The aim of the journal is to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas and promotion of basic and clinical research in acupuncture, electro-therapeutics, and related fields. The journal was established in order to make acupuncture and electro-therapeutics a universally acceptable branch of medicine through multidisciplinary research based on scientific disciplines. The final goal is to provide a better understanding of both the beneficial and adverse effects of these treatments in order to supplement or improve existing methods of diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases in both Western and Oriental medicine.
The journal will accept original basic or clinical research papers, worthwhile reviews on safe and effective therapeutic methods, applications, limitations, theories, or principles of acupuncture and electro-therapeutics, including electro-analgesia or any method of treatment through the application of various types of electric or electromagnetic field stimuli as well as electrical and nonelectrical diagnostic methods. The journal will also consider serious research on any related methods of treatment such as Shiastsu, moxibustion, herbal medicine, and standard and experimental stages of Western medicine, with physiological and pharmacological studies. We accept clinical, experimental, and theoretical studies, particularly on the early diagnosis and safe and effective treatment of intractable medical problems, such as intractable pain, dystonia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In general, submitted papers must be based either on the documentation of data through scientifically proven or accepted methods, or on the explanation of new theories in the field with critical evaluation of such ideas. For example, papers may present data such as the effects of acupuncture on the cardiovascular or nervous systems using blood chemistry, hemodynamics, enzymes, and other biochemical or pathophysiological, Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, nerve conduction velocity, threshold stimulation for pain, somatosensory evoked potentials or any other electro-physiological method that is scientifically acceptable. Papers not dealing directly with acupuncture, electro-therapeutics, or the related methods of diagnosis or treatment mentioned above will also be considered if they have important implications for either improving diagnostic methods or treatment, or elucidating the underlying principles or the history or medicolegal aspects of these fields.
Editor-in-Chief & Founder Yoshiaki Omura, M.D., Sc.D., F.A.C.A., F.I.C.A.E., F.A.A.I.M., F.R.S.M., D.A.B.F., A.B.F.M. Mailing address: 800 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA Phone (212) 781-6262, Fax (212) 923-2279 email@example.com
President, International College of Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics; Director of Medical Research, Heart Disease Foundation; Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Community & Preventive Medicine, New York Medical College; Professor, Dept. of Non-Orthodox Medicine, Ukrainian National Medical University; Executive Board Member & Chairman of the Eastern Medicine Advisory Board of the American Association of Integrative Medicine (A.A.I.M.); Former Visiting Research Professor, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Manhattan College, New York, NY, USA; Former Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology, Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL, USA; Former Visiting Professor, Dept. of Psycho-physiology, University of Paris, Paris, France
EDITORIAL ASSOCIATES: Motomu Ohki, M.Sc (Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University), F.I.C.A.E. (Honor) & Kamila Paluch, M.S. (Bioengineering, Columbia University
Andersson, Sven, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Neurophysiology, Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Goteborg, Gotborg, Sweden Araujo, M. Sanchez, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Latin Ameri-can Societies (FLASMA), & Integral Health & Therapeutics Research Inst. (INSIT), Caracas, Venezuela Atsumi, Kazuhiko, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Dir.and Prof. Institute of Medical Electronics, Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo Bankyo-Ku, Tokyo, Japan Becker, Robert O., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Consultant Biomed.Science, former Prof. Orthopedic Surgery, Upstate Med. Ctr., Starroute, Lowville, NY, USA Beyens, Francais, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Ex-President, Belgian Assoc. of Med. Acupuncturists, Bruxelles, Belgium Borrmann, Robert, Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./former Chairman, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Manhattan College, Bronx, NY, USA Cao, Xiao-Ding, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairwoman, Dept. of Acupuncture Analgesia and former Dean of Basic Med. Science, Shanghai Med. Univ. Shanghai, PRC Ceccherelli, Francesco, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Research Professor, Institute of Anesthesiology and Reanimation and Regulatory Center on Complementary Medicine, University of Padova, Via C. Battisti, 267-35121 Padova, Italy Chang, Hsiang-Tung, Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Director, Shanghai Brain Research Institute Academia Sinica 319, Yo-Yang Road, Shanghai, PRC Chen, Gong-Bai, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E, former Prof. of Neurosurgery and Ex-President of Inst. of Neurology and of Hua Shan Hospital, Shanghai Med. Univ., PRC Chen, Yemeng, C.M.D., L.A.C., F.I.C.A.E., Academic Dean, New York College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mineola, NY, USA Chun, Sae-il, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof & Director, Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Cohen, Marc, M.B.B.S. (Hons.), Ph.D., BmedSc (Hons.), F.A.M.A.S., DipAC, F.I.C.A.E., Head of Dept. of Complementary Medicine, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia Crul, Jan, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Radabout Zickehuls Katholic Univ., Nijmegen, The Netherlands Cyong, J., M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Chairman of Lab. Immunopharmacology, Oriental Med. Res. Ctr. of the Kitasato Inst., Tokyo, Japan de Smul, Andre, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof., Dept. of Surgery, Pain Clinic, Akademisch Ziekenhuis, Vrije Univ., Brussels, Belgium Doenicke, Alfred, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Director of the Institute for Anesthesiology, Polyclinic, Munich Univ., Munich, Germany Farber, Paulo L., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Director/Coordinator, Acupuncture Research Dept., Div. Obstetrics & Gynecology, Univ. of Sao Paulo Med. School, Sao Paulo, Brazil Floter, Thomas, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., President, Schmerz Therapeutisches Kolloquium Pain Treatment Ctr., Frankfurt Main, Germany Genazzani, Andrea R., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Intl. Soc. of Gynecological Endocrinology, E.I.C. Gynecological Endocrinology, Prof. Inst. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Univ. of Modena, Modena, Italy Giron, Giampiero, P., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Director, Instituto Di Anesthesiologia E Rianimazione, and Regulatory Center on Complementary Medicine, University of Padova, Via C. Battisti, 267-35121 Padova, Italy Gleditsch, Jochen, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Pres., German Physicians Acupuncture Assoc., Munchen 2, Germany Greenfield, William, D.D.S., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Assoc. Dean for Hospital and Extramural Affairs, New York Univ. Dental Ctr., New York, NY, USA Gunn, C. Chan, M.A., A.B., M.C., Chir., F.I.C.A.E., Prof., University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA & Gunn Pain Clinic, Vancouver, BC, Canada Hayhoe, Simon, B.S., M.B., M.R.C.S., I.C.R.P., F.I.C.A.E., Ex-Chairman & Treasurer, ICMA, British Med. Acupuncture Society, Dept. of Anesthetics, Essex County Hosp., Colchester, UK Hegyi, Gabriella, M.D., Ph.D., M.Sc., Head of Dept of CAM, Pecs University, Health Science Faculty, Hungary Hisamitsu, Tadashi, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman, Dept. of Physiology, School of Med., Showa Univ., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan Hui, S. C., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Pres., Western Australian Med. Acupuncture Society, Nedlands, Western Australia Iliev, Emil, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Chairman, Bulgarian Society of Traditional Chinese Med., Sofia, Bulgaria Jojima, Takashi, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Pres., Brazilian Med. Acupuncture Assoc., Ave. Paes de Rarros, Sao Paulo, Brazil Junnila, Seppo, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Finnish Med. Acupuncture Soc. and Mgr. of Salo District Health Care Center, Salo, Finland Kaada, Birger, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Neurophysiology, Lab. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rogaland Central Hospital, Stavanger, Norway Kim, Ki Ho, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., F.A.A.P.M.R., Director, Kim Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Livingston, NJ, USA Klaus, Wolfgang, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Chairman, Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. of Cologne, Cologne, Germany Lee, Matthew, M.D., M.P.H., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Dir. of Rehabilitation Med., Goldwater Memorial Hospital, New York Univ. Med. Center, and Pres., American Academy of Acupuncture, New York, NY, USA Lisenyuk, Victor, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman, Dept. of Non-Orthodox Med., Ukrainian National Med. Univ., Kiev, Ukraine Lu, Dominic P., D.D.S., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof of Oral Medicine, Univ. of Pennsylvania; Director of Medical and Dental Externship Education and Chief of Special Care Dentistry, Lehigh Valley Hospital Lundberg, Thomas, NI.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Physiology II, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm, Sweden Mamtani, Ravi, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Clinical Preventive Med., Dir. of Med. Acupuncture Program, New York Med. College, Valhalla, NY, USA Marcus, Paul, M.D., former Chairman, British Med. Acupuncture Soc., Admin., Newton House, Warrington, Cheshire, England Maric-Oehler, Walburg, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. German Med. Acupuncture Assoc., Bad Homburg, Germany Mayroher, Otto, M.D., Dr. N.C. Mult., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Chairman, Inst. of Anesthesiology, Univ. of Vienna, Austria Melzack, Ronald, Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. of Psychology, McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada Muteki, Gousuke, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Emeritus & Former Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology & Dir. of Emergency Intensive Care Unit, Kurume Univ., Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan Nappi, Giuseppe, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., E.I.C., Functiona Neurology, Prof. & Dir., 1st. Neurologic Ctr. Mondino, Univ. of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Negro, Francesco E., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., 4th World Congress of Scientific Acupuncture of ICMART 90, Pres. of the Italian Acupuncture Soc., Rome, Italy Needham, Joseph, F.R.S., F.A.B., F.I.C.A.E., Sometime Master of Gonville and Caius College and Dir., East Asian History of Sci. Library, Cambridge Univ., UK NG, Lorenz, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Chairman of Intra-Mural Res. Lab., Natl. Inst. on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD, USA Niboyet, J., M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., President of Mediterranean Acupuncture Assoc., Marseilles, France Nissel, H., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres., Austrian Soc. of Acupuncture & Auricular Medicine, Ludwig Boltzmann Acupuncture Inst., Vienna, Austria Nogier, Paul., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. Groupe Lyonnais d’Etudes Medicales, E.I.C., Auriculo-Medecine, Lyon, France Nordenstrom, Bjorn E. W., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Chairman, Nobel Committee, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm, Prof. Emeritus of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm, Sweden Orkin, Louis, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., former Prof./former Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Otsuka, Yasuo, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Dir. Oriental Med., Inst. Kampo Med., Dept., Kitasato Univ., 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Peng, Alfred, M.D,, F.I.C.A.E., former Pres. NY Society of Acupuncture for Physicians & Dentists, St Luke’s Hospital, New York, NY, USA Pontinen, P. J., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. Nordic Med. Acupuncture Soc. and Assoc. Prof. of Anesthesiology, Univ. of Kuopio, Finland Procacci, Paolo, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Univ. degli Studi di Firenze, Cattedra de Terapia Medica Sistematica, Viale G.B. Firenze, Italy Rabischong, Pierre, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Chairman of Dept. of Anatomy and Dean of the Faculty of Med., Univ. of Montpellier, Dir. of Biomechanics, Res. Unit of INSERM at Montpellier, Montpellier, France Redfearn, Edward, B.A., M.B.B., Chir. (Camb) DRCOG, F.I.C.A.E, Ex-Chairman, British Med. Acupuncture Soc., Birmingham, England Samosyuk, Ivan A., M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof., Dept. of Neuropathology & Reflexotherapy, Kiev State Inst. for Post Graduate Studies of Physicians, Doragozhitskaya St. Kiev, Ukraine Schnorrenberger, Claus C., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Past Pres. of German Physicians Acupuncture Assoc., Frieburg, Germany Shibutani, Kinichi, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Anesthesiology & Dir. of Pain Clinic, Westchester County Med. Ctr., New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA Skokijev, Antonije, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. of the Yugoslavian Med. Acupuncture Society and Prof. and Dir of Clinic for Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Military Med. Academy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia Soulairac, Andre, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. and Chairman, Dept. of Psycho-Physiology, Faculty of Sci., Univ. of Paris VI, Paris, France Spiegel, Edward, D.D.S., F.I.C.A.E., Former Chairman, CME Courses of American Academy of Head, Neck and Facial Pain, Erie, PA Studer, Elizabeth, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Pres. Med. Acupuncture Soc. of Switzerland, Lugond, Switzerland Takeshige, Chifuyu, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof. Emeritus and former Dean of Physiology Dept., School of Med., Showa Univ., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan Tobler, Paul, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Dozent for General Med., Univ. of Zurich & Univ. of Bern Zurich, Switzerland Travell, Janet, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Emeritus Clinical Prof. of Med., George Washington Univ., Washington, DC, USA Trachtenberg, Alan I., M.D., M.P.H., Medical Officer, N.I.H. on Drug Abuse, 6120 Executive Blvd., Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20892, USA Tsuchiya, Mitsuharu, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., President of the Federation of Portugese Acupuncture & Moxibusion Av. Colegio Militar, 20 A-r/c. DT-Loja-1500 Lisboa, Portugal Xuetai, Wang, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof./Vice Dir., Expert Comm. of China, Academy of Traditional Chinese Med., Former President of China Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Bejing, China Yamamura, Hideo, M.D,. H.D., F.I.C.A.E., Prof Emeritus, former Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology; former Dean, School of Med. Tokyo Univ.; Pres., All Japan Acupuncture Society Tokyo, Japan
Alfred L. Copley, M.D., Dr. Med.h.c. (Heidelberg Univ.) F.I.C.A.E. (deceased)
Beckman, Sandra, M.A. (Speech Pathology), M.A. (Educational Computer Science), Campus Coordinator for Distance Learning in Communicative Disorders, Dept. of Human Services, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina, USA; Former Adjunct Assistant Prof., Dept. of Communication Disorders & Sciences, Adelphi University, Manhattan Center Camp, Virginia, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Wycombe General Hosp., High Wycombe Bucks, England Glennie-Smith, Keith, M.B., B.S., F.F.A.R.C.S., F.I.C.A.E., Consultant Anesthesist, Dept. of Anesthesiology, Poole General Hosp., Dorset, England Grant, Alan, M.B., F.I.C.A.E., c/o Prof. Andre Soulairac, Dept. of Psychophysiology, Faculty of Science, Univ. of Paris VI, France Jungck, Dietrich, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Vice-Pres., Schmerz-Theraputisches Kolloquium, Clinic for Pain Treatement, 2000 Hamburg I, Germany Merrick, Pipsisewa, M.Sc., Ph.D., Dept. of Biology, Univ. of North Carolina, NC, USA Nakajima, Hiroaki, M.D., Ph.D., Dir. of Pulmonary Div. & Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Med., School of Med., Showa Univ., Tokyo, Japan Nihrane, Abdallah, Ph.D., F.IC.A.E. Visiting Associate Prof. Integrative Medicine, ICAET, Adjunct Associate Prof., Microbiology, New York City College of Technology, CUNY, New York, Former Assistant Prof., Dept. of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, Former Visiting Scientist, NIH, NIAID, Bethesda, MD, USA Omura, Alexander K., M.D., Dir., Dept. of Anesthesiology, Benefis Hosp., 4631 Fox Farm Road, Great Falls, MT, USA Shimotsuura, Tasuhiro, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Exec. Secretary, Japan Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Assoc., Dir., Dept. of Med., St. Maria Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan Sola, Anders, M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Anesthesiology, School of Med., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA (former Pain Specialist, U.S. Air Force)
INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS
When authors are submitting manuscripts for the first time, they must send the complete camera ready manuscript, which should be close to final publication with all the figures and tables with captions in the proper location of the manuscript, by both an electronic copy in Microsoft Word format (via e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org) and a hard paper copyvia express mail to: (Yoshiaki Omura, M.D., Sc.D, Editor-in-Chief; 800 Riverside Dr. (Apt. 8-I), New York, NY 10032 USA).
The paper should have the following sections:
1. Title of Article
2. Names of authors with academic degrees followed by institutional affiliation
3. Contact information of person to contact (name, academic degree, address, telephone #, fax #, and email)
4. Tentative date of manuscript received by editor’s office and tentative date of acceptance in parentheses
5. Abstract (preferably less than 250 words)
6. Keywords (6 pertinent keywords)
8. Materials & Methods
Every paper must have this basic format. Any paper without experimental or clinical research setup shown by good schematic diagrams or actual photographs with captions that are easy to understand and that provide information about how the research was carried out will not be accepted. Materials & Methods should have enough information to reproduce the research by other scientists. For these materials and methods, if electrical or electromagnetic field stimulation is used, they should provide electrical parameters as well as electromagnetic field parameters and wave forms of the stimulating electrical pulses or electromagnetic field pulses.
After suggested revisions for improvement, once the paper is going to be officially accepted for publication, please adhere to the guidelines below:
Submission Requirements: Authors are requested to submit the original manuscript (and revised manuscript if needed) electronically via email to email@example.com. The manuscript, including text, figures, tables and figure legends, should be prepared in Microsoft Word format.
Include a cover letter, and insert “Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research Submission” in the subject line of the email. The cover letter should contain the name, address, telephone #, fax # and email address of the author responsible for correspondence. Follow the General Manuscript Form guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
When the manuscript is accepted for publication, the author(s) will be required to provide 2 hard copies of the final manuscript and a high-resolution PDF file. Manuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere except in abstract form and are not concurrently under review elsewhere. Material accepted for publication will not be released publicly prior to its appearance in the journal.
General Manuscript Form: Papers should be typed in English with at least 3-cm (1 1/8 in.) margins on paper approximately 22 × 28 cm (8 1/2 × 11 in.) in size. Please consult the most recent issue of the journal for style and format. Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Use metric units of measure; other units may be given in parentheses. Typically, only three levels of headings are recognized. The paper should be organized as follows:
Title Page: First, before the title of the article, leave a 2-inch margin from the top of the page (for publisher reference information). The title should be brief and specific. The title page should contain in the following order: title (centered in bold, size 14, font Times New Roman), a space, the name(s), academic degree(s) (in bold) and affiliation(s) of author(s) including city, state, postal code, and country should appear (not in bold, centered in size 12 font Times New Roman). Following this, each co-author should be listed in the same way with a space between each author. Also indicate the author to whom correspondence should be addressed, with complete mailing address, telephone #, fax # and e-mail address. Please include “Date Received” (approximate date the manuscript is to arrive at the editorial office) & “Date Accepted” (approximately 3 months after the date received) in parentheses. These dates will be tentative and subject to change. Leave an empty space before the abstract.
Abstract: The subtitle “ABSTRACT:” should be bold and written starting in the left margin. An abstract of 300 words or less should follow below (as a separate line) and be lined up with the colon from “ABSTRACT:”. It should contain a concise summary of the methods, results, conclusions, and other significant points. Any unfamiliar abbreviated word should not be used without giving corresponding original word in parenthesis.
Key Words: For the purpose of proper covering of indexing periodicals, provide 6-8 key words immediately following the abstract, with a space in between, and margins lined up with the text of the abstract. Use a semi-colon in between the key words and the first letter of each key word should be capitalized.
Text: Arrange the text with main headings of Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, list of Conclusions, Acknowledgments (and source of funding), References, Tables, and Figures. Pages should always reach full margins. Place figures/tables as close to the text reference as possible, however they can be moved to the next page in order to avoid a page being too short. Use generic names of drugs. Give name, City, State, and Country of the manufacturer of any chemicals, equipment or software mentioned in the text. Define all nonstandard abbreviations the first time they appear in the text.
References/Reference List: Within the text references should be cited with sequential numbers in parentheses. The reference list should be numbered sequentially by order of appearance in the text. Follow the style samples given below. Journal citations in the reference list should contain the following: (a) surnames and initials of all authors (surnames precede initials); (b) title of article; (c) journal title should not be abbreviated; (d) volume, inclusive pages and year. Journal’s name and Book’s title should be underlined.
1. Omura, Y., Pathophysiology of acupuncture treatment: Effects of Acupuncture on Cardiovascular and Nervous systems. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, The International Journal. Vol 1, pp. 55-141, 1975.
1. Sambrook, J.; Fritsch, E. F.; Maniatis, T. Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1989.
Chapter in Edited Book:
1. Den Otter, E.; Dullens Hub, F. J.; Van Govern, H.; Pels, E. Antitumor effects of macrophages injected into animals: A review. In: MacBride, J. K.; Stuart, A., eds. The macrophage and cancer. Edinburgh: Econoprint; 1987:119–141.
Tables: Tables should be numbered and cited sequentially in the text. Avoid very wide or long tables that would not fit a printed page. Each table should have a title, and each column in the table should have a brief heading. Define all abbreviations in the table footnote at the bottom of the table. (Text within tables and figures should be font size 12; font size smaller than 11 will not be accepted.)
Figures: Figures should be numbered and cited sequentially in the text. Use figures/photos which are high-quality. Avoid light lettering and shading that will not reproduce well. Complex formulas should be prepared as illustrations. Care must be taken that letters and other symbols do not become so small that they are illegible when the figure is reduced (by 25%). All figures/photos will be printed in black & white unless otherwise noted by author. The author is required to bear the costs for the publication of color figures. An “Author Option” form will be provided upon acceptance for open access, color figures and offprint options. If no color will be used for the final print of the publication, there will be no cost to the author; as long as the figures are in black & white, the publisher will not charge any fees even if there are many figures (more than 10). However, please make sure that if there are more than 2 curves in a figure, you are able to differentiate between the 2 without color.
Figure Legends: The figure legend should be as clear as possible and should fully describe the contents of the figure. If the figure is from a previously published article, indicate that permission has been obtained from the original publisher. Center figure legend under figures.
Permissions: If data from any other source is used in tables or figures it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission to reproduce such material. Provide proof that permission has been granted from the original publisher and indicate the source.
Final Accepted Manuscript/Disk: The final manuscript file must be submitted to the Editorial office a high-resolution pdf file along with two hard copies. Ensure that the hard copy and electronic file match exactly.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of the authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. This form must be completed and returned to the Editor before the article can be published. Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisments herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.All authors are encouraged to subscribe to our journal (for 2 years, including the year the author’s article will appear). For authors & co-authors, the subscription is a special reduced price of $150 for a 2-year subscription.
The publishers and editorial board of Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly: Author Responsibilities: Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of the other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared. Further information on this can be obtained from the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org/).
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the authors should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Statements made in the introduction and discussion should be supported by appropriate references and sufficient experimental detail should be provided to allow for repetition of the study by another group. Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article. Any text or figures reproduced for another source require the permission of the original copyright holders (normally the publishers).
Any manipulation of figures should be equally applied and described in the text including pseudo coloring and must not change the meaning of the figure.
When humans, animals or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
Reviewer Responsibilities: Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors and research. They should review the science objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. When aware of relevant published work not being cited, the reviewers should recommend inclusion of these references. If the reviewer feels that they would be unable to repeat the study as described, then additional methodological details should be requested. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Editorial Responsibilities: The section editors are expected to select an appropriate number of reviewers for the manuscript so that they can make an informed decision about whether to reject/accept a manuscript. Their decision must be based only on the paper’s importance, originality and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the authors or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
Should problems come to light after acceptance then the editors agree to promote the publication of corrections and/or retractions as deemed necessary.
NIH Public Access Policy: Cognizant Communication Corporation does not upload manuscripts on the authors’ behalf to PubMedCentral. The authors of NIH-funded manuscripts are granted permission to upload the final version of the manuscript themselves to PubMedCentral so that they remain in compliance with the NIH Public Access Policy. A PDF of the article is provided to the Corresponding Author for this purpose. Authors have the opportunity to download their articles from open access files http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/aetr
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Local Mechanisms for Acupoint Sensitization in Gall Bladder Meridian of Foot Shaoyang—a Gene Chip Study – 77 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/036012919X15650315071898
Koichi Ishida MD,*† Liyue Qin MM,*† Ting Wang MM,† Ying Lei PhD,† Weiwei Hu MM,* Geng Zhu PhD,* Qianqian Zhuang MM,* Yanling Gong MM,* Qian Wang MM,* Ghosh Arijit MM,* Dongni Ma MM,* Xingwang Li PhD,* and Sheng-Tian Li MD, PhD*
*Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Development and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, and Brain Science and Technology Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China †Kao (China) Research & Development Center, Minhang District, Shanghai, China
Acupuncture manipulations are clinically important to traditional Chinese medicine, yet the biological mechanisms have not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate continuous stimulation-induced gene expression changes at stimulated and non-stimulated adjacent acupoints in the same meridian. Catgut embedding into acupoint (CEP) was conducted at acupoint Yanglingquan (gall bladder meridian of foot-shaoyang 34, GB34) of Sprague Dawley rats once or continuously for eight weeks, and gene expression changes at GB34 were assessed by gene chip array analysis 72 h after the last CEP treatment. A total of 688 genes exhibited opposite changes in expression between the two treatments, and 1,336 genes were regulated only by the eight-week CEP treatment. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that among these differentially regulated genes by one-time and eight-week CEP treatment, insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway and integrin-linked kinase pathway, and Wnt/β catenin signaling pathway match the observed gene changes to predicted up/down regulation patterns. Upstream analysis further predicted six molecules, namely, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1β, interleukin 1α, kallikrein-related peptidase 5, protein kinase Cα, and catenin β1. On the other hand, continuous eight-week CEP stimulation at acupoint Xuanzhong (GB39) caused similar changes in the expression of 32 genes at acupoints GB34 and Fengshi (GB31) on the same meridian. Taken together, our results provide the first molecular evidence for the local acupoints’ mechanisms for acupoint sensitization theory, and implicate the existence of signaling pathways, either direct or indirect, between acupoints within the meridian GB.
Key words: Acupuncture; Embedding catgut into acupoint; Local acupoints’ mechanisms; Acupoints’ sensitization; Meridian; Ingenuity Pathway Analysis
A Meta-analysis of the Clinical Efficacy of the Combination of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine in the Treatments of Haemorrhoids – 89 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/036012919X15650315071915
Mengjie Zeng,* Xueli Cheng,† Geer Chen,† and Jiyou Kou‡
*Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhuhai City in Guangdong Province, China †Faculty of Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, P.R.China ‡Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhuhai city in Guangdong Province, China.
At present, surgical resection is the main method of the treatment of haemorrhoids, but is easy to recur after surgery. Recently, it is reported that acupuncture has a beneficial influence on haemorrhoids. Thus, whether acupuncture is effective in the treatment of haemorrhoids is the key in this meta-analysis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the treatment of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicine in haemorrhoids by meta-analysis, which provide a scientific, effective and feasible evidence for clinical decision-making and practice. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). A meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.3. All RCTs about combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicine versus Chinese medicine alone were selected and assessed for inclusion. The effective rate (ER), recurrence rate (RR), Symptom score before and after treatment (perianal edema, hemafecia, perianal pain, pruritus ani, prolapse of haemorrhoids) were the outcomes analyzed in this meta-analysis. 11 RCTs and 976 patients were included. The methodological quality of most included trials was low to moderate. In this meta-analysis, the clinical efficacy of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicine was more effective than only Chinese medicine used in haemorrhoids. The effective rate [OR=5.24, 95%CI (3.72,7.40), P<0.00001], recurrence rate [OR=0.29, 95%CI (0.11, 0.73), P=0.009], perianal edema [WMD=−0.74, 95%CI −0.90 to −0.59, P<0.00001], hemafecia [WMD=−0.78, 95%CI −0.89 to−0.67, P<0.00001], perianal pain [WMD=−0.72, 95%CI −0.94 to −0.50, P<0.00001], pruritus ani [WMD=−0.75, 95%CI −0.92 to −0.58, P<0.00001] and prolapse of haemorrhoids [WMD=−0.43, 95%CI −0.84 to −0.02, P=0.04] were shown in this meta-analysis (OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; WMD: weighted mean difference). There was about 96% of the clinical efficiency in the treatment of acupuncture plus Chinese medicine in haemorrhoids and 89% of that used in Chinese medicine alone, which indicates clearly that 7% higher efficiency in the experimental group compared with the control group. The treatment of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicine in haemorrhoids is more useful than Chinese medicine alone applied in piles, which is shown in 91% of clinical effects in average. Key words: Acupuncture; Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicine; Piles; Haemorrhoids; Clinical efficacy; Meta-analysis
The Beneficial Effect of Electroacupuncture on Obesity May Be Associated With Irisin, Nesfatin-1 and Preptin Levels – 105 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/036012919X15650315071924
Zubeyde Ercan, PhD,* Gulnihal Deniz, PhD,† Fatma Caf, PhD,‡ Sermin Algul, PhD,§ Abdullah Gazioglu, PhD,‡ and Ahmet Kavakli, MD¶
*Dept. of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey †Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey ‡Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Veterinary Program, Bingöl University, Bingöl, Turkey §Dept. of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yıl University, Tusba/Van, Turkey ¶Traditional and Complementary Medical Practices Center, Firat University Hospital, Elazig, Turkey
The action mechanism of acupuncture, one of the alternative methods used in obesity treatment, is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture on weight loss and whether acupuncture treatment can change circulating levels of irisin, nesfatin-1 and preptin, which have been discovered in recent years and plays an important role in nutrition and energy metabolism. Irisin, a newly discovered myokine, is associated with increased energy consumption and has a potential role in obesity. Preptin, present in islet b-cells of pancreas and associated with the carbohydrate metabolism, nesfatin-1 is an anorexogenic peptide composed of 82 amino acids and regulates food intake by modulating neuropeptides in feeding centers in the brain. These three new hormones regulate energy intake and expenditure and preserve energy homeostasis and composition. In this study 4 week old Sprague Dawley male rats (n=16) were randomly divided into 2 groups which were the control (C): normal diet and obese (O): high fat diet (HFD) groups. After 16 weeks which obesity was developed, electroacupuncture (EA) was performed to rats once in every second days for 3 times weekly for four consecutive weeks. EA was applied bilaterally to Zusanli (ST36), Bai Hui (Du20), He Gu (Li4), Tianshu (ST25) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints in animals to both groups. Blood was collected before and after EA and serum irisin, nesfatin-1 and preptin levels were analyzed by ELISA (Enzyme-Induced Immunosorbent Analysis) method. After four week EA treatment, there was significant decrease of the average body weight in both groups of rats. There were increases in the serum nesfatin-1 and preptin levels in the both groups after acupuncture. A decrease was observed in the irisin levels in obese group, but an increase in the control group. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture may help to weight loss due to its effects on some important metabolic hormones such as irisin, nesfatin-1 and preptin only for a few weeks. It is thought that the changes of these hormones levels may play a role in beneficial effect of acupuncture used in the treatment of human obesity. The application of EA in the treatment of obesity is very effective, which may have led to weight loss by altering these hormone levels in obese people.
Neuroacústica®’s Sound Stimulation Effects Over Neurotransmitters, Cortisol, β-Amyloid (1-42), Thromboxane B2 and Telomere, on Cerebral Pons Representative Area, on the Back of the Head, and Other Abnormal Body Locations, Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test – 119 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/036012919X15675460598319
Lucy Harasawa Uno, M.D., PhD, F.I.C.A.E., Cert. ORT-MD (1Dan),* Marcelo P. de Paula,† Sumie Iwasa, M.D., F.I.C.A.E, Cert. ORT-MD (4 Dan),‡ W. Falzoni, M.D.,§ M. H. Tanaka, M.D.,¶ L. R. Alves, M.D.,# F. C. D. Barros, M.D.,** T. Higashi, M.D.,†† and Lair Ribeiro, M.D.‡‡
*Gynecology & Obstetrics and Acupuncture Specialist, Functional Medicine †Psychoanalyst, Creator of Neuroacústica® ‡Orthopedics and Integrative Medicine Specialist §Ophtalmology and Integrative Medicine Specialist ¶Ophtalmology and Acupuncture Specialist #Cardiology and Integrative Medicine Specialist **Otolaryngology and Acupuncture Specialist ††Pathology and Acupuncture Specialist ‡‡Cardiologist and Nutrologist, Professor of Post-Graduation Course at Uningá University
Thirty patients with marked depletion of neurotransmitters concentrations were noninvasively evaluated by Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (an electro-magnetic field (EMF) resonance phenomenon between two identical substances and amount1,2,3). Reference Control Substances (RCS) of Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Cortisol, β-Amyloid, Thromboxane B2, and Telomere were measured over cerebral pons representative area and any other abnormal region presented, before and after submitted to Neuroacústica® (a 60 minutes sound treatment). The results are as follows. The average Serotonin on cerebral pons was 1.25 before and 150.33 mcg after (p<0.001*), on abnormal area was 12.91 before and 142.73 mcg after (p=0.003*). The average Acetylcholine on cerebral pons was 8.07 before and 1421.17 mcg after (p<0.001*), on abnormal area was 46.46 before and 1181.82 mcg after (p=0.003*). The average Dopamine on cerebral pons was 2.23 before and 156.20 mcg after (p<0.001*), on abnormal area was 8.06 before and 158.09 mcg after (p=0.003*). The average Thromboxane on cerebral pons was 217.80 before and 12.04 ng after (p<0.001*), on abnormal area was 390.00 before and 18.02 ng after (p=0.003*). The average β-Amyloid on cerebral pons was 17.33 before and 4.30 ng after (p=0.001*), on abnormal area was 10.78 before and 4.86 ng after (p=0.128). The average Cortisol on cerebral pons was 1353.23 before and 59.74 ng after (p<0.001*), on abnormal area was 1037.83 before and 23.82 ng after (p=0.033*). The average Telomere on cerebral pons was 46.08 before and 375.18 ng after (p<0.001*), on abnormal area was 56.50 before and 446.25 ng after (p=0.012*). The average Normal Cell Telomere was 197.49 before and 473.52 ng after (p<0.001*). Extra five patients in the same conditions (low levels of cerebral neurotransmitters) were submitted to the same procedure, and this time for a 24 hours follow up. In conclusion, hearing Neuroacústica® - Part 1, once, had favorable physiological effects, increasing sufficiently normal cell Telomere, Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Dopamine; as well as decreasing satisfactory Thromboxan B2, Cortisol, β-Amyloid and Cancer Cell Telomere both in cerebral pons and on abnormal area. The effects may last in about 24 hours. The exposition to EMF, some sort of food and alcohol may cancel its benefits. Key words: Neurotransmitters; Cortisol; β-Amyloid (1-42); Thromboxane B2; Telomere; Neuroacústica®; Bi-Digital O-Ring Test; Integrative medicine; Trauma
MULTUMODAL UMPACT OF ACUPUNCTURE, EXERCUSE THERAPY, AND CONCURRENT FUNCTUONAL ELECTRUCAL STUMULATUON ON OSTEOARTHRUTUS OF THE KNEE: A CASE REPORT – 135 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/036012919X15650315071942
*Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran †Dept. of Orthotics and Prosthetics, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ‡Dept. of Sport, Health & Exercise Science, University of Hull, Kingston-upon-Hull, United Kingdom §Dept. of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ¶Dept. of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes functional limitation in weight-bearing activities including walking. To investigate the multimodal impact of acupuncture, exercise therapy, and concurrent functional electrical stimulation (FES) on knee osteoarthritis. We designed a multidisciplinary treatment package including acupuncture; home based exercise therapy, and concurrent functional electrical stimulation during treadmill walking. Outcomes measurements included the numerical rating scale (NRS), the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK). Measurements were completed at baseline and following the treatment phase which consisted of six individual sessions. A 48-year-old male, office worker presented with a history of chronic right knee. During the previous year, he was diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis after clinical physical examination by a sports medicine physician. Following our novel training intervention, the patient reported a reduction in pain intensity from 8 to 2 on the NRS, improved in all KOOS subscale scores, and improved in the TSK scale (reduction from 15 to 11). In addition, the patient reported that he was able to return to work and undertake normal activities of daily living with reduced knee pain. This case report showed that our novel multimodal intervention including six sessions of acupuncture, exercise therapy, and treadmill walking with functional electrical stimulation (FES) had a positive impact on knee pain and function in a middle-aged male with knee osteoarthritis.
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