Tourism in Marine Environments

Editor: Michael Luck

Volume 14, 2019

ISSN: 1544-273X; E-ISSN: 2169-0197


4 numbers per volume

-Official Journal International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS)

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Aims & Scope

Tourism in Marine Environments, Official Journal International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS) is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.

The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes ‘those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected)’. Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such as scuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events, Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.

Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.

Instructions for Contributors

Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to Scholastica by clicking on the button or link below:


General manuscript preparation:

Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered, including a title-only page. All personal identifiers (names, affiliations, acknowledgments, author bios, and names in the document settings) should be removed from the manuscript body text due to blind review.

Include a cover page(s) with all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author [Department, Institution, City (State), Country], acknowledgments (if applicable), and a short biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests, education, important activities, and professional affiliations) of all authors. The corresponding author must be designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.

Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in sequential order. Avoid the use of text footnotes.

All figures and tables should be provided in (a) separate file(s). Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text

• Abstract and Keywords: The abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.

• References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.

Text citations: (Fennell, 1999) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.

Journal article: Orams, M. (1996). An interpretation model for managing marine wildlife-tourist interaction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 4(4), 81–95.

Book: Gill, P., & Burke, C. (1999). Whale watching in Australian & New Zealand waters. Sydney: New Holland Publishers.

Book chapter: Cater, E., & Goodall, B. (1992). Must tourism destroy its resource base? In A. M. Mannion & S. R. Bowlby (Eds.), Environmental issues in the 1990s (pp. 309–323). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Internet source: Byron Underwater Research Group. (2009). Byron Underwater Research Group low impact diving. Retrieved from

Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.

• Figures:
All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color and the cost is indicated on the Author Option form). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all figures should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.

• Tables:
Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as separate files. Include a title for each table. (Do not incorporate tables within the text of the manuscript.)

Commentaries, Research Notes, and Book Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Submit to Scholastica at:

Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1500 and 2000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at:

Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of the authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement and an Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. These forms must be completed and returned to the Editor before the article can be published.

Page Proofs/Offprints: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage.

Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or  liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.

ETHICS STATEMENT: The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) ( These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled.








(Scroll down to view tables of contents for all Volumes and Issues)

Volume 14, Numbers 1-2

Comparing Intended, Self-Reported, and Observed Behavior of Snorkelers in the Mombasa Marine Park and Reserve, Kenya – 1
Sander D. den Haring and Stephen G. Sutton

What Values Do Tourists Place on a Marine Protected Area? White Shark Cage-Dive Tourists and the Neptune Islands – 19
Kirin Apps, Kay Dimmock, David J. Lloyd, and Charlie Huveneers

Visiting Scuttled Ships: An Examination of the Important Elements of the Wreck Diving Experience – 31
Alana N. Seaman and Gina L. Depper

Cruise Holidays: How On-Board Service Quality Affects Passengers’ Behavior – 45
Aleksandar Radić, Peter Björk, and Hannele Kauppinen-Räisänen

Negative Events in the Cruise Tourism Industry: The Role of Corporate Responsibility and Reputation in Information Diffusion – 61
Marco Remondino, Lara Penco, and Giorgia Profumo

Recreational Fishing in Florida Bay: Economic Significance and Angler Perspectives – 89
G. Andrew Stainback, Tony Fedler, Stephen E. Davis III, and Birendra KC


Millennials’ Perceptions of Social Interactions, Memorability, and Satisfaction Onboard Cruise Ships – 107
Shelby Rodden and Nancy Hritz


Water Safety for International Students Studying in Australia – 117
Jeff Wilks

Volume 13, Number 4

Guest Editors: Clare Weeden and Ross A. Klein

Introduction 189
Clare Weeden and Ross A. Klein

Overstating Cruise Passenger Spending: Sources of Error in Cruise Industry Studies of Economic Impact 193
Burc Kayahan, Brian VanBlarcom, and Ross A. Klein

Collaboration, Intentions, and Local Value Creation From Cruise Arrivals 205
Einar Lier Madsen, Karin Andrea Wigger, and Evgueni Vinogradov

From Birds to Boats: The Political Ecology of Cruise Tourism in Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in Quebec (Canada) 217
Jonathan Tardif and Robin Roth

Identity Construction in Transient Spaces: Hospitality Work On-Board Cruise Ships 231
Adam Dennett


All Aboard for “SAM”: A New Anticipatory Conceptual Model for Passenger Preconsumption in Cruise Tourism 243
Liz Sharples

Volume 13 Subject and Author Index 253

Volume 13, Numbers 2/3

In Memoriam: Gregory Dean Kaufman (1954–2018) 55
Paul Forestell

Conservation and Education Through Ecotourism: Using Citizen Science to Monitor Cetaceans in the Four-Island Region of Maui, Hawaii 65
Jens J. Currie, Stephanie H. Stack, and Gregory D. Kaufman

Blackfish Effect: Corporate and Policy Change in the Face of Shifting Public Opinion on Captive Cetaceans 73
E. C. M. Parsons and Naomi A. Rose

Profiling Scuba Divers to Assess Their Potential for the Management of Temperate Marine Protected Areas: A Conceptual Model 85
Serena Lucrezi, Martina Milanese, Antonio Sarà, Marco Palma, Melville Saayman, and Carlo Cerrano

Developing the Curriculum Content of Coastal and Maritime Tourism: Stakeholders’ Perspective of the Sector-Specific Skills and Knowledge in Finland 109
Sanna-Mari Renfors

The Experiential Carrying Capacity of a Barrier Island: A Norm-Based Approach at Cumberland Island National Seashore 121
Jeffrey C. Hallo, Matthew T. J. Brownlee, Matthew D. Hughes, Jessica P. Fefer, and Robert E. Manning

Developing a Benchmarking Methodology for Marina Business 141
Sandra Jankovic and Dubravka Vlasic


To Educate or not to Educate: How the Lack of Education Programs on Whale-Watching Vessels Can Impact Whale Conservation and Tourism in the Dominican Republic 155
Christine M. Gleason and E. C. M. Parsons

Potentials of Coastal and Marine Tourism in Nigeria 165
Ademuyiwa H. OladeleOghenetejiri Digun-Aweto, and Petrus Van Der Merwe


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2017–2018 175
E. C. M. Parsons and Courtney E. Smith


The Science of Beach Lifeguarding (M. Tipton and A. Wooler, Editors) 187
Jeff Wilks

Volume 13, Number 1

Seal Watching: An Investigation of Codes of Conduct 1
Elin Lilja Oqvist, Sandra M. Granquist, Georgette Leah Burns, and Anders Angerbjorn

The Development and Value of Whale-Watch Tourism in the West of Scotland 17
Conor Ryan, Vivi Bolin, Laura Shirra, Pippa Garrard, Jane Putsey, Juliet Vines, and Lauren Hartny-Mills

Emerging Ocean Industries: Implications for Sustainable Tourism Development 25
Larry Dwyer


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2016–2017 41
E. C. M. Parsons and D. M. Brown


Certified Fit to Dive 53
Jeff Wilks

Volume 12, Numbers 3/4

Guest Editors: Marc L. Miller, Jan Auyong, Brian W. Szuster, Mark D. Needham; Mark B. Orams, Jeff Wilks, and Michael Lück

A Field Takes Stock: Papers From the 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism 139
Marc L. Miller, Jan Auyong, Brian W. Szuster, Mark D. Needham, Mark B. Orams, Jeff Wilks, and Michael Lück

Tsunami Disaster Risk and Vulnerability in Coastal Tourism Community: The Case of Khao Lak Area, Thailand 155
Somrudee Meprasert JitpraphaiNarumon Arunotai, and Ajira Tiangtrong

Human Dimensions of Wreck Diving and Management: Case Studies From Australia and Micronesia 169
Joanne Edney

Social and Environmental Sustainability in Large-Scale Coastal Zones: Taking an Issue-Based Approach to the Implementation of the Prince William Sound Sustainable Human Use Framework 183
Dale J. Blahna, Aaron Poe, Courtney Brown, Clare M. Ryan, and H. Randy Gimblett

Adrift at Sea: The State of Research on Cruise Tourism and the International Cruise Industry 199
Ross A. Klein

Tourism and Aquatic Safety: No Lifeguard on Duty—Swim at Your Own Risk 211
Jeff Wilks

From Fringe to Core: Contemplating Surfing’s Potential Contribution to Sustainable Tourism Development in South Africa 221
Jacques D. Mahler-Coetzee

The Impact of Stakeholder Relations on the Mnemba Island Marine Conservation Area, Zanzibar, Tanzania 239
Christopher Burgoyne, Clare Kelso, and Kevin Mearns

Insights for Coastal Destination Development: The Practices of Kiteboarders in the Netherlands 253
Timo Derriks

Volume 12 Subject and Author Index 265

Volume 12, Number 2

Tourists’ Perspectives on Dolphin Watching in Bocas Del Toro, Panama 79
Ashley Sitar, Laura J. May-Collado, Andrew Wright, Erin Peters-Burton, Larry Rockwood, and E. C. M. Parsons

Can Whale Watching Be a Conduit for Spreading Educational and Conservation Messages? A Case Study in Juneau, Alaska 95
Gabrille Lopez and Heidi C. Pearson

Microcluster Approach Applied to the Case of the Nautical Tourism Sector of the Algarve Region (Portugal) 105
Pedro Valadas Monteiro, Regina Salvador, and C. Guedes Soares


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2015–2016 125
E. C. M. Parsons and Danielle M. Brown

Volume 12, Number 1

Examining the Designation Effect of Marine Protected Areas: The Case of Akaroa, New Zealand 1
Michael C. Shone, Stephen Espiner, and Emma J. Stewart

Scuba Diving Tourism Impacts and Environmental Influences on the Patrolling Behavior of Grey Nurse Sharks (Carcharias taurus): A Preliminary Assessment Using Acoustic Telemetry at Fish Rock, Australia 17
Kirby R. Smith, Carol Scarpaci, and Nicholas M. Otway

Understanding Diver Motivation and Specialization for Improved Scuba Management 35
Julia Bentz, Fernando Lopes, Helena Calado, and Philip Dearden

A Giant Opportunity: The Economic Impact of Manta Rays on the Mozambican Tourism Industry—An Incentive for Increased Management and Protection 51
Stephanie Venables, Giles Winstanley, Libby Bowles, and Andrea D. Marshall

Development of a Method to Estimate and Predict Beach Visitation 69
Damian Morgan

Volume 11, Number 4

Effects of Whale-Watching Vessels on Adult Male Sperm Whales off Andenes, Norway 215
A. Mel Cosentino

Personality Traits of Surf Voluntourists 229
Jennifer M. Thomsen, Lorraine L. Taylor, and Matthew D. Hughes



Using Long-Term Ecological Research to Promote Sustainable Whale-Watching Practices in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia 243
Kira K. Stevenson


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2014–2015 251
E. C. M. Parsons and Carol Scarpaci

Volume 11 Subject and Author Index 263

Volume 11, Numbers 2/3

Guest Editors: Ross A. Klein and Alexis Papathanassis

Introduction 87
Ross A. Klein and Alexis Papathanassis

Tequila! Social Control of Guest Movement by Live Music Performance on Cruise Ships 89
David Cashman

Motivation-Based Segmentation of Cruise Tourists: A Case Study on International Cruise Tourists Visiting Kuşadasi, Turkey 101
Meltem Caber, Tahir Albayrak, and Caner Ünal

Segmenting Chinese Tourists With Perceived Constraints 109
Suiwen (Sharon) Zou and James F. Petrick

It Was the Best of Times, it Was the Worst of Times: The Effects of Critical Incidents on Cruise Passengers’ Experiences 123
Steven Migacz, Angela Durko, and James Petrick

Keeping the Customers Happy: The Importance of Morale on Cruise Ships 137
Philip Gibson, Wai Mun Lim, and Megan Holmes

Troubled Seas: The Politics of Activism Related to the Cruise Industry 147
Ross A. Klein and Kathleen C. Sitter

Action Research for Sustainable Cruise Tourism Development: The Black Sea Region Case Study 161
Alexis Papathanassis and Nicoleta Ramona Bundă


Australia’s Cruising Phenomenon 181
Ross Dowling

Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes: How a Cruise May Benefit Passengers’ Health and Relationships 189
Angela Durko and James Petrick

Messages in the Bottle: Customers’ Reactions to Expertise, Blame, and Compensation After a Severe Cruising Crisis 197
Joelle Soulard and James F. Petrick

Cruise Ship Labor: Cruise Line Disclosure of Employee Well-Being-Related Initiatives and Performance 207
Danuta De Grosbois

Volume 11, Number 1

An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Surfing in the United Kingdom 1
Bryan Mills and Andy Cummins

Whale-Watching Activity in Bahía Málaga, on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, and Its Effect on Humpback Whale (
Megaptera Novaeangliae) Behavior 19
Isabel Cristina Avila, Lina Marcela Correa, and E. C. M. Parsons

The Use of Data From a Platform of Opportunity (Whale Watching) to Study Coastal Cetaceans on the Southwest Coast of South Africa 33
Katja VindingMarthán Bester, Stephen P. Kirkman, Wilfred Chivell, and Simon H. Elwen

Interpretation as a Vital Ingredient of Geotourism in Coastal Environments: The Geology of Sea Level Change, Rottnest Island, Western Australia 55
Jessica Rutherford, David Newsome, and Halina Kobryn


Whale Watching in Norway Caught Between More Traditional Hunting Canons and the Lucrative Promise of Seismic Airguns 73
Giovanna Bertella and Heike Iris Vester


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2013–2014 79
Carol Scarpaci and E. C. M. Parsons

Volume 10, Numbers 3–4

Guest Editors: Alexis Papathanassis and Ross A. Klein

Introduction: “Long Tail” or “Fairy Tale”? The Case for Scientific Publishing on Cruise Tourism 141
Alexis Papathanassis and Ross A. Klein

Segmenting Luxury Cruise Tourists Based on Their Motivations 149
James F. Petrick and Angela M. Durko

The Local and Long-Haul Cruise Passenger Market Segments: What Are the Implications of Their Emergence for Cruise Destinations? 159
James Henry, Robert Hamlin, and Elizabeth Simpson

Land Ahoy: How Cruise Passengers Decide on Their Shore Experience 177
Maree Thyne, James Henry, and Nikki Lloyd

Big Ships, Small Towns: Understanding Cruise Port Development in Falmouth, Jamaica 189
Matthew Kerswill and Heather Mair

Legitimization Through Corporate Philanthropy: A Cruise Case Study 201
Clare Weeden

Making Waves: Examining the Interface Between Cruise Tourism and Destination Community in Akaroa, New Zealand 211
Jude Wilson, Michael C. Shone, David G. Simmons, and Emma Stewart

Governance of Expedition Cruise Ship Tourism in the Arctic: A Comparison of the Canadian and Russian Arctic 225
Albina Pashkevich, Jackie Dawson, and Emma J. Stewart

Cruise Tourism in Iceland and the North Atlantic: Gateways to the Arctic and the Challenges to Port Readiness Programs 241
Edward H. Huijbens

A Question of Equilibrium: Cruise Employees at Sea 255
Philip Gibson and Lawrence Perkins

Volume 10 Subject and Author Index 267

Volume 10, Numbers 1–2

Editorial: 10 Years of Tourism in Marine Environments 1
Michael Lück

Effects of Vessels on Harbor Seals in Glacier Bay National Park 5
Colleen Young, Scott M. Gende, and James T. Harvey

Will Whale Watchers Sacrifice Personal Experience to Minimize Harm to Whales? 21
Megan Kessler, Robert Harcourt, and Wylie Bradford

The Development of an Interpretive Experience to Foster Positive Tourist Encounters and Manage Turtle Tourism in Northwest Western Australia: Implications for Further Research 31
L. Smith, D. Newsome, and D. Lee

Exploring Tourism as a Potential Development Strategy for an Artisanal Fishing Community in the Philippines: The Case of Barangay Victory in Bolinao 49
Brooke A. Porter and Mark B. Orams

Shark Diving in the Azores: Challenge and Opportunity 71
Julia Bentz, Philip Dearden, Erich Ritter, and Helena Calado

Characteristics of Professional Scuba Dive Guides 85
Linda Andy, Re-Yang Lee, and Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng

The Experiences of Summer Visitors to Cape Rodney–Okakari Point (Goat Island) Marine Reserve, Auckland, New Zealand 101
Sharon M. Race and Mark B. Orams


Learn While Cruising: Experiential Learning Opportunities for Teaching Cruise Tourism Courses 115
Gui Lohmann


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2012–2013 121
Carol Scarpaci and E. C. M. Parsons

Volume 9, Number3-4

Guest Editors: Marc L. Miller, Jan Auyong, Martijn Smeenge, Ben Offringa, Peter B. Myles, and Michael Lück

Editorial: A Field Focuses on Destinations: Papers From the 7th International Coastal and Marine Tourism Congress
Marc L. Miller, Jan Auyong, Martijn Smeenge, Ben Offringa, Peter B. Myles, and Michael Lück

Segmenting Adventure Tourists: A Cluster Analysis of Scuba Divers in Eastern Australia
Michael K. Tschapka and Christine L. Kern

Environmental Practices of Sea Kayak Guides in British Columbia, Canada
Greg Simmonds and Rob Hood

Managing Dune Landscape Changes at Jockey’s Ridge State Park, North Carolina
Ondrej Mitas, Helena Mitasova, Gene Brothers, and Katherine Weaver

Coastal Route Tourism: A Vehicle for Collaborative Economic Development in the Eastern Cape, South Africa
Peter B. Myles

Stakeholder Collaboration in Tourism Development: The Case of Veerse Meer, The Netherlands
Marinka C. van den Bergh

Marina Impacts on the Local Population and on Tourism Development in Horta (Azores Islands), Portugal
Luís Silveira and Norberto Santos

Volume 9 Subject and Author Index

Volume 9, Numbers 1-2

Guest Editors: Mark D. Needham and Brian W. Szuster

Crowding, Use Levels, and Social Capacity Issues in Coastal and Marine Environments: Introduction to the Special Issue
Mark D. Needham and Brian W. Szuster

Increased Use Levels, Effort, and Spatial Distribution of Tourists Swimming With Dwarf Minke Whales at the Great Barrier Reef
Matthew I. Curnock, R. Alastair Birtles, and Peter S. Valentine

Encounters, Norms, and Crowding at Six Coastal and Marine Areas in Hawai‘i
Mark D. Needham

Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms of Kayakers in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, Canada
Carleigh Randall and Rick B. Rollins

Normative Evaluations Among Paddlers: A Comparison of Two Dimensions of Experience
Laura E. Anderson and Robert E. Manning

Measuring Variability in Encounter Norms Among Scuba Divers and Snorkelers: An Application of the Potential for Conflict Index2
Jerry J. Vaske, Lauren M. Heesemann, David K. Loomis, and Stuart C. Cottrell

Willingness to Pay to Avoid High Encounter Levels at Dive Sites in the Caribbean
Peter W. Schuhmann, Michelle Cazabon-Mannette, David Gill, James F. Casey, and Adrian Hailey

Stakeholder Perceptions of Indicators of Tourism Use and Codes of Conduct in a Coastal Protected Area in Alaska
Emily F. Pomeranz, Mark D. Needham, and Linda E. Kruger

Volume 8, Number 4

Riding the Wave: History, Definitions, and a Proposed Typology of Surf-Riding Tourism
Mark B. Orams and Nick Towner

Change in Focus of Attention Among Whale-Watch Passengers Occurs as a Function of Temporal Phase of the Tour
Janelle M. Hrycik and Paul H. Forestell

Potential Areas for Whale Watching in Korean Waters
Kyung-Jun Song


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2011–2012
Carol Scarpaci and E. C. M. Parsons

Volume 8 Subject and Author Index

Volume 8, Number 3

Value Orientations and Normative Evaluations of Individuals Visiting Coral Reef Areas in Hawai`i
Robyn L. Ceurvorst and Mark D. Needham

Tourists’ Intention of Returning to a Visited Destination: Cruise Ship Passengers in Cartagena de Indias, Columbia
Juan Gabriel Brida and Paolo Coletti

Research Note

Promotion of Ecotourism Principles by Whale-Watching Companies’ Marketing Efforts
Nhial Tiitmamer Kur and Glen T. Hvenegaard


Killer Whale Killers
E. C. M Parsons


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2010–2011
Carol Scarpaci and E. C. M. Parsons

Volume 8, Numbers 1/2

Guest Editors: Ghazali Musa and Kay Dimmock

Scuba Diving Tourism: Introduction to Special Issue
Ghazali Musa and Kay Dimmock

Diver Characteristics, Motivations, and Attitudes: Chuuk Lagoon
Joanne Edney

Flourishing Through Scuba: Understanding the Pursuit of Dive Experiences
Balvinder Kaur Kler and John Tribe

Exploring Place Attachment: An Underwater Perspective
Emily C. Moskwa

Resource Attributes That Contribute to Nonresident Diver Satisfaction in the Florida Keys, USA
Shona Paterson, Sarah Young, David K. Loomis, and William Obenour

Forming Scuba Diving Environmental Codes of Conduct: What Entry-Level Divers Are Taught in Their First Certification Course
Kelsey M. Johansen and Rhonda L. Koster

Scuba Diving and Marine Conservation: Collaboration at Two Australian Subtropical Destinations
Zan Hammerton, Kay Dimmock, Christine Hahn, Steven J. Dalton, and Stephen D. A. Smith

Dive Tourism in Luganville, Vanuatu: Shocks, Stressors, and Vulnerability to Climate Change
Louise Munk Klint, Min Jiang, Alexandra Law, Terry Delacy, Sebastian Filep, Emma Calgaro, Dale Dominey-Howes, and David Harrison

Volume 7, Numbers 3/4

Guest Editors: Marc L. Miller, Jan auyong, Michael Lück, Mark Orams, Peter B. Myles, and Jeff Wilks

Editorial—A Field Engages: Papers From the 6th International Coastal and Marine Tourism Congress
Marc L. Miller, Jan Auyong, Michael Lück, Mark Orams, Peter B. Myles, and Jeff Wilks

Aspects of the Legal Environment of Coastal and Marine Tourism in South Africa
Patrick H. G. Vrancken

An Industry in Decline? The Evolution of Whale-Watching Tourism in Hervey Bay, Australia
Sheila Peake

Optimization of Mariculture Sites in the Tourism Area of Seribu Islands, Java Sea, Indonesia
Wiwin Windupranata and Intan Hayatiningsih

Diving Tourism in Mozambique: An Opportunity at Risk?
Yara Tibiriçá, Alastair Birtles, Peter Valentine, and Dean K. Miller

Scuba Diver Perceptions and Evaluations of Crowding Underwater
Brian W. Szuster, Mark D. Needham, and Bixler P. McClure

Successful Interpretation in Great Barrier Reef Tourism: Dive in or Keep Out of it?
Alexandra Coghlan, K. Ruth Fox, Bruce Prideaux, and Michael Lück

Tourism in Regions of Natural Resource Decline: A Newfoundland Case Study
Natalie Springuel

Kia Angi Puku To Hoe I Te Wai: Ocean Noise and Tourism
Emmanuelle Martinez and Mark B. Orams

A Model for Coastal Tourism: The Coast Is All in One’s Mind
Martijn Smeenge and Ben Offringa

Towards a Utilitarian Ethic for Marine Wildlife Tourism
John Dobson

The Learning Tourist: The Role of Identity-Related Visit Motivations
John H. Falk

Volume 7 Subject and Author Index

Volume 7, Number 2

Dive Market Segments and Destination Competitiveness: A Case Study of the Great Barrier Reef in View of Changing Reef Ecosystem Health
Anja Pabel and Alexandra Coghlan

Sex at Sea: Sexual Crimes Aboard Cruise Ships
Ross A. Klein and Jill Poulston

Dolphin Watching at Muscat, Sultanate of Oman: Tourist Perceptions and Actual Current Practice
Louisa S. Ponnampalam


Climate Change Workshops for Great Barrier Reef Marine Tourism Operators
Heather Zeppel

Volume 7, Number 1

The Influence of Scuba Divers’ Personality, Experience, and Demographic Profile on Their Underwater Behavior
Ghazali Musa, Wong Tong Seng, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi, and Masoud Abessi

Extent and Economic Value of Manta Ray Watching in Maldives
R. Charles Anderson, M. Shiham Adam, Anne-Marie Kitchen-Wheeler, and Guy Stevens

Professional Development Needs in Croatia’s Marine Tourism Industry: Harbormasters Identify the Management Skills That Require Improvements
Ljudevit Pranić and Neven Šerić


How Effective Are Posted Signs to Regulate Tourism? An Example With New Zealand Fur Seals
Alejandro Acevedo-Gutierrez, Lisa Acevedo, Olga Belonovich, and Laura Boren


Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2009–2010
E. C. M. Parsons and Carol Scarpaci

Volume 6, Number 4

Volume 6, Numbers 1-3

Volume 5, Numbers 1-4

Volume 4, Numbers 1-3

Volume 3, Numbers 1-2

Volume 2, Numbers 1-2

Volume 1, Numbers 1-2


Michael Lück
School of Hospitality and Tourism
Faculty of Applied Humanities
AUT University
Private Bag 92006
Auckland, New Zealand
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Commentary/Research Notes Editor
Marc L. Miller,  University of Washington, USA

Book Review Editor
Mark B. Orams, AUT University, New Zealand

Student Section Editor:
David A. Fennell
, Brock University, Canada


Simon Berrow, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway, Ireland
Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand
Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK
Peter Corkeron, NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center USA
Philip Dearden, University of Victoria, Canada
Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA
Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK
C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand
Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenberg, Sweden
Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada 
Kevin Markwell, Southern Cross University, Australia
Gayle Mayes, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore
Gianna Moscardo,
James Cook University, Australia
Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia
David Newsome, Murdoch University, Western Australia  
E. C. M. Parsons, George Mason University, USA
Brooke Porter, Coral Triangle Conservancy, Philippines 
Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal
Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia
Liz Slooten, University of Otago, New Zealand
Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK
Jeffrey Wilks,
Tourism Safety, Australia

Author & Subject Indexes: Volumes 1-12  (Scroll down)

Volume 13: Author Index

Angerbjorn, A., 1

Bolin, V., 17
Brown, D. M., 41
Brownlee, M. T. J., 121
Burns, G. L., 1

Cerrano, C., 85
Curries, J. J., 65

Dennett, A., 231
Digun-Aweto, O., 165
Dwyer, L., 25

Fefer, J. P., 121
Forestell, P., 55

Garrard, P., 17
Gleason, C. M., 155
Granquist, S. M., 1

Hallo, J. C., 121
Hartny-Mills, L., 17
Hughes, M. D., 121

Jankovic, S., 141

Kaufman, G. D., 65
Kayahan, B., 193
Klein, R. A., 189, 193

Lucrezi, S., 85

Madsen, E. L., 205
Manning, R. E., 121
Milanese, M., 85

Oladele, A. H., 165
Öqvist, E. L., 1

Palma, M., 85
Parsons, E. C. M., 41, 73, 155, 175
Putsey, J., 17

Renfors, S.-M., 109
Rose, N. A., 73
Roth, R., 217
Ryan, C., 17

Saayman, M., 85
Sarà, A., 85
Sharples, L., 243
Shirra, L., 17
Smith, C. E., 175
Stack, S. H., 65

Tardif, J., 217

VanBlarcon, B., 193
Van der Merwe, P., 165
Vines, J., 17
Vinogradov, E., 205
Vlašić, D., 141

Weeden, C., 189
Wigger, K. A., 205
Wilks, J., 53, 187

Volume 13: Subject Index

Acceptable conditions, 121
Anticipation, 243
Attitude, 85

Benchmarking, 141
Blackfish, 73

Captivity, 73
Cetaceans, 65
Coastal and marine tourism, 165
Coastal and maritime tourism, 109
Coastal communities, 17
Code of conduct, 1, 41, 175
Collaboration, 205
Compliance, 41, 175
Conservation, 1, 155, 217
Cruise, 243
Cruise economic impact, 193
Cruise industry, 193
Cruise passenger spending, 193
Cruise ship labor, 231
Cruise tourism, 205, 217
Curriculum development, 109

Development, 165
Disturbance, 1
Dolphin provisioning, 41, 175
Dolphins, 17
Dominican Republic, 155

Ecotourism, 65
Education, 41, 175
Emotion, 243
Experience, 85
Experiential carrying capacity, 121

Governance, 25

Hospitality work, 231
Human dimensions, 41, 175

Identity, 231
Impacts, 41, 175
Indicators, 1221
Integrated ocean management, 25
Intention, 205

Killer whale, 73

Legislation, 73
Local value creation, 205

Mammals, 1
Management, 1, 41, 65, 85, 175
Marina business, 141
Marine protected area (MPA), 41, 85, 175
Measuring economic impact, 193
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, Canada, 217

Nigeria, 165
Norway, 205

Ocean industries, 25
Onboard education, 155
Orcinus orca, 73

Performance measurement in marinas, 141
Peripheral, 17
Photo-ID, 65
Platform of opportunity (PoP), 65
Political ecology, 217
Porpoises, 17
Prospects, 165
Protected area governance, 217
Public awareness, 155
Public display, 73

Regulations, 41, 175
Revenue management, 141

Scuba diving, 85
Seals, 1
SeaWorld, 73
Social norms, 121
Sustainability, 17
Sustainable tourism, 25

Thresholds, 121
Tourism, 1, 243
Tourism education, 109
Tourism stakeholders, 109

Uniform System of Accounts for Marinas and Boatyards (USAMB), 141

Visitor experience, 121

Whale and dolphin tracker (WDT), 65
Whales, 17
Whale tourism, 155
Whale watchers, 41, 175
Whale watching, 41, 155, 175
Wildlife, 1
Work spaces, 231

Volume 12: Author Index

Arunotai, N., 155
Auyong, J., 139

Bentz, J., 
Blahna, D. J., 
Bowles, L., 51
Brown, C., 183
Brown, D. M., 125
Burgoyne, C., 

Calado, H., 35

Dearden, P., 35
Derriks, T., 

Edney, J., 
Espiner, S., 1

Gimblett, H. R., 183

Jitpraphai, S. M., 

Kelso, C., 239
Klein, R. A., 

Lopes, F., 35
Lopez, G., 
Lück, M., 139

Mahler-Coetzee, J. D., 
Marshall, A. D., 51
May-Collado, L., 79
Mearns, K., 239
Miller, M. L., 
Monteiro, P. V., 
Morgan, D., 

Needham, M. D., 139

Orams, M. B., 139
Otway, N. M., 17

Parsons, E. C. M., 
Pearson, H. C., 95
Peters-Burton, E., 79
Poe, A., 183

Rockwood, L., 79
Ryan, C. M., 183

Salvador, R., 105
Scarpaci, C., 17
Shone, M. C., 
Sitar, A., 
Smith, K. R., 
Soares, C. G., 105
Stewart, E. J., 1
Szuster, B. W., 139

Tiangtrong, A., 155

Venables, S., 

Wilks, J., 139, 211
Winstanley, G., 51
Wright, A., 79

Volume 12: Subject Index

Acoustic telemetry, 17
Algarve, 105
Anthropocene, 139

Beaches, 69
Behavior, 17
Bioenergetic modeling, 125
Bottlenose dolphin, 79

Cluster analysis, 35
Coastal hazards, 155
Coastal product improvement, 253
Coastal tourism, 155, 239
Code of conduct, 125
Collaboration, 239
Commercial use allocation strategies, 183
Compliance, 125
Conservation, 1, 95
Conservation planning, 183
Coopetition, 105
Critically endangered, 17
Cruise industry, 199
Cruise line international association, 199
Cruise research, 199
Cruise tourism, 199

Delict (tort), 221
Designation effect, 1
Destination image enhancement, 253
Diver attitudes, 169
Diving, 35
Dolphin watchers, 79

Economic valuation, 51
Education, 95, 125
Environmental awareness, 79
Environmental opinions, 79

Honest broker, 139
Human dimensions research, 139
Humpback whale, 95

Impacts, 125
Integrated coastal management, 155

Keystone experiences, 183
Kiteboarding, 253
Kiteboarding session, 253
Knowledge, 95

Legal responsibilities, 211
Lifeguards, 211

Management, 95, 125, 169
Manta ray, 51
Marinas, 105
Marine, 1
Marine conservation, 239
Marine protected area (MPA) management, 51
Marine protected areas, 239
Maritime economy, 105
Measurement methods, 69
Microclusters, 105
Mozambique, 51

Nautical tourism, 105
New surfing, 221
New Zealand, 1

Panama, 79
Partnerships, 183
Passenger, 95
Population estimation, 69
Practice theory, 253
Protected areas, 1

Recreation use zoning strategies, 183
Regulation(s), 79, 95, 125
Risk management, 211

Scuba diving, 169
Scuba diving tourism, 17
Shark, 17
Shipwrecks, 169
Social problems, 139
Socioecological systems, 183
Stakeholders, 239
Surf ethos, 221
Sustainability, 79
Sustainable development, 221
Sustainable management, 35

Tourism, 1, 183, 211
Tourist, 79
Tourist motivations, 35
Tsunami, 155
Tursiops truncatus, 79

Use-inspired basic research, 139

Values, 139
Visitors, 69
Vulnerability assessment, 155

Water safety, 211
Whale watchers, 125
Whale watching, 79, 95, 125
Wicked problems, 139
Wildlife tourism, 35, 51
Wreck diving, 169

Volume 11: Author Index

Albayrak, T., 101
Avila, I. C., 19

Bertella, G., 73
Bester, M., 33
Bundă, N. R., 161

Caber, M., 101
Cashman, D., 89
Chivell, W., 33
Correa, L. M., 19
Cosentino, A. M., 215
Cummins, A., 1

De Grosbois, D., 207
Dowling, R., 181
Durko, A., 123, 189

Elwen, S. H., 33

Gibson, P., 137

Holmes, M., 137
Hughes, M. D., 229

Kirkman, S. P., 33
Klein, R. A., 87, 147
Kobryn, H., 55

Lim, Wai Mun, 137
Migacz, S., 123
Mills, B., 1

Newsome, D., 55

Papathanassis, A., 87, 161
Parsons, E. C. M., 19, 79, 251
Petrick, J. F., 109, 123, 189, 197

Rutherford, J., 55

Scarpaci, C., 79, 251
Scarpaci, C., 79
Sitter, K. C., 147
Soulard, J., 197
Stevenson, K. K., 243

Taylor, L. L., 229
Thomsen, J. M., 229

Ünal, C., 101

Vester, H. I., 73
Vinding, K., 33

Zou, Suiwen (Sharon), 109

Volume 11: Subject Index

Accidents, 197
Action research, 161
Australia, 181

Balaenoptera brydei,
Behavior, 19, 215
Benefits, 189
Black Sea region, 161
Boats, 19
Brand image, 197
Breeding area, 19

Chinese tourists, 109
Coastal tourism, 1, 55
Code of conduct, 79, 251
Columbia, 19
Consumption, 89
Corporate social responsibility reporting, 207
Cow–calf pairs, 33
Crises, 197
Critical incident technique, 109
Cruise(s), 89, 101, 109, 161, 189, 197
Cruise employees, 137
Cruise industry, 147
Cruise labor, 207
Cruise line industry, 207
Cruise lines, 197
Cruise ships, 147
Cruise tourism, 147, 181
Cruising images, 109
Customer journey mapping, 109
Customer satisfaction, 137

Destination, 161
Development, 161
Distribution, 33

Ecology, 243
Economic impact, 1
Ecotourism, 33
Employee well-being, 207
Environmental protection, 73
Eubalaena australis, 33

Geotourism, 55
Guidelines, 33

Human impacts, 33

Illegal feeding, 79, 215
Interpretation, 55

Live music, 89

Management, 79, 243, 251
Marine tourism, 1
Market segmentation, 101
Megaptera novaeangliae, 19, 33
Monitoring cutaceans, 33
Motivation, 101
Multiplier, 1
Perceived value, 109
Political activism, 147
Purchase intentions, 197

Recovery, 197
Regulations, 79, 251
Relationships, 189
Repurchase intentions, 109, 189
Respiration, 215

Satisfaction, 109, 189
Sea level change, 55
Seasonality, 33
Segmentation, 109
Social activism, 147
Sousa plumbea, 33
Sperm whale, 215
Staff morale, 137
Surf tourism, 1, 229
Sustainability, 73
Swim-with-dolphin/whale tourism, 79, 251

Tourism, 161, 243
Tourism impact, 215
Tourist, 101
Travel constraints, 109
Travel intentions, 109
Tursiops aduncus, 33

Uramba-Bahía Málaga, 19

Value, 189
Voluntourism, 229

Whale ecotourism, 79, 215
Whale watchers, 19, 79, 215
Whale watching, 73, 79, 243, 251
Word of mouth (WOM), 109, 189

Volume 10: Author Index

Andy, L., 85

Bentz, J., 71
Bradford, W., 21

Calado, H., 71

Dawson, J., 225
Dearden, P., 71
Durko, A. M., 149

Gende, S. M., 5
Gibson, P., 255

Hamlin, R., 159
Harcourt, R., 21
Harvey, J. T., 5
Henry, J., 159, 177
Huijbens, E. H., 241

Kerswill, M., 189
Kessler, M., 21
Klein, R. A., 141

Lee, D., 31
Lee, R.-Y., 85
Lloyd, N., 177
Lohmann, G., 115
Lück, M., 1

Mair, H., 189

Newsome, D., 31
Orams, M. B., 49, 101

Papathanassis, A., 141
Parsons, E. C. M., 121
Pashkevich, A., 225
Perkins, L., 255
Petrick, J. F., 149
Porter, B. A., 49

Race, S. M., 101
Ritter, E., 71

Scarpaci, C., 121
Shone, M. C., 211
Simmons, D. G., 211
Simpson, E., 159
Smith, L., 31
Stewart, E. J., 211, 225

Thyne, M., 177
Tzeng, G.-H., 85

Weeden, C., 201
Wilson, J., 211

Young, C., 5

Volume 10: Subject Index

Akaroa, 211
AMSA marine navigation scenarios, 225
Analytic network process (ANP), 85
Arctic, 241
Artisanal fishing, 49

Canadian Arctic, 225
Code of conduct, 121
Compliance, 5
Conflicts, 71
Conjoint analysis, 21
Containment, 189
Corporate philanthropy (CP), 201
Corporate social responsibility, 201
Cruise field trip, 115
Cruise passengers, 177
Cruise passenger segment destination, 159
Cruise ships crew, 255
Cruise tourism, 189, 201, 211, 241

Decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), 85
Destination community, 211
Development strategy, 49
Disturbance, 5

Ecotourism, 71
Enclave, 201
Engagement, 255
Expedition cruise tourism, 225
Experiential learning, 115
Extended social interactions, 255

Fishing, 71

Gateway, 241
Governance, 225

Haiti, 201
Harbor seal, 5
Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), 21

Iceland, 241
Illegal feeding, 121
Impacts, 211
Information search process, 177
Intense teaching, 115
Interpretation, 31

Jamaica, 189

Legitimacy theory, 201
Luxury cruise tourists, 141

Management, 121
Marine reserve, 101
Marine wildlife tourism, 71
Motivation, 141
Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM), 85
Onshore activities, 177

Participant expectations, 21
Philippines, 49
Port readiness, 241
Ports, 189
Ports of call, 177

Regulation, 121
Return economic impact, 159
Royal Caribbean International (RCI), 201
Russian Arctic, 225

Scuba dive guides, 85
Segmentation, 141
Shark diving, 71
Sustainable management, 71
Swim-with-dolphin/whale tourism, 121

Tourism and hospitality education, 115
Tourism impacts, 189
Tourism potential, 49
Turtle watching, 31

Vessel regulations, 5

Whale ecotourism, 121
Whale watchers, 121
Whale watching, 21, 121
Wildlife tourism, 31

Volume 9: Author Index

Anderson, L. E., 53
Auyong, J., 117

Birtles, R. A., 5
Brothers, G., 155

Casey, J. F., 81
Cottrell, S. C., 69
Curnock, M. I., 5

Gill, D., 81

Hailey, A., 81
Heesemann, L. M., 69
Hood, R., 143

Kern, C. L., 129
Kruger, L. E., 95

Loomis, D. K., 69
Lück, M., 117

Mannette, M. C., 81
Manning, R. E., 53
Miller, M. L., 117
Mitas, O., 155
Mitasova, H., 155
Myles, P. B., 117, 169

Needham, M. D. , 1, 19, 95

Offringa, B., 117

Pomeranz, E. F., 95

Randall, C., 35
Rollins, R. B., 35

Santos, N., 193
Schuhmann, P. W., 81
Silveira, L., 193
Simmonds, G., 143
Smeenge, M., 117
Szuster, B. W., 1

Tschapka, M. K., 129

Valentine, P. S., 5
van den Bergh, M. C., 181
Vaske, J. J., 69

Weaver, K., 155

Volume 9: Subject Index

Adventure tourism, 129
Azores Islands, 193

Best management practice, 143

Cluster analysis, 129
Coastal dunes, 155
Coastal route, 169
Codes of conduct, 95
Collaboration, 169, 181
Commercial sea kayaking, 143
Community participation, 169
Conservation, 155
Crowding, 19, 35, 81
Crystallization, 69

Destination image, 117
Destination management, 117
Destination marketing, 117
Development, 193
Dwarf minke whales, 5
Dynamic landscape, 155

Encounter norms, 35, 69
Encounters, 5, 19, 53, 81
Experience, 53

Guide behavior, 143

Horta, 193

Indicators, 19, 95
Involvement, 129

Kayaking, 35

Landscape, 117
Latent capacity, 5
Low impact, 143

Marina, 193
Marine parks, 35
Marine tourism, 81
Motivation, 129

Norms, 19, 53

Paddling, 53
Permits, 5
Potential for Conflict Index2 (PCI2), 69
Prism of sustainability, 95
Pro-poor tourism, 169
Protected areas, 95

Scuba divers, 69
Scuba diving, 81, 129
Snorkelers, 69
Social carrying capacity, 19, 53
Stakeholders, 95, 181
Standards of quality, 19

Tourism, 35
Tourism development, 181
Tourism system, 117

Unified theme, 169
Use levels, 5, 95

Veerse Meer, 181
Visitor impacts, 155
Visitor management, 155

Willingness to pay (WTP), 81

Yachting tourism, 193

Volume 8: Author Index:

Brida, J. G., 127

Calgaro, E., 91
Ceurvorst, R. L., 111
Coletti, P., 127

Dalton, S. J., 77
Delacy, T., 91
Dimmock, K., 1, 77
Dominey-Howes, D., 91

Edney, J., 7

Filep, S., 91
Forestell, P. H., 189

Hahn, C., 77
Hammerton, Z., 77
Harrison, D., 91
Hrycik, J. M., 189
Hvenegaard, G. T., 145

Jiang, M., 91
Johansen, K. M., 61

Kler, B. K., 19
Klint, L. M., 91
Koster, R. L., 61
Kur, N. T., 145

Law, A., 91
Loomis, D. K., 47

Moskwa, E. C., 33
Musa, G., 1

Needham, M. D., 111

Obenour, W., 47
Orams, M. B., 173

Parsons, E. C. M., 153, 161, 207
Paterson, S., 47

Scarpaci, C., 161, 207
Smith, S. D. A., 77
Song, K.-J., 199

Towner, N., 173
Tribe, J., 19

Young, S., 47

Volume 8: Subject Index

Brochures, 145

Cartagena de Indias, 127
Certification courses, 61
Climate change, 91
Coastal, 173
Code of conduct, 161, 207
Common dolphin, 199
Congressional hearing, 153
Conservation, 77, 145, 189
Coral reefs, 111
Cruise industry, 127

Dive tourism, 33, 91

Ecotourism, 145
Education, 189
Encounters, 111
Environmental codes of conduct, 61
Eudaimonia, 19

Florida Keys, 47

Human dimensions, 7

Indicators, 111
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, 199
Interpretation, 189

Jeju Island, 199

Killer whale, 153

Learning, 19
Logit, 127

Management, 161, 207
Marine, 173
Marine tourism, 77
Micronesia, 7
Model, 173
Motivations, 7

Norms, 111
NSW volunteer organizations, 77

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 153
Orcinus orca, 153

Personal growth, 19
Place attachment, 33
Place dependence 33
Place identity, 33
Principles, 145
Protected areas, 161, 207

Regulations, 161, 207
Repeat visitation, 127
Republic of Korea, 199

Satisfaction, 47
Scuba divers, 19
Scuba diving, 7, 33, 47, 61, 77
SeaWorld, 153
Shock and stressors, 91
Specialization, 47
Standards of quality, 111
Surfing, 173
Sustainability, 145

Tourism, 189
Trainer deaths, 153

Ulsan, 199

Value orientations, 111
Vanuatu, 91
Vulnerability, 91

Waves, 173
Well-being, 19
Whale watchers, 161, 207
Whale watching, 145, 161, 189, 199, 207
Whaling, 207
Wreck diving, 7

Volume 7

Author Index

Abessi, M., 1
Acevedo, L., 39
Acevedo-Gutierrez, A., 39
Adam, M. S., 15
Anderson, R. C., 15
Auyong, J., 99

Belonovich, O., 39
Birtles, A., 141
Boren, L., 39

Coghlan, A., 55, 167

Dobson, J., 213

Falk, J. H., 223
Fox, K. R., 167

Hayatiningsih, I., 133

Kitchen-Wheeler, A.-M., 15
Klein, R. A., 67

Lück, M., 99, 167

Martinez, E., 191
McClure, B. P., 153
Miller, D. K., 141
Miller, M. L., 99
Musa, G., 1
Myles, P. B., 99

Needham, M. D., 153

Offringa, B., 203
Orams, M. B., 99, 191

Pabel, A., 55
Parsons, E. C. M., 43
Peake, S., 121
Ponnampalam, L. S., 81
Poulston, J., 67
Pranić, L., 29
Prideaux, B., 167

Scarpaci, C., 43
Seng, W. T., 1
Šerić, N., 29
Smeenge, M., 203
Springuel, N., 179
Stevens, G., 15
Szuster, B. W., 153

Thirumoorthi, T., 1
Tibiriçá, Y., 141

Valentine, P., 141
Vrancken, P. H. G., 113

Wilks, J., 99
Windupranata, W., 133

Zeppel, H., 95

Suvbject Index

Activities, 167
Animal ethics, 213

Climate change, 55
Coastal communities, 179
Coastal tourism, 203
Code-of-conduct, 43
Compliance with regulations, 39
Conservation, 39, 99
Crowding, 153
Cruise industry, 67
Cruise ship, 67

Destination management, 55
Development needs, 29
Diving, 55, 153
Diving tourism, 141
Dolphin watching, 81

Economic value, 15
Environmental law, 113
Environmental perceptions, 55
Experience, 1

Fisheries, 179
Free choice, 223

Great Barrier Reef, 55, 167
Guidelines, 81

Harbormasters, 29
Heritage tourism, 179
Hervey Bay, 121
Human rights, 113

Identity, 223
Interpretation, 167

Learning, 223

Maldives, 15
Management, 43, 191
Manta ray, 15
Mariculture, 133
Marine law, 113
Marine management, 29
Marine recreation, 153
Marine tourism, 29, 39, 141
Motivations, 223
Mozambique, 141
Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, 81

Newfoundland, 179
Noise, 191

Optimization, 133

Perception, 81
Personality, 1

Posted sign, 39
Professional needs, 29
Protected areas, 43

Rape, 67
Regulations, 43
Re(Interpretation), 203

Scuba, 153
Scuba dives, 1
Scuba diving, 141
Seribu Islands, 133
Sexual assault, 67
Sexual harassment, 67
Social carrying capacity, 153
Sound, 191
Suitability, 133
Sustainability, 133, 141
Sustainable development, 99
Swim-with-dolphins, 191

Tourism, 81, 223
Tourism governance, 99
Tourism law, 113
Tourism life cycle model, 121
Tourism management, 39

, 99, 113
Underwater behavior, 1
Utilitarianism, 213

Visitors, 203

Whale watchers, 43
Whale watching, 43, 121, 191
Wildlife tourism, 15, 213

Volume 6

Author Index

Beckley, L. E., 1
Bloom, T., 175
Bonnelly, I., 175
Brown, T., 63

Connelly, N., 63

Dawson, J., 119
Dimmock, K., 145
Draheim, M., 175

Fredman, P., 133

Gelter, H., 185
Gross, S., 11

Heberlein, T. A., 73

Johnston, M. E., 59

Koster, R., 101
Kuehn, D., 25
Kuentzel, W. F., 73

Lemelin, R., 101
Lück, M., 39

Maher, P. T., 185
McAvoy, L. H., 89
Messer, C. C., 139
Metansinine, K., 101

Parsons, E. C. M., 39, 51, 175
Paulrud, A., 161
Payne, R. J., 59
Pelletier, H., 101

Rose, N. A., 51, 175

Sali, M. J., 25
Salk, R., 89
Scarpaci, C., 39
Schneider, I. E., 89, 139
Schuster, R., 25
Scott, D., 119

Ukaga, O., 139

Waldo, S., 161
Woznicka, I., 101

Yuan, M., 133

Subject Index


Activity participation, 133
Amenity migration, 73
Angling, 161
Attitudes, 1

Bird watching, 25
Budget cruises, 11

Canada, 101
Climate change, 119
Code of conduct, 39
Comfort, 145
Communication, 89
Community engagement, 139
Company, 161
Component factor analysis, 25
Constraint, 145
Cultural tourism, 89

Demographics, 1
Dolphins, 175
Dominican Republic, 175

easyCruise, 11
Economic impact, 63
Entrepreneurs, 161
Expenditure, 1
Experience, 145
Experience preference, 133

Great Lakes region, 119

Lake Ontario, 63
Lake Superior, 73
Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area (LSNMCA), 101
Low-cost cruises, 11
Low-cost ships, 11
Low-cost strategy, 11

Management, 39, 161
Meaning, 89
Minnesota, 139
Motivations, 25

Negotiation, 145

Protected areas, 39

Recreation, 73
Recreational fishing, 63
Regional tourism opportunities, 101
Regulations, 39
Retirement migration, 73
Revealed choice, 133
Review, 119
Rural tourism, 133

Sacred site, 89
Scuba diving, 145
Sport fishing, 161
Supply, 161
Survey, 161
Sustainable marine mammal tourism, 175
Sustainable tourism, 139

Tourism, 119, 161

Usage patterns, 1

Water-based community, 139
Whale watchers, 39
Whale watching, 39, 175

Andy, L., 85

Bentz, J., 71
Bradford, W., 21

Calado, H., 71

Dawson, J., 225
Dearden, P., 71
Durko, A. M., 149

Gende, S. M., 5
Gibson, P., 255

Hamlin, R., 159
Harcourt, R., 21
Harvey, J. T., 5
Henry, J., 159, 177
Huijbens, E. H., 241

Kerswill, M., 189
Kessler, M., 21
Klein, R. A., 141

Lee, D., 31
Lee, R.-Y., 85
Lloyd, N., 177
Lohmann, G., 115
Lück, M., 1

Mair, H., 189

Newsome, D., 31XX"="">XX">


Author Index

Amelung, B., 111
Austin, T. J., 245
Auyong, J., 75

Barton, K., 187
Beckley, L. E., 301
Bell, C. D., 245
Blackwell, B., 145
Blumenthal, J. M., 245
Boren, L. J., 187
Breen, B. B., 101
Breen, D., 101
Briggs, S. V., 15
Broderick, A. C., 245

Cater, C. I., 233
Cater, E., 229
Christensen, A., 271
Coghlan, A., 175
Cottrell, S., 1
Crabtree, B., 29
Craig, R. K., 89

Dearden, P., 287
de Grosbois, D., 342
Dimmock, K., 339

Ebanks-Petrie, G., 245

Fennell, D. A., 259
Fitzsimmons, C., 159

Gemmell, N., 187
Godley, B. J., 245
Gräupl, A., 75

Hall, N., 121
Horak, S., 131

Inui, Y., 43

Lankford, S. V., 43
Lazarow, N., 145
Lück, M., 55, 75, 319

Maher, P. T., 337
Marusic, Z., 131
Mayes, G., 201
Meisel-Lusby, C., 1
Miller, M. L., 75, 145
Moreno, A., 111
Muloin, S., 215

Needham, M. D., 271
Nicholls, A. O., 15


Orams, M. B., 75

Parsons, E. C. M., 55, 75, 319
Prideaux, B., 175

Richins, H., 201
Rose, N. A., 67
Rowe, S., 271

Salgado Kent, C. P., 29
Santamarta, L., 111
Scarpaci, C., 55, 319
Shaughnessy, P. D., 15
Sheppard, V. A., 259
Sillitoe, J., 121
Smallwood, C. B., 301
Szarycz, G. S., 73

Tomljenovic, R., 131

Whittle, A., 43

Yasué, M., 287

Zeppel, H., 215

Subject Index

Alaska, 259
Australian sea lion, 29
Awareness of consequences, 271

Beach, 287
Beach visitation, 111
Breeding, 287

Case study, 121
Cayman Islands, 245
Climate change, 111, 175
Coastal and marine recreation, 43
Coastal planning and management, 145
Code of conduct, 55, 319
Conservations actions, 215
Coral, 89
Coral reefs, 159
Croatia, 131
Crowding, 43, 101
Cruise tourism, 131, 259

Disturbance, 287
Dolphin watching, 201

Economics, 145
Ecotourism, 245
Education, 201
Education benefits, 215
Embodiment, 233
Enjoyment, 159
Environmental behavior, 215
Ethics, 259
Expectations, 1
Experience, 271

Fishing, 301
Florida Keys, 1
Fur seals, 15

Great Barrier Reef, 175, 233
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 101
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 175
Guided walk, 187

Impacts, 159
Independent tourists, 187
Interpretation, 201, 215

Law, 89
Level of development, 1
Limits of use, 101

Management, 55, 159, 319
Marine mammal, 187
Marine management, 301
Marine protected area(s) (MPA), 89, 101, 121
Marine reserve, 89
Marine turtles, 245
Marine wildlife, 215
Mexico, 259
Moorings, 301
Motivations, 1, 233
Multiattribute utility models, 121
Multidimensional Ethics Scale, 259

Norm activation, 271

Observation methods, 29

Pinniped tourism, 187
Population monitoring, 245
Proenvironmental behaviors and actions, 201
Protected areas, 55, 319


Recreation and tourism, 145
Recreational divers, 245
Reef tourism, 175
Regulations, 55, 319
Repeat visit, 131

Sanctuary zone, 29
Scuba diving, 1, 159, 233, 301
Seal swimming, 187
Serious leisure, 145
Shorebirds, 287
Social carrying capacity, 43
Socioeconomic impact, 131
Southeast Asia, 287
Surfing, 145
Surf quality, 145

Tour boats, 15
Tourism, 121

US, 89

Value orientation, 271
Volunteers, 245

Weather, 111
Webcam, 111
Western Australia, 29
Whale watchers, 319
Whale watchers, 55
Whale watching, 271
Whale watching, 319
Whale watching, 55
Wildlife interactions, 15
Wildlife tourism, 15
Wildlife tourism, 29

Zoning, 301


Author Index

Amelung, B., 121

Barthelmess, K., 113
Beckley, L. E., 15
Briggs, S. V., 41
Buesser, C., 151
Bull, A., 29

Carlsen, J., 135
Carr, A., 167
Courbis, S., 1
Croft, D. B., 41
Crosbie, K., 195

Dawson, J., 69
De Nardi, M., 57

Eagles, P. F. J., 85

Gilbert, N., 167
Grenier, A. A., 237

Haase, D., 167

Jabour, J., 135, 203

Lamers, M., 121
Landau, D., 185
Lemelin, R. H., 97

Macbeth, J., 63
Maher, P. T., 65, 69
Marquez, J. R., 85
McIntosh, A., 167
Muir, S., 135
Mustafa, O., 151


Peter, H.-U., 151
Pfeiffer, S., 151
Prior, S. P., 15

Ringer, G., xxx

Serrano, E., 221
Shaughnessy, P. D., 41
Slocombe, D. S., 69
Smale, B., 97
Splettstoesser, J., 185
Stamation, K. A., 41
Stewart, E. J., 65, xxx
Storey, B., 167

Waples, K. A., 41
Wilks, J., 57
Williams, R., 195
Wodarski, R., 57

Subject Index

Antarctica, 121, 185, 203
Antarctic tourism, 167
Antarctic tourist sites, 221
Antarctic Treaty System, 167
Archetypes, 97
Arctic tourism, 69, 113
Attitudes, 15
Australia, 57

Beach safety, 57
Bioeconomic models, 29

Catches, 15
Climate change, 69, 121
Coastal management, 29
Complexity, 69
Compliance, 15
Cruise ships, 85
Cruise ship tourism, 85

Disturbance, 151

East Antarctic tourism, 135
Ecotourism, 41, 97
Environmental impact assessment, 121
Environmental protection, 185
Expenditure, 15

Fisheries, 29
Fishing, 15

Gateway ports, 135
Greenhouse gas emissions, 121

Hawaìi, 1
Hobart, 135
IAATO, 167, 185, 195
Insurance, 203
Interpretation, 41
Interviews, 167

Marine wildlife, 185
Maritime Antarctica, 221
Mining, 113

Nunavut, 85

Parks, 85
Polar bears, 97
Polar region, 85
Protected areas, 85


Regulation, 167
Research, 195

Search and rescue, 203
Ship-based tourism, 221
South Shetland Islands, 221
Spatial analysis, 151
Spinner dolphin, 1
<i>Stenella longirostris<i>, 1
Surf lifesaving, 57
Sustainability, 29
Swimmer, 1
Systems, 69

Tourism, 29, 57, 121, 185, 195, 203
Tourist management, 151

Vessel, 1
Viewer experience, 97
Visitor, 151

Whale watching, 41, 195
Whaling, 113
Wildlife tourism, 97


Author Index

Aksugür, E., 4
Aktas, G., 3
Altinay, M., 49

Barron, P., 89
Biçak, H. A., 49
Bonsall, S., 35
Buerger, R., 163

Cerit, A. G., 1
Currey, R. J. C., 173

Dikou, A., 131
Dobson, J., 15
Draper, D., 77

Erginer, K. E., 43
Erkurt, O., 43

Favro, S., 145


Greenwood, A. B., 89
Gunlu, E. A., 3
Günyakti, A., 49

Herstine, J., 163
Hill, J., 163
Horak, S., 145

Içöz, O., 1

Katircioglu, S., 49

Lewandowski, J. K., 179
Lück, M., 179
Lück, M., 75
Lusseau, D., 173

Marusic, Z., 145
Mennis, E., 59

Newsome, D., 101
Nikitakos, N., 59

Orsini, J.-P., 101

Paker, S., 43
Parsons, E. C. M., 179, 191
Parsons, E. C. M., 191
Platis, A., 59

Read, A. J., 117
Rose, N. A., 191

Shaughnessy, P. D., 101
Slooten, L., 173
Stavrinoudis, T. A., 25
Stewart, E. J., 77

Taylan, M., 67
Troumbis, A., 131

Udd, E., 197
Ünsan, Y., 67

Whitt, A. D., 117

Subject Index

Alternative energy, 67
Alternative tourism, 131
Arctic Canada, 77
Australian sea lion, 101

Bottlenose dolphin, 117

Carnac Island, 101
Coastal management, 163
Coastal resorts, 3
Code of conduct, 179
Competitiveness, 145
Conservation management procedure, 173
Contingency plans, 3
Crisis management, 3
Crisis, 3
Croatia, 145
Cruise industry, 89
Cruises, 25
Cruise tourism, 77
Cruising, 35

Degree program, 35
Dive industry, 131
Dolphin watching, 117

Education, 117
Excursion boats, 67
Experimental archeology, 43

Fishing ports, 49


Greece, 25
Greek tourism, 131

Human impacts, 101, 117
Human-wildlife interactions, 101

Integrated coastal management, 77
Itinerary planning, 89

Luxury market, 89

Management, 179
Marina, 145
Marina(s), 35, 49
Marine tourism, 43, 145
Marine wildlife tourism, 15
Maritime culture, 43
Maritime education and training, 43
Maritime leisure, 35
Maritime tourism, 59
Markov models, 59

National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, 163
Nautical tourism, 145
Neophoca cinerea, 101
North Aegean, 131
North Cyprus, 49
Northwest UK, 35

Protected areas, 179


Recreation, 163
Regulations, 173, 179
Reliability, 59

Safety, 59
Sail training, 43
Sanctuaries, 173
Sharks, 15
Signs, 163
Skills, 35
Solar cells, 67
State regulation, 15
Sustainability, 173
Sustainable, 77
Sustainable tourism, 49

Timeshare, 25
Tourism management, 163
Tourism, 25, 77, 117
Turkey, 25

Vigilance, 101
Visitor management, 163

Western Australia, 101
Whale watchers, 179
Whale watching, 173, 179
Wildlife disturbance, 101
Wildlife management, 101
Wildlife tourism, 101
Wind energy, 67

Yacht tourism, 49


Author Index

Andersen, M. S., 111

Barrett, N., 1
Beedie, P., 65

Cheng, J., 39
Confer, J. J., 39

Dobson, J., 133

Ellis, C., 1

Howard, C., 103
Hudson, S., 65

Kadir, S. L. S. A., 89
Kulczycki, C., 45

Lee, L., 89
Lewandowski, J., 119
Lück, M., 119

Maher, P. T., 51
McIntosh, A. J., 51
Miller, M. L., 111
Musa, G., 89

Newsome, D., 23


Orchiston, C., 79
Orsini, J.-P., 23

Parsons, E. C. M., 103, 119, 134

Ryan, S., 49

Schmieman, S., 1
Short, C., 139
Steel, G. D., 51
Sutton, S. G., 13

Thapa, B., 39

Wilkinson, P. F., 47

Subject Index

Adventure tourism, 65
Antarctica, 51
Anticipation, 51
Australian sea lion, 23
Awareness, 103

Benthic community, 1
Boating, 13

Carnac Island, 23
Code of conduct, 119
Commodification, 65
Coral reef tourists, 39
Cruise ship, 1

Domestic market, 103

Environmental concern and behaviors, 39
Environmental education, 111
Environmental impact, 1

Fishing, 13


Great Barrier Reef, 13

Hammerheads, 89
Human impacts, 23
Human-wildlife interactions, 23

International Whaling Commission (IWC), 119

Layang Layang, 89

Management, 119
Marine reserves, 79
Marine tourism, 79
Marketing, 103
Multiphase experience, 51

Neophoca cinerea, 23
New Zealand, 79

Onboard interpreters, 111

Protected areas, 119

Recreation satisfaction, 13
Regulations, 119

San Juan Islands, 111
Satisfaction, 89
Scotland, 103
Scuba diving, 89
Sea kayaking, 65
Spatial analysis, 79

Taiwan, 39
Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, 1
Turbulence, 1

Visitors, 51,
Visitor surveys, 23

Washington, 111
Western Australia, 23
Whale watchers, 119
Whale watching, 103, 111, 119
Wildlife disturbance, 23
Wildlife management, 23
Wildlife tourism, 23


Author Index

Binedell, V., 138
Borch, T., 49

Coory, M., 61
Corkeron, P. J., 41, 89

Dawes, P., 121
Douglas, N., 5
Dowling, R., 67
Dwyer, L., 5

Härkönen, T., 63
Hall, C. M., 63
Harriott, V. J., 29

Lewandowski, J., 64
Livaic, Z., 5
Lück, M., 1

McInnis, C., 135
Morgan, D., 97
Murphy, L., 71

Niefer, I. A., 105
Norris, A., 71
Nugegoda, D., 41, 89

Orams, M., 17, 138
Ozanne-Smith, J., 97

Parsons, E. C. M., 129, 133
Pendergast, D, 61, 121

Rawles, C. J. G., 129

Scarpaci, C., 41, 89
Sigala, M., 69
Smith, V. L., 137
Staines, C., 97

Wilks, J., 61, 121
Williamson, B., 121


Subject Index

Arctocephalus pusillus, 89
Australia, 5
Australian fur seals, 89

Beach safety, 97, 121
Benefit segmentation, 71, 105

Cetaceans, 17
Coastal tourism, 49
Compliance, 41
Crime, 97
Cruise tourism, 5

Death, 97
Dolphins, 17


Economic impacts, 5
Ecotourism, 17
Environmental motivation, 129

Great Barrier Reef, 29, 71

Impacts, 29
Injury, 97

Marine fishing tourism, 49
Marine tourism, 29, 71
Marketing, 105

National Park of Superagüi, 105

Recreational fishing, 49

Scotland, 129
Stress, 17
Surf lifesaving, 121
Sustainable management, 49
Sustainable tourism, 105
Swim-with-dolphin operations, 41
Swim-with-seal operations, 89

Tourism, 121
Tourism management, 89
Tourist, 97
Tursiops sp., 41

Visitor's profile, 105

Whale watching, 17, 129

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