Tourism in Marine Environments 12(1) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1-16
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X693199
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining the Designation Effect of Marine Protected Areas: The Case of Akaroa, New Zealand

Michael C. Shone, Stephen Espiner, and Emma J. Stewart

Department of Tourism, Sport and Society, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand

The designation effect of terrestrial protected areas (e.g., national parks) has an extensive literature; however, much less has been written about the nature of this effect in marine environments. This study therefore explores the relationship between marine conservation designation and tourist visitation in Akaroa, New Zealand. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via a visitor survey (
n = 106) and semistructured interviews with marine tourism operators (n = 12). The results indicate a moderate association between designation and tourist visitation with respect to the selection and purchase of marine tourism activities. In addition, the results identify areas of disagreement between the perspectives of visitors and marine tourism operators regarding the strength of this association. It is concluded that the conditions created by the designation exert a stronger influence over tourist visitation than the designation “label” itself.

Key words: Marine; Protected areas; Tourism; Designation effect; Conservation; New Zealand

Address correspondence to Michael C. Shone, George Forbes Memorial Building, Room 706, PO Box 85084, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand. Tel: +64 3 423 0497; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 17-34
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X693207
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Scuba Diving Tourism Impacts and Environmental Influences on the Patrolling Behavior of Grey Nurse Sharks (Carcharias Taurus): A Preliminary Assessment Using Acoustic Telemetry at Fish Rock, Australia

Kirby R. Smith,* Carol Scarpaci ,* and Nicholas M. Otway†

*College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
†Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Nelson Bay, New South Wales, Australia

The patrolling behavior of the critically endangered grey nurse shark (
Carcharias taurus) comprising the occupation of, and movements between, two locations at Fish Rock (off eastern Australia) was documented using passive acoustic telemetry. Sharks occupied the locations symmetrically, asymmetrically, randomly, and nonrandomly. Passive acoustic telemetry was also used to provide a preliminary assessment of the impacts of scuba diving tourism on patrolling behavior. Maintaining natural behaviors unaffected by anthropogenic disturbances including scuba diving tourism is essential for the recovery and long-term conservation of this critically endangered species. The patrolling behavior of replicate sharks on any given day was similar but varied subtly and sometimes markedly in the periods before, during, and after scuba diving typically occurs. In contrast, patrolling behavior varied substantially among days with and without scuba diving; however, this was not statistically significant. Scuba diving did not impact the occupation of, or movements between, the locations by grey nurse sharks. Instead it is likely that the sharks responded to oceanographic features, localized currents, and prevailing sea conditions by adopting a range of swimming behaviors to conserve energy, and this accounted for the variation in patrolling behavior among days. Future research at other aggregation sites, during different lunar phases and with sharks at various life history stages should be done to confirm the findings of this first assessment and to enhance the generality of the results to grey nurse sharks elsewhere. Regular monitoring of grey nurse shark scuba diving tourism should be done to ensure that any anthropogenic disturbances are identified so that mitigation can be implemented.

Key words: Scuba diving tourism; Shark; Critically endangered; Behavior; Acoustic telemetry

Address correspondence to Kirby R. Smith, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria, 8001, Australia. Tel: +61 400 610 131; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 35-49
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X693216
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Diver Motivation and Specialization for Improved SCUBA Management

Julia Bentz,*† Fernando Lopes,‡ Helena Calado,* and Philip Dearden§

*CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
†Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (Ce3C), Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation & Modelling Research Group (CCIAM), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
‡Department of Economics and Management, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
§Marine Protected Areas Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada

This study explores diver motivations in the Azores in relationship to demographic variables and level of specialization, based on a survey of 425 divers in five of the nine islands. Using cluster and principal components analysis, four diver clusters were distinguished: socializers, shark and manta divers, biodiversity seekers, and explorer divers
. Social aspects of diving were important to both generalists and specialists, and the importance of underwater fauna did not increase with specialization. Divers’ cultural background affected their motivations. The Azores archipelago, an emerging nontropical diving destination, featuring diving with large iconic species including sharks and manta rays, has a higher proportion of specialized divers than reported in other diving destinations and may receive divers displaced from increasingly degraded tropical reefs. Findings highlight the importance of understanding diver motivations and developing diver awareness programs at all stages of specialization, as well as an integrated management strategy.

Key words: Wildlife tourism; Tourist motivations; Diving; Cluster analysis; Sustainable management

Address correspondence to Julia Bentz, Ce3C Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes; CCIAM Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation & Modelling Research Group; Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 51-68
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X693225
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Giant Opportunity: The Economic Impact of Manta Rays on the Mozambican Tourism Industry—An Incentive for Increased Management and Protection

Stephanie Venables,*† Giles Winstanle y,* Libby Bowles,* and Andrea D. Marshall*

*Marine Megafauna Foundation, Truckee, CA, USA
†School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

Manta rays are internationally threatened species and population declines have been reported in various locations worldwide. As iconic megafauna species, they are also major drawcards for wildlife tourism industries. Economic valuation of these industries can provide an incentive for the protection of species and natural habitats through the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and the restriction of harvesting or trade. Site-specific estimates are essential, particularly in developing countries, to promote the nonconsumptive use of resources and develop appropriate management strategies. This study represents the first localized estimate of the economic benefits of manta ray tourism in Mozambique. Data from 478 tourist expenditure surveys, 15 stakeholder surveys, and yearly diver numbers provided by coastal tour operators were used to estimate the economic impact of manta ray tourism in the Inhambane Province. Manta ray–focused tours were estimated to be worth US$10.9 million per year in direct revenue to dive operators in the Inhambane Province, with an estimated direct economic impact (including associated tourism expenditures) of US$34.0 million annually. In the absence of manta ray tourism, between $16.1 million and $25.7 million would be lost to the region each year. Tourist and stakeholder survey responses emphasized the importance of manta rays to Mozambican coastal tourism. Both parties highlighted the need for increased protection of marine species and their environment and showed strong support for the implementation of MPAs along the Inhambane coast.

Key words: Manta ray; Mozambique; Economic valuation; Wildlife tourism; Marine protected area (MPA) management

Address correspondence to Stephanie Venables, School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA, 6009. Tel: (+61) 431 645 162; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 69-77
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X693234
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Development of a Method to Estimate and Predict Beach Visitation

Damian Morgan

Federation Business School, Federation University, Churchill, Victoria, Australia

Beaches are important tourist attractions in many countries. To plan and manage coastal zones, authorities require knowledge about beach visitations. However, current procedures lack accuracy and coverage. To address this, a method to estimate the total beach visitor population was tested for a selected coastal strip over a specified time period, based on directly observed daily visitor counts. Visitor count data were then used to model readily observable weather and location factors predicting daily beach visitations at the peak-use period. Further application of the novel method will inform authorities with crucial and pertinent data to manage natural coastal visitor attractions.

Key words: Beaches; Visitors; Measurement methods; Population estimation

Address correspondence to Damian Morgan, Federation Business School, Federation University, Northways Road, Churchill, Victoria, 3842, Australia. Tel: 61 3 51226624; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it