HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE OLYMPICS, MEGA- AND MAJOR- EVENTS
EVENT MANAGEMENT JOURNAL SPECIAL ISSUE CALL
PUBLISH DATE: 2021-2022.
Dr Michael B. Duignan, Head of Department and Reader in Events, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, UK.
Prof Laurence Chalip, Head of Department and Professor in Sports Management, School of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism Management, George Mason University, USA.
The Olympics, mega- and major- events have a long history of human rights abuse (Amnesty International, 2021a). An increasing body of work over the last two decades have advanced a rights-based agenda in the context of large-scale events (e.g. Caudwell and McGee’s (2017) Special Issue on ‘Human Rights and Events, Leisure and Sport’ and more recently the European Funded ‘Event Rights’ (2020) project). Specific case study works have too have sought to frame stakeholder exclusion as a human rights issue as numerous social groups find have been identified to be exploited in one way or another in the melee of planning, delivery, and in the post-event legacy periods (e.g. Talbot and Carter, 2018; Duignan, Pappalepore and Everett, 2019). Indeed, large scale events too act as a platform for amplifying human rights abuses already existing in the host city and/or country context, as well as those produced as a direct and indirect result of hosting. For example, the Qatar 2022 FIFA World Cup not only exposed limited national legislation protecting labour rights in Qatar, but this was also evidenced by poor working and living conditions as well as delayed salaries for those working on the Khalifa Stadium (Amnesty International, 2021b). Occurring over protracted time-periods and geographical boundaries, the host country and/city provides a unique incubator to examine human rights issues.
Owners and organisers of large-scale events acutely recognises human rights abuses as a problematic that warrants new policy interventions and closer practical relations with host cities and countries, whether that be the Commonwealth Games Foundation’s (2017): ‘Transformation 2022 Strategy – A Human Rights Commitment’ through to the “International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) human rights strategy and policy commitment” (…) looking at “further embedding human rights in the good governance principles, and the establishment of the previously announced Human Rights Advisory Committee.” (IOC, 2020). This is part of a wider movement of large events mandating hosts to consider embedding principles and objectives aligned to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (2021). Furthermore, local organising committees increasingly work with human rights organisations to tackle abuses. For example, ‘It’s a Penalty’: an international charity dedicated to raising awareness of human trafficking in host cities, works directly with Olympic venues to screen campaign videos to warn fans of the signs and how to report potential abuses (https://itsapenalty.org/).
This CFP on Human Rights and the Olympics, Mega- and Major-Events hopes to 1) expose significant human rights abuses that have not been adequately amplified to date; 2) bring together a disparate body of work looking at human rights; 3) publish existing and on-going work evaluating the legacy of previous events or looking forward to events in the year of 2021 and beyond; 4) identify good practice, like It’s a Penalty’s work, that illustrates the power of large-scale events for exposing and tackling human rights abuses too; 5) encourage scholars to act as a critical friend and work with policy makers and/or industry to help stimulate positive change.
We are looking for:
Multidisciplinary research papers that draw on a range of different ideas, concepts, theories and traditions appropriate to explain the human rights issue under investigation.
Scholars may wish to take a global perspective (i.e. by drawing on a range of event examples and cases to illustrate the ubiquity of the human rights abuse), or for example may present a specific human right issue in a specific event case study.
All papers must provide a set of policy and/or industry recommendations centred around the following themes:
EDUCATE – educating stakeholders and raising awareness of the chosen human rights issue.
EQUIP – equipping stakeholders and those affected to help tackle chosen human rights issue.
ENCOURAGE – how to encourage stakeholders and those affected to come forward to report chosen human rights issue.
N.B. Clarify how educate, equip, and encourage recommendations have transferability beyond the context you are speaking about to have more universal and/or value across numerous events.
Though this list in not exhaustive, below are examples of human rights issues found across major events:
Freedom of speech
Labour rights and worker exploitation
Lack of personal safety
Poverty and socio-economic deprivation
Torture and execution
Black Lives Matter
Forced evictions and displacement
Host community disruption
Gentrification and indirect displacement
For those looking for a deeper understanding regarding the types of human rights issues and the ways these can be analysed and tackled across the entire lifecycle of major events, we have provided two documents below.
Confirmations of acceptance/rejection by 19th March, 2021.
Deadline to submit full paper by 31st August, 2021.
Note: Although progress will likely be determined by peer review procedure and challenges associated with COVID, there is a potential opportunity to start publishing articles online in and around the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games (July – August, 2021).
Special Issue Title: Changing Perspectives in Fashion Events
Topicality: The fashion industry is globally important, economically and in terms of consumer culture. The industry has experienced much change over the last few decades with globalized markets, increased competition, internet retailingand overseas production. Fashion also spans a number of genres, from luxury to low-cost to streetwear, this includes sports brands expanding into casual fashion. Given that competition is global, marketing is key to gaining consumer attention and engagement. However, global production and competition has also resulted in criticisms for supply chain ethics and more frequent changes in style that have resulted in the fashion industry being a major polluter. Coupled with digital and technological advancements, consumer expectations are changing; therefore, online marketing is increasingly important and social media and mobile applications are also harnessed within the spectrum of marketing activities. Given the fast pace of change, for both the fashion industry and technology, this special issue seeks to gain an insight into the new and changing roles of fashion events (e.g., fashion shows).
Originality: In the fast-changing world of the fashion industry, it is imperative that researchers and practitioners in the field are kept abreast of the latest trends and developments. After reviewing top marketing journals (e.g., EuropeanJournal of Marketing) and more specialized journals (e.g., Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management), there are few studies on fashion industry’s usage of events when compared to other areas of fashion research, such as online marketing and purchasing behaviors. However, fashion events’ influences on individual, businesses, and society can be profound.
Aims: It is the aim of the special issue to provide insight to fashion industry’s influence on society and businesses by focusing on fashion events. It plans to develop theoretical, conceptual, and practical implications towards a better understanding of fashion events management and marketing in a global / local context.
Fashion event management/marketing
Fashion event in B2B context
Fashion event and social media
Fashion event’s influences
Ethnicity, culture, and fashion event
Fashion event, self, and others
Fashion event’s relationships with luxury fashion brands and fast fashion brands
Globalization/localization and fashion event
Literature review and meta-studies on fashion event
Fashion event programs in higher education
Dr. Elaine Ritch (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 8459 Email: Elaine.Ritch@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Norman Peng (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 3117 Email: Norman.Peng@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Annie Chen (Roehampton University) Roehampton University Roehampton Ln, London SW15 5PU Telephone: +44 (0)20 8392 3000 Email: Annie.Chen@roehampton.ac.uk
Peer review: This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Event Management. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of twoindependent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the orderin which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelinesabove under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23.
Book citation: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in
the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
Kenneth Backman Clemson University PRTM Lehstaky Hall Clemson, SC 29634, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ASSISTANT EDITOR
Karin Emmons, Clemson University, USA REGIONAL EDITOR UK
Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, UK Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Australia Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Canada Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, USA Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, USA Soyoung Boo, Georgia State University, USA Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK Libby Carter, Birmingham City University, England Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, UK Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, USA Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, Australia Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, USA Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, USA Mike Duignan, University of Surrey, UK Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, USA Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Australia Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Canada Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, UK David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, UK Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Australia Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA Martinette Kruger, North-West University, South Africa Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Griffith University, Australia Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Australia Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK Irem Arsal Önder, University of Massachusetts, USA Norman Peng, University of Westminster, UK James Petrick, Texas A&M University, USA Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Canada Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, USA Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, The Netherlands Geoffrey Koome Riungu, Moi University, Kenya Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, UK Susan L. Slocum, George Mason University, USA Wayne Smith, Ryerson University, Canada Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, UK Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Canada Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, USA Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, USA Emily Zirbes, Iowa State University/EZ Global Link, Canada
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Australia Joe Jeff Goldblatt, Queen Margaret University, UK Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Canada Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (email@example.com). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with 1-inch margins, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
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Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines above under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Mahadevan, 2019) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Kruger & Saaymen, 2018; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Shipway & Miles, 2020) or (Porter, 2019, p. 242) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Pernecky, T., & Rakic, T. (2019. Visual methods in event studies. Event Management, 23(2), 179–190. https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15378845225447 Book citation:Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2016). Event studies: Theory, research, and policy for planned events (3rd ed.). Routledge. Book chapter in edited book:Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., & Spurr, R. (2006). Economic evaluation of special events. In L. Dwyer & P. Forsyth (Eds.), International handbook on the economics of tourism (pp. 316–355). Edward Elgar. Internet source: Chipps, W. (2010, June 3). FIFA secures $1.6 billion in world cup sponsorship revenues. IEG. http://www.sponsorship.com/About-IEG/Press-Room/FIFA-Secures-$1-6-Billion-in-World-Cup-Sponsorship.aspx
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
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Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept noresponsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Event Management(EM) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Event Management (EM) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for EM is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The submission, with all identification removed, is sent to an Editorial Board member by the EIC, within 7 days. The Editorial Board member then sends the submission to two other scholars within 7 days. The reviewers are always experts in their field. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers are expected in 4-8 weeks or less and are delivered to the Editorial Board member. The Board member then has 7 days to send his/her recommendation to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on comments received.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection within 7 days. The comments to authors are blinded.
Authors would have 12 months to resubmit a revised paper. Notification of final decision is typically 2 weeks’ time.
As a reviewer for Event Management you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for EM please contact the EIC: Kenneth Backman Clemson University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
As a reviewer for Event Management, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Festival Personality and How it Influences Visitor Attitude and Intention – 665 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856543
Vanessa Quintal,* Michael Lwin,† Ian Phau,* and Abhinav Sood*
*School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia †Hospitality, Marketing and Sport, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia
This study explores festival personality for its impacts on visitor attitude and intention toward festivals. Two distinct and popular festivals held at a botanic park in Western Australia were selected for the research. A total of 481 local and international visitors participated in the self-administered, pen-and-paper and online surveys. The Excitement personality attribute was unique to the Chili Festival, whereas the Cheerfulness personality attribute was unique to the Tulip Festival. Both festivals embodied the Imagination personality attribute, suggesting the place in which a festival is held may embody its own attributes, which contribute to the holistic personality of the festival. For both festivals, the personality attributes had significant impact on favorable visitor attitude, resulting in their positive intention toward these festivals. The study paves the way for researchers to extend brand personality research to the event tourism domain, particularly in the niche sector of festivals. The enhanced understanding lends input into how festival organizers, brand managers, and marketers can manage the positioning, differentiation, and communication strategies of their festivals in this competitive sector.
Segmentation of Tourists in Cultural Events: The Case of the International Classical Theater Festival of Almagro – 685 DOI: https://doi.Org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856147
Gema Gomez-Casero,* Jesus Claudio Perez Galvez,* Tomas Lopez-Guzman,† and Carol Angelica Jara-Alba‡
*Law and Business and Economics Sciences, Department of Applied Economics, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain †Labor Sciences, Department of Applied Economics, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain ‡Research Department, Casa Grande University, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Due to the appearance of a large number of festivals in recent years, the competition for attracting the audience is ever increasing, and therefore segmenting the audience attending the festivals is essential. It is a valuable marketing tool for the promotion and understanding of the characteristics of the segments based on motivations. This article reports on a study performing a segmentation of the tourists who attended a cultural event, namely the Almagro International Festival of Classical Theater. The statistical analysis of the data was done using the SPSS v. 23 computer program. After a factorial analysis and taking the extracted motivational dimensions as reference, the multivariate technique of grouping the cases was used, obtaining three clusters. Among the motives that attract the spectators, the cultural reasons, such as the search for new theatrical experiences or watching one’s favorite actor and/or live theater company, stand out. The spectators indicate a relative satisfaction with their experience at the festival, determining the visitors’ motivations and their experience. With respect to the loyalty variable, the results reveal that 3 out of every 10 tourists show full loyalty.
Sponsorship Outcomes for Charity-Linked Events: Participant Segments Interaction With Sponsor Attributes – 699 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855986
Robert E. Pitts,* Wayne W. Smith,† and Weishen Wang‡
*Department of Management and Marketing, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA †Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada ‡Department of Finance, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
The purpose of this study was to examine how participants perceived sponsorships of companies supporting charity-linked events. Using a charity run as a case study, participants were asked to rate five sponsors responses related to their fit, recall, and intention to purchase. Our results confirm the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as positively associated with equity, as measured by intention to purchase from sponsors. We also find that the participants’ initial attitudes and motives affect their intention to purchase from sponsors. In particular, participants who attended the event for the charity are more likely to purchase from the charity-linked event sponsors. These results indicate that sponsors of this charity-linked event in order to make the sponsorship effective should examine sponsorship opportunities against its strategy with an understanding of the event participants, the potential customers they need to engage, and the firm’s responsibility as a citizen of the communities in which it operates.
How Should Sponsorship Activation Work? A Sports Event and Athlete-Based Brand Building Framework (SEA-BB) Capturing an Internal and External Route – 711 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856002
Rune Bjerke* and Erlend Kirkesaether†
*Institute of Leadership and Organization, Kristiania University College, Kirkegata, Norway †Olympic Department, Norwegian Olympic Committee, Oslo, Norway
This article proposes a sponsorship activation framework that shows the way sponsors realize internal and external brand building objectives and how important sponsorship characteristics and capabilities can be used as tools in sponsors’ brand building. The framework is a result of a conceptual and exploratory approach, a merger of theories from marketing and organization, and findings based on qualitative data. As well as reviewing relevant literature, we interviewed two marketing managers from institutions representing sports sponsorship objects and eight marketing managers with sponsorship responsibility working for eight different sponsors. Additionally, applying a case study methodology, we analyzed documents describing sponsorship strategies of three sports sponsors and interviewed their marketing managers. In the article we present a sponsorship activation framework (Sports Event and Athlete-Based Brand Building) (SEA-BB) and the Sports Event and Athlete Sponsorship Object Star (SEA-SOS) model. The framework serves as a specific guideline for sponsorship objects, such as sports events and sports athletes and suggests the important characteristics and capabilities they should develop to attract sponsors. For sponsors, the Sponsorship Object Star recommends what object characteristics and capabilities are important to facilitate sponsors’ internal and external brand building. The proposed frameworks serve as effective guidelines for both sports sponsors and sports sponsorship objects like events, sports organizations, teams, and athletes.
Key words: Sponsorship activation; Internal brand management; Internal brand elements; Internal and external brand equity; Sponsorship object characteristics and capabilities
Zero Hours Contracts and Their Perceived Impact on Job Motivation of Event Catering Staff – 735 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855869
Viachaslau Filimonau and Sara Corradini
Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
Catering is a cornerstone of events. Motivating catering staff, who can be either permanent or “hourly paid” employees, represents an important managerial challenge, especially in the UK, where controversial zero hours contracts (ZHCs) prevail within the events industry. This article reports a representative case study of a London-based event catering company that relies upon ZHCs. In pursuit of corporate social responsibility (CSR) goals, directed at enhancing the well-being of employees and improving corporate image, the company considers replacing ZHCs with alternative contracts, but wishes to examine the potential impact of this intervention first. To aid in decision making, 18 in-depth, semistructured interviews are conducted with company’s managers and employees to examine the drivers of staff motivation and the perceived effect of ZHCs. The study finds that interpersonal relationships, remuneration rates, and perceived fairness of managerial treatment drive staff motivation in event catering. The major positive (flexibility and no mutual obligation) and negative (job insecurity and instable income) implications of ZHCs are well understood by employees. The internal (personal finances, family status, and individual lifestyles) and environmental (current job market situation and managerial abilities) circumstances determine the level of preparedness and the degree of willingness of event catering staff to accept ZHCs. Implications for policy making, professional practice, and future research are discussed.
Key words: Event catering; Zero hours contracts; Corporate social responsibility; Job motivation; Responsible human resource management
Host or Sponsor? Consumer Responses to Event Origins and Brand-Related Event Leveraging – 753 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856183
Siv Skard, Sunniva Adam, and Lise Fredrikke Engdahl
Department of Strategy and Management, Norwegian School of Economics (NHH), Bergen, Norway
Companies can engage in event marketing either by creating and hosting an event or by sponsoring a preexisting event. Although these are well-established event marketing strategies, consumer responses to event origin (hosting vs. sponsoring) have received limited scholarly attention. This article presents an experimental study of event origin and brand-related event leveraging. The first purpose was to investigate consumers’ evaluations of hosted versus sponsored events and hosting versus sponsoring companies, and to test mechanisms that may explain these differences. The second purpose was to test consumer responses to brand-related leveraging activities for both types of events. Results show that consumers’ evaluation of the event and the company differs significantly depending on the event origin, and that both types of events have much to gain from brand-related leveraging. Key explanatory mechanisms for these effects are perceived sincerity of company motives, company–event fit, and perceived amount of resources invested in the event.
An Attitudinal Impacts Analysis of Social Media Platforms and Brand Relationship Quality at Music Festivals – 769 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599520X15894679115538
Anna Strand*† and Martin Robertson*‡
*Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK †Marketing, Norwegian Seafood Council, Tromso, Norway ‡Adjunct Associate Professor, Institute of Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
The purpose of this study is determination of ways in which music festival organizers can target their social media communication with greater certainty toward younger generations (i.e., Generation Z, also called “digital natives”). This research has two core purposes: the first is to investigate how music festivals’ use of social media can affect their brand relationship quality (BRQ) with their audience, and the second is to determine how connecting to online brand communities prior to, during, and after a music festival affects the satisfaction and loyalty of attendees. The research follows a positivist epistemological framework and a deductive research approach. The research design grew from a collected body of e-research and uses asynchronous data from the social media platform Twitter to understand consumers’ perception of brands in a music festival context. A social network analysis framework is applied. The findings show that social media does affect brand experience, brand image transfer, and BRQ in a positive way and that social media can, therefore, strengthen BRQ with Generation Z music event attendees. The results indicate that music festivals can strengthen BRQ with young consumers through social networking platforms if digital marketing strategies are utilized to their full potential. Reflection is made of the psychosocial value of this networking for young people at a time of socioeconomic turbulence. The practical implications for these findings are also discussed.
Key words: Music festival; Attitudinal impact; Brand relationship quality; Social network analysis; Trust
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