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Aims & Scope
The aim of the journal is to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas and promotion of basic and clinical research in acupuncture, electro-therapeutics, and related fields. The journal was established in order to make acupuncture and electro-therapeutics a universally acceptable branch of medicine through multidisciplinary research based on scientific disciplines. The final goal is to provide a better understanding of both the beneficial and adverse effects of these treatments in order to supplement or improve existing methods of diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases in both Western and Oriental medicine.
The journal will accept original basic or clinical research papers, worthwhile reviews on safe and effective therapeutic methods, applications, limitations, theories, or principles of acupuncture and electro-therapeutics, including electro-analgesia or any method of treatment through the application of various types of electric or electromagnetic field stimuli as well as electrical and nonelectrical diagnostic methods. The journal will also consider serious research on any related methods of treatment such as Shiastsu, moxibustion, herbal medicine, and standard and experimental stages of Western medicine, with physiological and pharmacological studies. We accept clinical, experimental, and theoretical studies, particularly on the early diagnosis and safe and effective treatment of intractable medical problems, such as intractable pain, dystonia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In general, submitted papers must be based either on the documentation of data through scientifically proven or accepted methods, or on the explanation of new theories in the field with critical evaluation of such ideas. For example, papers may present data such as the effects of acupuncture on the cardiovascular or nervous systems using blood chemistry, hemodynamics, enzymes, and other biochemical or pathophysiological, Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, nerve conduction velocity, threshold stimulation for pain, somatosensory evoked potentials or any other electro-physiological method that is scientifically acceptable. Papers not dealing directly with acupuncture, electro-therapeutics, or the related methods of diagnosis or treatment mentioned above will also be considered if they have important implications for either improving diagnostic methods or treatment, or elucidating the underlying principles or the history or medicolegal aspects of these fields.
Editor-in-Chief & Founder
Yoshiaki Omura, M.D., Sc.D., F.A.C.A., F.I.C.A.E., F.A.A.I.M., F.R.S.M., D.A.B.F., A.B.F.M.
Mailing address: 800 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
Phone (212) 781-6262, Fax (212) 923-2279
President, International College of Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics; Director of Medical Research, Heart Disease Foundation; Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Community & Preventive Medicine, New York Medical College; Professor, Dept. of Non-Orthodox Medicine, Ukrainian National Medical University; Executive Board Member & Chairman of the Eastern Medicine Advisory Board of the American Association of Integrative Medicine (A.A.I.M.); Former Visiting Research Professor, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Manhattan College, New York, NY, USA; Former Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology, Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL, USA; Former Visiting Professor, Dept. of Psycho-physiology, University of Paris, Paris, France
Motomu Ohki, M.Sc (Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University), F.I.C.A.E. (Honor) &
Kamila Paluch, M.S. (Bioengineering, Columbia University
Main Editor Representing China
Haifa Qiao, MD, MM
Dean and Distinguished Professor, College of Acupuncture, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xixian Area, Shaanxi, China
Andersson, Sven, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Neurophysiology, Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Goteborg, Gotborg, Sweden
Araujo, M. Sanchez, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Latin Ameri-can Societies (FLASMA), & Integral Health & Therapeutics Research Inst. (INSIT), Caracas, Venezuela
Atsumi, Kazuhiko, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Dir.and Prof. Institute of Medical Electronics, Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo Bankyo-Ku, Tokyo, Japan
Becker, Robert O., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Consultant Biomed.Science, former Prof. Orthopedic Surgery, Upstate Med. Ctr., Starroute, Lowville, NY, USA
Beyens, Francais, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Ex-President, Belgian Assoc. of Med. Acupuncturists, Bruxelles, Belgium
Borrmann, Robert, Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./former Chairman, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Manhattan College, Bronx, NY, USA
Cao, Xiao-Ding, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairwoman, Dept. of Acupuncture Analgesia and former Dean of Basic Med. Science, Shanghai Med. Univ. Shanghai, PRC
Ceccherelli, Francesco, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Research Professor, Institute of Anesthesiology and Reanimation and Regulatory Center on Complementary Medicine, University of Padova, Via C. Battisti, 267-35121 Padova, Italy
Chang, Hsiang-Tung, Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Director, Shanghai Brain Research Institute Academia Sinica 319, Yo-Yang Road, Shanghai, PRC
Chen, Gong-Bai, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E, former Prof. of Neurosurgery and Ex-President of Inst. of Neurology and of Hua Shan Hospital, Shanghai Med. Univ., PRC
Chen, Yemeng, C.M.D., L.A.C., F.I.C.A.E., Academic Dean, New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mineola, NY, USA
Chun, Sae-il, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof & Director, Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Cohen, Marc, M.B.B.S. (Hons.), Ph.D., BmedSc (Hons.), F.A.M.A.S., DipAC, F.I.C.A.E., Head of Dept. of Complementary Medicine, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
Crul, Jan, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Radabout Zickehuls Katholic Univ., Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Cyong, J., M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Chairman of Lab. Immunopharmacology, Oriental Med. Res. Ctr. of the Kitasato Inst., Tokyo, Japan
de Smul, Andre, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof., Dept. of Surgery, Pain Clinic, Akademisch Ziekenhuis, Vrije Univ., Brussels, Belgium
Doenicke, Alfred, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Director of the Institute for Anesthesiology, Polyclinic, Munich Univ., Munich, Germany
Farber, Paulo L., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Director/Coordinator, Acupuncture Research Dept., Div. Obstetrics & Gynecology, Univ. of Sao Paulo Med. School, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Floter, Thomas, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., President, Schmerz Therapeutisches Kolloquium Pain Treatment Ctr., Frankfurt Main, Germany
Genazzani, Andrea R., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Intl. Soc. of Gynecological Endocrinology, E.I.C. Gynecological Endocrinology, Prof. Inst. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Univ. of Modena, Modena, Italy
Giron, Giampiero, P., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Director, Instituto Di Anesthesiologia E Rianimazione, and Regulatory Center on Complementary Medicine, University of Padova, Via C. Battisti, 267-35121 Padova, Italy
Gleditsch, Jochen, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Pres., German Physicians Acupuncture Assoc., Munchen 2, Germany
Greenfield, William, D.D.S., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Assoc. Dean for Hospital and Extramural Affairs, New York Univ. Dental Ctr., New York, NY, USA
Gunn, C. Chan, M.A., A.B., M.C., Chir., F.I.C.A.E., Prof., University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA & Gunn Pain Clinic, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Hayhoe, Simon, B.S., M.B., M.R.C.S., I.C.R.P., F.I.C.A.E., Ex-Chairman & Treasurer, ICMA, British Med. Acupuncture Society, Dept. of Anesthetics, Essex County Hosp., Colchester, UK
Hegyi, Gabriella, M.D., Ph.D., M.Sc., Head of Dept of CAM, Pecs University, Health Science Faculty, Hungary
Hisamitsu, Tadashi, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman, Dept. of Physiology, School of Med., Showa Univ., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Hui, S. C., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Pres., Western Australian Med. Acupuncture Society, Nedlands, Western Australia
Iliev, Emil, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Chairman, Bulgarian Society of Traditional Chinese Med., Sofia, Bulgaria
Jojima, Takashi, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Pres., Brazilian Med. Acupuncture Assoc., Ave. Paes de Rarros, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Junnila, Seppo, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Finnish Med. Acupuncture Soc. and Mgr. of Salo District Health Care Center, Salo, Finland
Kaada, Birger, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Neurophysiology, Lab. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rogaland Central Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
Kim, Ki Ho, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., F.A.A.P.M.R., Director, Kim Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Livingston, NJ, USA
Klaus, Wolfgang, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Chairman, Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Lee, Matthew, M.D., M.P.H., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Dir. of Rehabilitation Med., Goldwater Memorial Hospital, New York Univ. Med. Center, and Pres., American Academy of Acupuncture, New York, NY, USA
Lisenyuk, Victor, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman, Dept. of Non-Orthodox Med., Ukrainian National Med. Univ., Kiev, Ukraine
Lu, Dominic P., D.D.S., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof of Oral Medicine, Univ. of Pennsylvania; Director of Medical and Dental Externship Education and Chief of Special Care Dentistry, Lehigh Valley Hospital
Lundberg, Thomas, NI.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Physiology II, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm, Sweden
Mamtani, Ravi, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Clinical Preventive Med., Dir. of Med. Acupuncture Program, New York Med. College, Valhalla, NY, USA
Marcus, Paul, M.D., former Chairman, British Med. Acupuncture Soc., Admin., Newton House, Warrington, Cheshire, England
Maric-Oehler, Walburg, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. German Med. Acupuncture Assoc., Bad Homburg, Germany
Mayroher, Otto, M.D., Dr. N.C. Mult., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Chairman, Inst. of Anesthesiology, Univ. of Vienna, Austria
Melzack, Ronald, Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Psychology, McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada
Muteki, Gousuke, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Emeritus & Former Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology & Dir. of Emergency Intensive Care Unit, Kurume Univ., Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan
Nappi, Giuseppe, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., E.I.C., Functiona Neurology, Prof. & Dir., 1st. Neurologic Ctr. Mondino, Univ. of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Negro, Francesco E., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., 4th World Congress of Scientific Acupuncture of ICMART 90, Pres. of the Italian Acupuncture Soc., Rome, Italy
Needham, Joseph, F.R.S., F.A.B., F.I.C.A.E., Sometime Master of Gonville and Caius College and Dir., East Asian History of Sci. Library, Cambridge Univ., UK
NG, Lorenz, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Chairman of Intra-Mural Res. Lab., Natl. Inst. on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD, USA
Niboyet, J., M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., President of Mediterranean Acupuncture Assoc., Marseilles, France
Nissel, H., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Austrian Soc. of Acupuncture & Auricular Medicine, Ludwig Boltzmann Acupuncture Inst., Vienna, Austria
Nogier, Paul., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. Groupe Lyonnais d’Etudes Medicales, E.I.C., Auriculo-Medecine, Lyon, France
Nordenstrom, Bjorn E. W., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Chairman, Nobel Committee, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm, Prof. Emeritus of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm, Sweden
Orkin, Louis, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Prof./former Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
Otsuka, Yasuo, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Dir. Oriental Med., Inst. Kampo Med., Dept., Kitasato Univ., 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Peng, Alfred, M.D,, F.I.C.A.E., former Pres. NY Society of Acupuncture for Physicians & Dentists, St Luke’s Hospital, New York, NY, USA
Pontinen, P. J., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. Nordic Med. Acupuncture Soc. and Assoc. Prof. of Anesthesiology, Univ. of Kuopio, Finland
Procacci, Paolo, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Univ. degli Studi di Firenze, Cattedra de Terapia Medica Sistematica, Viale G.B. Firenze, Italy
Qiao, Haifa, M.D., Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine College of Acupuncture, China
Rabischong, Pierre, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman of Dept. of Anatomy and Dean of the Faculty of Med., Univ. of Montpellier, Dir. of Biomechanics, Res. Unit of INSERM at Montpellier, Montpellier, France
Redfearn, Edward, B.A., M.B.B., Chir. (Camb) DRCOG, F.I.C.A.E, Ex-Chairman, British Med. Acupuncture Soc., Birmingham, England
Samosyuk, Ivan A., M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof., Dept. of Neuropathology & Reflexotherapy, Kiev State Inst. for Post Graduate Studies of Physicians, Doragozhitskaya St. Kiev, Ukraine
Schnorrenberger, Claus C., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Past Pres. of German Physicians Acupuncture Assoc., Frieburg, Germany
Shibutani, Kinichi, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Anesthesiology & Dir. of Pain Clinic, Westchester County Med. Ctr., New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
Skokijev, Antonije, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. of the Yugoslavian Med. Acupuncture Society and Prof. and Dir of Clinic for Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Military Med. Academy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Soulairac, Andre, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Chairman, Dept. of Psycho-Physiology, Faculty of Sci., Univ. of Paris VI, Paris, France
Spiegel, Edward, D.D.S., F.I.C.A.E., Former Chairman, CME Courses of American Academy of Head, Neck and Facial Pain, Erie, PA
Studer, Elizabeth, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. Med. Acupuncture Soc. of Switzerland, Lugond, Switzerland
Takeshige, Chifuyu, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Emeritus and former Dean of Physiology Dept., School of Med., Showa Univ., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Tobler, Paul, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Dozent for General Med., Univ. of Zurich & Univ. of Bern Zurich, Switzerland
Travell, Janet, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Emeritus Clinical Prof. of Med., George Washington Univ., Washington, DC, USA
Trachtenberg, Alan I., M.D., M.P.H., Medical Officer, N.I.H. on Drug Abuse, 6120 Executive Blvd., Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20892, USA
Tsuchiya, Mitsuharu, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., President of the Federation of Portugese Acupuncture & Moxibusion Av. Colegio Militar, 20 A-r/c. DT-Loja-1500 Lisboa, Portugal
Xuetai, Wang, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Vice Dir., Expert Comm. of China, Academy of Traditional Chinese Med., Former President of China Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Bejing, China
Yamamura, Hideo, M.D,. H.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof Emeritus, former Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology; former Dean, School of Med. Tokyo Univ.; Pres., All Japan Acupuncture Society Tokyo, Japan
Alfred L. Copley, M.D., Dr. Med.h.c. (Heidelberg Univ.) F.I.C.A.E. (deceased)
Beckman, Sandra, M.A. (Speech Pathology), M.A. (Educational Computer Science), Campus Coordinator for Distance Learning in Communicative Disorders, Dept. of Human Services, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina, USA; Former Adjunct Assistant Prof., Dept. of Communication Disorders & Sciences, Adelphi University, Manhattan Center
Camp, Virginia, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Wycombe General Hosp., High Wycombe Bucks, England
Glennie-Smith, Keith, M.B., B.S., F.F.A.R.C.S., F.I.C.A.E., Consultant Anesthesist, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Poole General Hosp., Dorset, England
Grant, Alan, M.B., F.I.C.A.E., c/o Prof. Andre Soulairac, Dept. of Psychophysiology, Faculty of Science, Univ. of Paris VI, France
Jungck, Dietrich, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Vice-Pres., Schmerz-Theraputisches Kolloquium, Clinic for Pain Treatement, 2000 Hamburg I, Germany
Merrick, Pipsisewa, M.Sc., Ph.D., Dept. of Biology, Univ. of North Carolina, NC, USA
Nakajima, Hiroaki, M.D., Ph.D., Dir. of Pulmonary Div. & Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Med., School of Med., Showa Univ., Tokyo, Japan
Nihrane, Abdallah, Ph.D., F.IC.A.E. Visiting Associate Prof. Integrative Medicine, ICAET, Adjunct Associate Prof., Microbiology, New York City College of Technology, CUNY, New York, Former Assistant Prof., Dept. of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, Former Visiting Scientist, NIH, NIAID, Bethesda, MD, USA
Omura, Alexander K., M.D., Dir., Dept. of Anesthesiology, Benefis Hosp., 4631 Fox Farm Road, Great Falls, MT, USA
Shimotsuura, Tasuhiro, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Exec. Secretary, Japan Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Assoc., Dir., Dept. of Med., St. Maria Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan
Sola, Anders, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Anesthesiology, School of Med., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA (former Pain Specialist, U.S. Air Force)
Authors are requested to submit the original manuscript (and revised manuscript if needed) electronically via email to firstname.lastname@example.org. The manuscript, including text, figures, tables and figure legends, should be prepared in Microsoft Word format. Articles should be single-spaced and pages should be numbered consecutively, centered at the bottom of each page.
Please view this sample of an article published in Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, Volume 45, #1, pp. 3-14 before sending in your submission: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/cog/aetr/2020/00000045/00000001/art00002
The paper should have the following sections:
1. Title of Article
2. Names of authors with academic degrees followed by institutional affiliation
3. Contact information of person to contact (name, academic degree, address, telephone #, fax #, and email)
4. Tentative date of manuscript received by editor’s office and tentative date of acceptance in parentheses
5. Abstract (preferably less than 250 words)
6. Keywords (6 pertinent keywords)
8. Materials & Methods
Every paper must have this basic format. Any paper without experimental or clinical research setup shown by good schematic diagrams or actual photographs with captions that are easy to understand and that provide information about how the research was carried out will not be accepted. Materials & Methods should have enough information to reproduce the research by other scientists. For these materials and methods, if electrical or electromagnetic field stimulation is used, they should provide electrical parameters as well as electromagnetic field parameters and wave forms of the stimulating electrical pulses or electromagnetic field pulses.
After suggested revisions for improvement, once the paper is going to be officially accepted for publication, please adhere to the guidelines below:
Submission Requirements: Authors are requested to submit the original manuscript (and revised manuscript if needed) electronically via email to email@example.com The manuscript, including text, figures, tables and figure legends, should be prepared in Microsoft Word format.
Include a cover letter, and insert “Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research Submission” in the subject line of the email. The cover letter should contain the name, address, telephone #, fax # and email address of the author responsible for correspondence. Follow the General Manuscript Form guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
When the manuscript is accepted for publication, the author(s) will be required to provide a high-resolution PDF file. Manuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere except in abstract form and are not concurrently under review elsewhere. Material accepted for publication will not be released publicly prior to its appearance in the journal.
General Manuscript Form: Papers should be typed in English with at least 3-cm (1 1/8 in.) margins on paper approximately 22 × 28 cm (8 1/2 × 11 in.) in size. Please consult the most recent issue of the journal for style and format. Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Use metric units of measure; other units may be given in parentheses. Typically, only three levels of headings are recognized. The paper should be organized as follows:
Title Page: First, before the title of the article, leave a 2-inch margin from the top of the page (for publisher reference information). The title should be brief and specific. The title page should contain in the following order: title (centered in bold, size 14, font Times New Roman), a space, the name(s), academic degree(s) (in bold) and affiliation(s) of author(s) including city, state, postal code, and country should appear (not in bold, centered in size 12 font Times New Roman). Following this, each co-author should be listed in the same way with a space between each author. Also indicate the author to whom correspondence should be addressed, with complete mailing address, telephone #,
fax # and e-mail address. Please include “Date Received” (approximate date the manuscript is to arrive at the editorial office) & “Date Accepted” (approximately 3 months after the date received) in parentheses. These dates will be tentative and subject to change. Leave an empty space before the abstract.
Abstract: The subtitle “ABSTRACT:” should be bold and written starting in the left margin. An abstract of 300 words or less should follow below (as a separate line) and be lined up with the colon from “ABSTRACT:”. It should contain a concise summary of the methods, results, conclusions, and other significant points. Any unfamiliar abbreviated word should not be used without giving corresponding original word in parenthesis.
Key Words: For the purpose of proper covering of indexing periodicals, provide 6-8 key words immediately following the abstract, with a space in between, and margins lined up with the text of the abstract. Use a semi-colon in between the key words and the first letter of each key word should be capitalized.
Text: Arrange the text with main headings of Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, list of Conclusions, Acknowledgments (and source of funding), References, Tables, and Figures. Pages should always reach full margins. Place figures/tables as close to the text reference as possible, however they can be moved to the next page in order to avoid a page being too short. Use generic names of drugs. Give name, City, State, and Country of the manufacturer of any chemicals, equipment or software mentioned in the text. Define all nonstandard abbreviations the first time they appear in the text.
References/Reference List: Within the text references should be cited with sequential numbers in parentheses. The reference list should be numbered sequentially by order of appearance in the text. Follow the style samples given below. Journal citations in the reference list should contain the following: (a) surnames and initials of all authors (surnames precede initials); (b) title of article; (c) journal title should not be abbreviated; (d) volume, inclusive pages and year. Journal’s name and Book’s title should be underlined.
1. Omura, Y., Pathophysiology of acupuncture treatment: Effects of Acupuncture on Cardiovascular and Nervous systems. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research,
The International Journal. Vol 1, pp. 55-141, 1975.
1. Sambrook, J.; Fritsch, E. F.; Maniatis, T. Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual,
2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1989.
Chapter in Edited Book:
1. Den Otter, E.; Dullens Hub, F. J.; Van Govern, H.; Pels, E. Antitumor effects of macrophages injected into animals: A review. In: MacBride, J. K.; Stuart, A., eds.
The macrophage and cancer. Edinburgh: Econoprint; 1987:119–141.
Tables: Tables should be numbered and cited sequentially in the text. Avoid very wide or long tables that would not fit a printed page. Each table should have a title, and each column in the table should have a brief heading. Define all abbreviations in the table footnote at the bottom of the table. (Text within tables and figures should be font size 12; font size smaller than 11 will not be accepted.)
Figures: Figures should be numbered and cited sequentially in the text. Use figures/photos which are high-quality. Avoid light lettering and shading that will not reproduce well. Complex formulas should be prepared as illustrations. Care must be taken that letters and other symbols do not become so small that they are illegible when the figure is reduced (by 25%). All figures/photos will be printed in black & white unless otherwise noted by author. The author is required to bear the costs for the publication of color figures. An “Author Option” form will be provided upon acceptance for open access, color figures and offprint options. If no color will be used for the final print of the publication, there will be no cost to the author; as long as the figures are in black & white, the publisher will not charge any fees even if there are many figures (more than 10). However, please make sure that if there are more than 2 curves in a figure, you are able to differentiate between the 2 without color.
Figure Legends: The figure legend should be as clear as possible and should fully describe the contents of the figure. If the figure is from a previously published article, indicate that permission has been obtained from the original publisher. Center figure legend under figures.
Permissions: If data from any other source is used in tables or figures it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission to reproduce such material. Provide proof that permission has been granted from the original publisher and indicate the source.
Final Accepted Manuscript/Disk: The final manuscript file must be submitted to the Editorial office in a high-resolution pdf file. Ensure that the hard copy and electronic file match exactly.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of the authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. This form must be completed and returned to the Editor before the article can be published. Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisments herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research (ACUP) Peer Review Policy
To maintain high peer reviewing standards, ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RESEARCH (ACUP) uses an open review process, whereby the identity of the reviewers is known to the authors and authors identities are known to the reviewers. Peer review is defined as the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure the publication of high-quality scientific research.
The ACUP peer review process is as follows:
An article is first examined by the Editor-in-Chief (EIC) and 2-3 Editorial Board members to ensure the submission meets the Aims of the journal and formatting, etc. is in order.
The EIC selects at least 3 reviewers based on key words, article content and peer review track record. to provide a detailed assessment of the paper. The reviewers are always experts in their field and may be members of the ACUP Editorial Board. Reviewers will have no history of conflict with the authors of the paper and are in good standing, based on their scholarly track record.
The comments from the reviewers will be received within 2-3 weeks. They are delivered to the EIC who draws upon these comments to assess the merit of the manuscript, along with their own assessment. Special attention is given to declarations of potential conflict of interest. Where applicable, the EIC will verify statements about appropriate approvals received in the case of research using human subjects. Likewise, claims about the use of appropriate statistical testing are ensured.
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Table of Contents:
Volume 47, Number 3
Clinical Observation of Electro-acupuncture Combined with Early Rehabilitation Training to Treat Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage in Basal Ganglia – 291
Wei Wei, M.D.,* Tu Qin, M.D.,† Wang Yafen, N.S.,* Zeng Lang, M.D.† and Man Liao*, M.D.‡
*Department of rehabilitation medicine, General Hospital of Yangtze River. Wuhan, Hubei Province, China
†Department of Neurosurgery, Tongren Third Affiliated Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China
‡Wuhan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Rehabilitation Medicine), Wuhan, Hubei Province, China
In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and poor prognosis of patients with limb disorders after the operation of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage, using the treatment of removing blood stasis and Shengxin acupuncture combined with early rehabilitation training using a randomized trial. A total of 100 patients with the hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent surgery in our hospital from May 2019 to May 2021 were selected and divided into control group were treated with early rehabilitation training, and the intervention group was treated with acupuncture for removing blood stasis and promoting new acupuncture based on the control group. We observed that there was no significant difference in the evaluation of limb function recovery between the two groups of patients (P>0.05). After the intervention, the modified Ashworth score, FMA score, and B1 index of the two groups were significantly different in the ADL scores and the scores of families and friends support were remarkably improved. The clinical treatment efficiency of the intervention group was 94.00%, significantly higher than that of the control group of 80.00%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The study demonstrated that the rehabilitation training combined with removing blood stasis and Shengxin acupuncture is significantly better than rehabilitation training alone to improve postoperative limb dysfunction, daily life and quality of life and is a clinical treatment for hypertension. Keywords: Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage; Rehabilitation training; Acupuncture; Electro-acupuncture
Improvement of Post-Stroke Dysphagia by Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation – 303
Yu-Lei Xie, M.D.,*Wen Li, S.M.,* Shan Wang, M.D.,* Ju Yang, M.D.,† Zheng-Lei Yang, M.D.,* Qing Wu, M.D.,* and Yin-Xu Wang, Ph.D.*
*Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, China
†North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, China
The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on post-stroke dysphagia and its effect on the motor cortical excitability of the suprahyoid muscle. A total of 40 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomly divided into the iTBS and the sham stimulation groups, with the conduction of motor cortical iTBS and sham stimulation of the supraglottal muscle on the affected side, respectively. Swallowing function was assessed before (T0), immediately after (T1), and two weeks after (T2) cessation of the intervention using the water-swallowing test (WST), standard swallowing assessment (SSA), Murray secretion scale (MSS), and Penetration–Aspiration Scale (PAS). The bilateral motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the suprahyoid muscle were recorded. After the intervention, the PAS, WST, SSA, and MSS scores were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05). The iTBS group showed a greater change in the PAS score than the sham stimulation group at T1 (p < 0.05) and a greater change in the WST and MSS scores at T2 (p < 0.05). The amplitude of the MEP wave of the suprahyoid muscle in the affected hemisphere was significantly higher in the iTBS group at T1 and in the healthy hemisphere at T2 (p < 0.05). The feasibility of applying iTBS to the affected hemisphere for the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia was directly analyzed for the first time. ITBS combined with conventional swallowing therapy could be adopted as a rehabilitation strategy to improve post-stroke dysphagia. Keywords: Stroke; Intermittent theta burst stimulation; Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Dysphagia; Double-blind randomized controlled trial; Improvement
A Randomized Clinical Trial of Proton Pump Inhibitors Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease – 315
Feng Pei M.D.,* Wei-Jia Hu M.D.,† Yi-Nan Mao M.D.,‡ and Yu-Liang Zhao Ph.D.‡
*Department of Chinese -Western Cooperative Medicine, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050000, China
†The Preparation Room of the Fifth Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050021, China
‡The Second Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050000, China
Background: To explore whether combined with TCM based on classical proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy can achieve better efficacy for patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Methods: There were 150 laryngopharyngeal reflux patients enrolled and divided into three groups randomly, with 50 cases in each group. Patients in group A were treated with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole. Patients in group B were treated with lansoprazole combined with Banxia Houpu decoction, and patients in group C were treated with acupuncture treatments and a combination of Chinese and Western medicine. The reflux symptom index (RSI), reflux finding score (RFS), and quality of life (36-item short form health survey questionnaire) were assessed before and 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Results: The RSI and RFS scores of the three groups were significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.001). In group B and C, they were lower than in group A at 8 weeks (P < 0.01). The SF-36 score of 3 groups increased after treatment. At both 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.001), and patients in groups B and C scored higher than patients in group A (P < 0.001). The total effective rate of group B and group C was higher than that of group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion:All three treatments have therapeutic effects on the disease, but the efficacy of a PPI alone is not as good as the combined treatments’ efficacies. Moreover, PPI combined with Banxia Houpu decoction and/or acupuncture treatment substantially affects life improvement.
Keywords: Laryngopharyngeal reflux, proton pump inhibitor, Banxia Houpu decoction, acupuncture
Correlation Between Ion Contents in Acupuncture Points and Propagated Sensation along Channels – 329
Fu-Shin Lee, Ph.D.,* Tai-An Chiang, Ph.D.,† and Jou-Ying Lee, M.D.‡
*Mechatronic Engineering Institute, Huafan University, Taipei, Taiwan
†EDA Medical Devices Technology Inc., Taichung, Taiwan
‡Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Background: Propagated sensation along channels occurs because of stimulations during acupuncture therapies and tends to transmit the stimulating signals along the meridians. From the Western medicine aspect, researchers consider the phenomena as neurotransmissions initiated by nerves, and various ions regulate the physiological functions of the nervous systems. Objective: This research investigates the critical characteristics of ions at acupoints and the mechanism of propagated sensation along channels, crossing meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods: This research first conducts experiments by applying intense pulse light beams, which replace the traditional acupuncture treatments, on designated acupoints of studied human subjects, and employs a thermal infrared imager to monitor the temperature responses, which are induced by post sensation, in adjacent regions of the acupoints. Meanwhile, the research applies a synchrotron radiation technique on adult SD (Sprague Dawley) rats. The study analyzes the output responses with an X-ray Absorption Fine Spectroscopy (XAFS) to investigate the ion distributions in the relevant acupoints, which trigger the propagated sensation crossing meridians. Results: Experimental results demonstrate significant temperature increases simultaneously at the stimulated acupoints and specific other acupoints, whether in the same meridians. Moreover, XAFS experimental results indicate significantly high calcium, potassium, and sulfide ions at the stimulated acupoint regions. On the contrary, the measured chloride ions level at the regions is correspondingly lower. Conclusions: The thermal infrared imager monitoring shows significant temperature variations of crossing-meridian acupoints after implementing the intense pulse light beams on designated acupoints, and it implies the occurring of prolonged sensation along channels using acupuncture therapies. The X-ray absorption spectrum demonstrates significant differences in ion amounts and distributions between the acupoints and non-acupoints, and acupuncture therapies result in ion concentrations in the correlated regions inducing propagated sensation crossing meridians in TCM. Hence, the stimulated acupoints operate as ion reservoirs to provide high-concentration of specific ions to trigger the crossing-meridian post sensation.
Keywords: acupuncture, radiology, imaging, ion, sensation, channel, neurophysiology
Analysis of Factors Influencing Acupuncture Clinical Effects: A Systematic Review – 341
Yali Liu, MD, PhD,* Honglin Jiang, MD,† Xiaotong Li, MD, PhD,‡ and Xingyue YANG, MD, PhD†
*Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-based Medicine, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100045, China
†School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China
‡Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering institute Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
Background Acupuncture therapy has been widely applied all around the world. But there still lacks high-quality evidence to evaluate its clinical effects, safety and cost-effectiveness, which seriously restricts its further promotion and development. Acupuncture, as an operational intervention, is more complex than drug therapy. Factors involved in the acupuncture operation process, such as individual and interventional factors, may affect the clinical effects. Purposes Through this systematic review, we attempt to analyze the current status of studies about the key factors influencing clinical effects, so as to provide evidence for the design of acupuncture studies. Methods A literature research was conducted in six databases until May, 2020. Studies were screened and assessed by two authors independently. Data extraction was made after screening. We extracted the basic information of these studies, including publishing years and countries, population and factors influencing clinical effects. Results Through the initial search in these six database, 6404 records were retrieved. After duplication and screening, a total of 355 studies were finally included in the qualitative analysis. About 88.5% of these studies were conducted in China with increasing number in the past decades, covering neurological disorders, orthopedic disorders, obstetrical and gynecological diseases, digestive diseases and so on; 239 studies focused on stimulus parameters which may influence effects, accounting for 67.3%, and 128, 44, 39, 32, 15, 11 studies discussed acupoints, patients’ pathological states, individual difference, psychological states, deqi, and other factors separately. Conclusion There are more and more studies focusing on factors influencing acupuncture clinical effects, including stimulus parameters, acupoints, individual difference, patient pathological and psychological states. Based on this systematic review, several ignored factors should be considered for future researches, and more scientifically and objectively high quality evidence should also be proved.
Key words: Acupuncture; Factors; Clinical effects; Systematic review
Effects of 2-Hz and 100-Hz Electroacupuncture Stimulation on Respiratory Function and Heart Rate Variability: A Randomized Crossover Study – 353
Kazufumi Takahashi, MAc, LAc,*† Xiaoming Wang, PhD, LAc,*† Daiyu Shinohara,‡ and Kenji Imai, PhD, LAc*†
*Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Faculty of Health Care, Teikyo Heisei University, Tokyo, Japan
†Research Institute of Oriental Medicine, Teikyo Heisei University, Tokyo, Japan
‡Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University, Tokyo, Japan
Background: Bronchial contraction and dilation is thought to be caused by non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerves. Objective: To investigate the effects of low-frequency (1-5 Hz) and high-frequency (50-100 Hz) electric acupuncture (EA) stimulation on bronchial dilation. Design: Prospective, single-center study. Setting: Teikyo Heisei University. Subjects: Seventeen healthy male adults. Randomization: We randomly assigned subjects to 2-Hz EA and 100-Hz EA groups in a crossover trial. The washout period was 2 weeks. Intervention: Both groups underwent a respiratory function test, followed by a 5-minute rest, followed a 5-minute rest or EA stimulation, followed by a 5-min rest. Heart rate variability was measured at rest, followed by another respiratory function test. Acupuncture was delivered near the cervical ganglia at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra on the left side. EA stimuli were set to 2-Hz or 100-Hz, and stimulation intensity was set to a level where no pain was felt. Main outcome measures:Spirometry (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximum respiratory flow), autonomic nerve activity (low-frequency component, high-frequency component, and their ratio), and heart rate variability. Results: Heart rate variability analysis showed significant differences in heart rate between the 2-Hz EA and 100-Hz EA groups. The 2-Hz EA group showed a significant increase in HF. Conclusions: 2-Hz EA stimulation resulted in decreased heart rate and increased HF during stimulation. This may be more effective for regulation of the autonomic nerves of the cardiopulmonary system than 100-Hz EA stimulation. Future studies are required to confirm our findings.
Key words: Cervical sympathetic ganglion; Phrenic nerve; Cardiac rhythm; Neuropeptide Y; Bronchial smooth muscle; Heart rate variability high frequency component
Electroacupuncture Attenuates Depressive Disorder and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Myocardial Hypertrophy via Upregulation of 5-HT on Rats – 365
Jia Li, M.D., PhD.,* Wei Lu, M.D., PhD.,† Yachen Li, M.D.,‡ Chun Wang, M.D.,§ Jing Liu, M.D.,‡ and Hua Wang, M.D., PhD.‡
*College of Acupuncture and Orthopedics, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China; Xianning Center Hospital, Xianning, Hubei Province, China
†College of Basic Medicine, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China
‡College of Acupuncture and Orthopedics, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China
§College of Sports Medicine and Health, Chengdu Sport University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China
Although acupuncture therapy, as a preventive and therapeutic technique, is low or no risk for some cardiovascular diseases, its role in safeguarding myocardial hypertrophy (MH) has not been clarified. Therefore, this study focused on examining whether electroacupuncture (EA) can alleviate MH by up-regulating tryptophan 5-serotonin (5-HT) metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in MH rat models. We evaluated the effect of EA on myocardial ischemia in the ISO-induced myocardial hypertrophy (MH) rat model. Forty Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats aged 3 months were randomly divided into normal group, model group, EA group, and sham EA group with 10 rats in each group. Heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW) and left ventricular weight/body weight ratio (LVW/BW) were used to evaluate the regression of MH. Cardiac pathology was evaluated by ultrastructural observation and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swimming test (FSW), and open-air test (OFT) were used to study depressive behavior. The gastric retention and intestinal transport were evaluated by carbon powder labeling and the expression of 5-HT in the cerebral cortex and ileum was detected by immunohistochemistry. Depression-like symptoms in rats can be relieved by EA therapy. For instance, the consumption rate of sucrose solution was higher, the total distance and central distance in the open field test were increased, and EA treatment could reduce the immobility time of these rats. Swimming, struggling and immobility latencies were also increased in the forced swimming test. After EA treatment, the expression of 5-HT in the cerebral cortex and ileum increased. Finally, we found that EA ameliorated ischemia, depression, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in ISO-induced MH rats, which may be related to 5-HT metabolism.
Keywords: Myocardial hypertrophy, Electroacupuncture, 5-hydroxytryptamine, Gastrointestinal motility
Retraction notice to: Electroacupuncture for Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Different Meridian Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial [Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research, 46(3) (2021) 247–258] – 377
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