bill of Rights. However, the extent of employee well-being-related initiatives in the cruise industry is largely unknown. This study investigates the cruise industry’s disclosure of commitment, initiatives, and performance measures aimed at employee well-being. The study population included member cruise lines of the Cruise Line International Association (CLIA) and its regional offices as of September 2013. Websites for all the cruise lines were identified and searched for relevant information. A framework of employee well-being-related goals, initiatives, and performance measures has been developed, based on previous literature. Out of the 50 cruise lines included, only 22 reported information related to employee well-being. In the majority of the cases, information focused on the benefits of working for the cruise line and nature of the job, mostly serving as a recruitment tool, not as an evidence of positive initiatives in accountability and transparency. Very limited information was provided with respect to employment quality, advancement opportunities, health and safety, and equal opportunities. No cruise line addressed accessibility issues with respect to employees. Overall, the majority of the cruise lines provided very limited and selective information with no third party assurance. As a result, the current level of disclosure of employee well-being-related information in the cruise industry can be considered very low and in many cases unsubstantiated. These results support the institutional theory perspective stating that in situations of low stakeholder power and pressure, companies report little information.

Key words: Employee well-being; Corporate social responsibility reporting; Cruise line industry; Cruise labor

Address correspondence to Danuta de Grosbois, Department of Tourism Management, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Ave., St. Catharines, Ontario, L2S 3A1, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it