Special Issue Title: Changing Perspectives in Fashion Events
Topicality: The fashion industry is globally important, economically and in terms of consumer culture. The industry has experienced much change over the last few decades with globalized markets, increased competition, internet retailingand overseas production. Fashion also spans a number of genres, from luxury to low-cost to streetwear, this includes sports brands expanding into casual fashion. Given that competition is global, marketing is key to gaining consumer attention and engagement. However, global production and competition has also resulted in criticisms for supply chain ethics and more frequent changes in style that have resulted in the fashion industry being a major polluter. Coupled with digital and technological advancements, consumer expectations are changing; therefore, online marketing is increasingly important and social media and mobile applications are also harnessed within the spectrum of marketing activities. Given the fast pace of change, for both the fashion industry and technology, this special issue seeks to gain an insight into the new and changing roles of fashion events (e.g., fashion shows).
Originality: In the fast-changing world of the fashion industry, it is imperative that researchers and practitioners in the field are kept abreast of the latest trends and developments. After reviewing top marketing journals (e.g., EuropeanJournal of Marketing) and more specialized journals (e.g., Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management), there are few studies on fashion industry’s usage of events when compared to other areas of fashion research, such as online marketing and purchasing behaviors. However, fashion events’ influences on individual, businesses, and society can be profound.
Aims: It is the aim of the special issue to provide insight to fashion industry’s influence on society and businesses by focusing on fashion events. It plans to develop theoretical, conceptual, and practical implications towards a better understanding of fashion events management and marketing in a global / local context.
Fashion event management/marketing
Fashion event in B2B context
Fashion event and social media
Fashion event’s influences
Ethnicity, culture, and fashion event
Fashion event, self, and others
Fashion event’s relationships with luxury fashion brands and fast fashion brands
Globalization/localization and fashion event
Literature review and meta-studies on fashion event
Fashion event programs in higher education
Dr. Elaine Ritch (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 8459 Email: Elaine.Ritch@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Norman Peng (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 3117 Email: Norman.Peng@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Annie Chen (Roehampton University) Roehampton University Roehampton Ln, London SW15 5PU Telephone: +44 (0)20 8392 3000 Email: Annie.Chen@roehampton.ac.uk
Peer review: This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Event Management. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of twoindependent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the orderin which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelinesabove under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23.
Book citation: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in
the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
Kenneth Backman Clemson University PRTM Lehstaky Hall Clemson, SC 29634, USA E-mail: email@example.com ASSISTANT EDITOR
Karin Emmons, Clemson University REGIONAL EDITOR UK
EDITORIAL BOARD Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield, UK Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, BC, Canada Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Soyoung Boo, Georgia State University, USA Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, London, UK Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, Troy, AL, USA Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Mike Duigan, Coventry Business School, UK Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA Martinette Kruger, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Griffith University, Australia Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK Irem Arsal Önder, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Norman Peng, University of Westminster, London, UK James Petrick, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, Tillburg, The Netherlands Geoffrey Koome Riungu, Moi University, Kenya Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK Susan L. Slocum, George Mason University, USA Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Joe Jeff Goldblatt, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (firstname.lastname@example.org). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with 1-inch margins, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, all author names with their titles, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country and email address. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters maximum should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of up to 300 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines avoveunder Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text forquoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book citation:Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London, UK: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book:Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391).New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility orliability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
PEER REVIEW POLICY EVENT MANAGEMENT (EM)
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Event Management (EM) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for EM is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The submission, with all identification removed, is sent to an Editorial Board member by the EIC, within 7 days. The Editorial Board member then sends the submission to two other scholars within 7 days. The reviewers are always experts in their field. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers are expected in 4-8 weeks or less and are delivered to the Editorial Board member. The Board member then has 7 days to send his/her recommendation to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on comments received.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection within 7 days. The comments to authors are blinded.
Authors would have 12 months to resubmit a revised paper. Notification of final decision is typically 2 weeks’ time.
As a reviewer for EM you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for EM please contact the EIC: Kenneth Backman Clemson University. E-mail: email@example.com
As a reviewer for Event Management, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Developing Impacts and Indicators for Sustainable Event Management Using a Triple Bottom Line Approach: A Study of Auto Expo – 1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855887
Nripendra Singh,* Kumar Shalender,† and Ching-Hui (Joan) Su‡
*College of Business Administration and Information Sciences, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, PA, USA †Chitkara Business School, Chitkara University, Chandigarh, Punjab, India ‡Event Management Program, Department of Apparel, Events, and Hospitality Management (AESHM), Iowa State University, AMES, IA, USA
Marked by the pressing need to make events sustainable, this study aims to develop impacts and indicators for a special category event—The Auto Expo—one of the largest automobile events hosted in India. The study begins with literature review of event evaluation on key indicators of triple bottom line (TBL): economic, social, and environment. Historical roots of Auto Expo is also reviewed, which is then followed by a Delphi survey of experts from event organizers to auto professionals, and from academia to domain experts. A rigorous three-phase Delphi analysis is conducted following which resulted into 18 impacts and 25 indicators related to Auto Expo. The study also delves into potential methods that could be employed for holistic TBL evaluation of Auto Expo. Key challenges and issues in this regard are mentioned as well as discussing the implications of the research for stakeholders toward the end.
Key words: Auto Expo; Economic; Environment; Social; Sustainable event management; Triple bottom line (TBL)
Volunteers, Place, and Ultramarathons: Addressing the Challenge of Recruitment and Retention – 17 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855896
Tom D. Hinch* and Craig D. Cameron†
*Kinesiology, Sport and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada †Sport & Partner Liaison, City of Edmonton, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Ultramarathons are often hosted in peripheral areas featuring challenging natural landscapes. Given limited local volunteer pools in these areas, the recruitment and retention of visiting volunteers is crucial to the sustainability of these events, yet little is known about the importance of the destination or place in terms of the volunteer experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to gain insight into the role that place plays in volunteer experiences at an ultramarathon in a peripheral area. A case study methodology was adopted with a focus on volunteers at the Canadian Death Race in Grande Cache (GC), Alberta, Canada. Semistructured interviews with event hosts, local volunteers, and visiting volunteers provided insight into the place dimension of the volunteer experiences. In phase 1, interviews with event/community hosts confirmed that local volunteer retention was challenging due to the growing demands of the event and to local volunteer fatigue. A systematic thematic analysis in phase 2 found that volunteers were connected to the destination through the place-based themes of: 1) beauty, 2) remoteness, 3) event, and 4) community. These findings demonstrated that “place mattered” in the experience of local and visiting volunteers. Therefore, organizers should actively recognize the importance of place when recruiting and retaining volunteers for these types of events in remote communities.
Key words: Local volunteers; Visiting volunteers; Place; Ultramarathon; Voluntourism; Sport events
Motivations of Federal Workers to Volunteer in Public Sector Special Events – 33 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855904
Keon Artis* and Seung Hyun Lee†
*Professional Services, Resource Management Office, Operations, Environmental Systems Research
Institute (ESRI), Vienna, VA, USA †School of Hospitality Leadership, College of Business, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
Volunteers are considered a core component of special events and they have proved to be an asset to the execution of special events. Although motivations of volunteers have received a great deal of attention from many organizations and individuals in the private sector, little research has been done on motivations of volunteers in the public sector, or within the federal government. Therefore, this article identified motivational factors that prompt federal government workers to volunteer at a government-related special event. A survey was used to gather data from a volunteer sample of 263 individuals who had volunteered for public sector special events in recent years. Exploratory factor analysis and t test were employed to establish motivations that stimulate public sector employees to volunteer for special events and further determine the differences in motivation between females and males. The results showed that government workers mostly volunteer for purposive motive and external motive. In addition, gender played significant roles on egotistic and purposive motives. Thus, this research provides a unique theoretical contribution to research in event management by advancing our understanding of the process by which factors associated with motivation can lead to federal government workers volunteering at a government-related special event; subsequently, impacting how event planners and organizers of public sector special events market to and recruit volunteers.
Key words: Motivation; Volunteerism; Special events; Public sector; Federal employees
A Primer on the Assessment of Economic Impacts of Leisure Events – 47 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15299559637662
Ove Oklevik,* Grzegorz Kwiatkowski,*† Mona Kristin Nytun,* and Helene Maristuen*
*Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway †Department of Economics, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland
The quality of any economic impact assessment largely depends on the adequacy of the input variables and chosen assumptions. This article presents a direct economic impact assessment of a music festival hosted in Norway and sensitivity analyses of two study design assumptions: estimated number of attendees and chosen definition (size) of the affected area. Empirically, the article draws on a state-of-the-art framework of an economic impact analysis and uses primary data from 471 event attendees. The results show that, first, an economic impact analysis is a complex task that requires high precision in assessing different monetary flows entering and leaving the host region, and second, the study design assumptions exert a tremendous influence on the final estimation. Accordingly, the study offers a fertile agenda for local destination marketing organizers and event managers on how to conduct reliable economic impact assessments and explains which elements of such analyses are particularly important for final estimations.
Key words: Direct economic impact; Study design assumptions; Event attendees’ composition; Small-scale events; Music; Norway
Using a Sport Event to Create a Sense of Community: Charity Sport Event Manager Perspectives – 57 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856039
Ebe Daigo*† and Kevin Filo*
*Griffith Business School, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia †Waseda Institute for Sport Science, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
Charity sport events not only involve completing the activity, but also the opportunity to bring people together. A variety of research has examined charity sport events’ capacity to foster a sense of community from the participant point of view. The current research examines sense of community within charity sport events from the event management perspective and advances the following research question: What do charity sport event managers feel they have put in place to create sense of community among participants? To address this research question, qualitative data were collected via interviews with 15 charity sport event managers in Japan. An interview guide comprised of six demographic questions, along with nine questions based upon the sense of community in sport framework was utilized. Five themes were identified within the interviews: charitable contribution, soliciting feedback from participants, interactive event environment, supplementary activities, and lack of competition. Two themes from the sense of community in sport framework that did not emerge across the interviews underscore opportunity for event managers to leverage mobile applications and online discussion forums to engage participant’s shared interest in sport, as well as enlist leaders among event participants to serve as advocates. Based on the current results, future research can include managers from the designated charities aligned with events to assess whether the sense of community created within these events leads to long-term benefits for the organization.
Key words: Charity sport events; Event managers; Sense of community; Event participation; Philanthropy
From Legacy Rhetoric to Business Benefits: A Case Study of the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games – 75 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856057
Joan Carlini,* Alexandra Coghlan,† Alana Thomson,† and Andrew O’Neil‡
*Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia †Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia ‡Office of the Pro-Vice Chancellor, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia
Bids for large-scale sporting events and the accompanying political rhetoric typically include promises of economic development and gains for host business communities over the short and long term. Although conceptual models for economic leverage of large-scale sport events have been developed, our knowledge of the practical experiences of private enterprise converting opportunities presented by large-scale sport events is limited. In this article, the authors address this gap through a case study of the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games. The article investigates the opportunities and challenges perceived by private enterprises across the host city and explores the implementation of existing strategies to leverage benefits for business. Although participants identify the general benefits of hosting the event, they struggle to conceptualize benefits in relation to their own business settings. This suggests a disconnect between the legacy rhetoric of large-scale sporting events and the conversion of these opportunities into outcomes by private enterprises in the host city. Against this background, the article outlines a range of practical implications for private enterprise and key areas for future research.
Who Is Riding to the South African Bike Festival? – 97 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721303 Hanneri Borstlap and Alicia Fourie
TREES, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Events play an integrated part in tourism industry. South Africa events have grown over the past years, especially when it comes to promotion and hosting of events. One such event is South African Bike Festival. The event’s organizers host these events for special causes, such as riding for a purpose, social implications, and social responsibility. Motorcycles have been around since the early 1900s for the dual purpose of transportation and recreational or pleasure riding, but little is known about motorcyclists’ sociodemographic profile and behavior. From an international perfective, the sociodemographic and behavior aspects of motorcyclists are well documented; what is lacking is literature within the South African perceptive. The purpose of this research is to characterize those who attended the first South African Bike Festival. The research attempts to segment the motorcycle market and identify bikers’ motivations, needs, and behavior. A structured self-completion questionnaire was developed and handed out to willing participants. Trained fieldworkers distributed the questionnaire over a 3-day period and received a total of 484 usable questionnaires. A multiple regression based on sociodemographic variables and spending habits was done to determine any significant differences. Respondents were segmented based on their motives for attending the event. In this way three markets were identified, namely hardcore biker, feisty biker, and fortuitous biker. The results showed that there are indeed significant differences between the three markets identified. This research not only contributes to the motorcycling literature, but also to motorcycling behavior of bikers in South Africa.
Stanley Nwobodo, Kwang Sing Ngui, and Mung Ling Voon
Business and Design and Arts, Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia
The choice of destination for a business event is influenced by a range of attributes, including the event type, location, or number of attendees. This article investigates the influence of event characteristics on destination selection attributes in Malaysia. Data collected from 261 event organizers using a simple random probability method were analyzed to test for significant differences between destination attributes and event characteristics. The findings revealed that the event size and venue have a significant and direct impact on some destination attributes; however, contrary to previous studies, event type was insignificant and had no direct impact on destination attributes. The results contribute knowledge on approaches to improve the marketing of destinations to business event organizers in Malaysia. Furthermore, the results imply that marketers, who want to optimize strategies to better meet the needs of the Malaysia business event industry, should align destination attributes with the dimensions of event characteristics.
Key words: Business event; Destination attributes; Event organizers; Event characteristics
The Role of Use and Nonuse Values on Festival Attendees’ Behavioral Intentions – 127 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721330
School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
This article distinguishes between use and nonuse values in their impact on two behavioral intentions to a rural cultural festival. Results from the case study showed that in the willingness to recommend the festival and intention to revisit by repeat tourists, both use and nonuse values were influential but first timers’ intention to revisit was mainly affected by use values. In addition, there was support for the recency–frequency–monetary value paradigm and the distance decay theory with some evidence of a nonlinear relationship between distance and behavioral intention. The life cycle theory and length of festival stay on the other hand saw mixed effects on the two types of behavioral intention. Overall, a two-pronged marketing strategy based on the importance of use and nonuse values to attract first timers and repeat tourists could be considered for a cultural festival.
Key words: Use and nonuse values; Life cycle theory; Distance decay theory; Recency–frequency–monetary value
An Event Quality Scale for Participatory Running Events – 139 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721358
Business Administration, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
This study focuses on the perceived quality of participatory event experiences by addressing the following question: What are the important aspects of the event experience? The aim of this research is to develop and refine a scale to measure the quality of the event experience for runners at a participatory event. The objective is to combine, apply, test, and refine the existing scales to increase our understanding of the perceived quality of events among amateur running athletes. Both affective and cognitive dimensions are included in the scale. Based on seven dimensions and 36 items, a formal scale development process is adopted. The data consist of 1,923 observations collected during a participatory event with approximately 60,000 registered participants. The seven-factor model, including immersion, surprise, participation, fun, social aspects, hedonic aspects, and service quality, was gradually revised in favor of a four-factor solution: service quality, hedonic aspects, fun, and immersion. As a result, 73.1% of the variance is extracted. This study contributes to a refined scale measuring the perceived event quality of participatory events. Service quality accounts for more than half of the variance extracted. Researchers should continue to develop research on the critical experiential dimensions in an event context. Furthermore, the links between the constructs need attention. The results suggest that event organizers should evaluate their events and event portfolios based on the scale and take actions to increase the perceived quality of these events.
Exploring Attendance at a Traditional Cultural Event: The Case of a Holy Week Celebration – 153 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721367
Victor Lafuente,* Jose Angel Sanz,† and Maria Devesa‡
*Departamento de Urbanismo y Representacion de la Arquitectura, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain †Departamento de Economia Financiera y Contabilidad, Facultad de Comercio, Universidad de Valladolid, Plaza del Campus Universitario No. 1, Valladolid, Spain ‡Departamento de Economia Aplicada, Facultad Ciencias Sociales, Juridicas y de la Comunicacion, Universidad de Valladolid, Segovia, Spain
Holy Week is one of the most important traditions in many parts of the world and a complex expression of cultural heritage. The main goal of this article is to explore which factors determine participation in Holy Week celebrations in the city of Palencia (Spain), measured through the number of processions attended. For this purpose, an econometric count data model is used. Variables included in the model not only reflect participants’ sociodemographic features but other factors reflecting cultural capital, accumulated experience, and social aspects of the event. A distinction is drawn between three types of participants: brotherhood members, local residents, and visitors, among whom a survey was conducted to collect the information required. A total of 248 surveys were carried out among brotherhood members, 209 among local residents, and 259 among visitors. The results confirm the religious and social nature of this event, especially in the case of local participants. However, in the case of visitors, participation also depends on aspects reflecting the celebration’s cultural and tourist dimension—such as visiting other religious and cultural attractions—suggesting the existence of specific tourism linked to the event. All of this suggests the need to manage the event, ensuring a balance is struck between the various stakeholders’ interests and developing a tourist strategy that prioritizes public-private cooperation.
Key words: Attendance; Intangible heritage; Cultural event; Holy Week; Count data model
Examining the Relationship Among Experience, Perceived Value, and Satisfaction in Exhibitions – 169 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855959
Tourism Management, Global Business School, Soonchunhyang University, Asan-si, Republic of Korea
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship among experience, perceived value, and attendance satisfaction in exhibitions. It used structural equation modeling (SEM) technique to examine the causal relationships and develop a structural model that identified the influencing dimensions of experience and perceived value on attendance satisfaction, both directly and indirectly. The results of structural equation modeling analyses uncovered significant relationships among experience, perceived value, and satisfaction. First, relatively important factors of both experience (i.e., entertainment, escapism, and education) and perceived value (i.e., emotional value, economic value, and social value) applied in the exhibition industry were discovered. Second, a clear experience–perceived value–satisfaction chain was confirmed, with direct and indirect effects. Third, the mediating role of perceived value between experience and attendance satisfaction was identified. Lastly, identifying the significant direct and indirect relationships between experience and perceived value can be the key to discovering marketing strategies of how to ultimately maximize satisfaction of exhibition attendees. The findings provide the opportunity to derive both theoretical and managerial implications.
Bouncing Back and Jumping Forward: Scoping the Resilience Landscape of International Sports Events and Implications for Events and Festivals – 185 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721376
Richard Shipway* and Lee Miles†
*Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK †Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK
The purpose of this conceptual article is to critically scope the resilience landscape to help better understand how future studies on international sports events and venues could be informed by existing work in disaster management and resilience studies. The article suggests that within the differing benchmarks currently used to define and classify major international sports events, at present crises and disaster management considerations are largely ignored or underestimated. The article reviews previous research in crisis and disaster management, highlighting the potential for closer synergies between both sport and events studies and crisis and disaster management fields. It contributes new knowledge through the introduction of an international sports events (ISEs) resilience continuum to assist with better understanding resilience. The broader implications for events and festivals are highlighted. Although the interdisciplinary study of crisis, disasters, and emergency management has become increasingly sophisticated, the identification of synergies and useful concepts in relation to both sport and events studies to inform these areas is still at an early stage of development. This article adds to the limited body of knowledge on sports events resilience, and in doing so highlights potential avenues for future research in both sport and events, in terms of both theory and practice.
Arts Festival Offerings: What Do Market Segments Prefer? Evidence From a South African National Arts Festival – 197 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721385
Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
This research assesses visitors’ push and pull motives for attending the Innibos National Arts Festival in South Africa. The results show that segmenting visitors on the basis of their motives is a useful market segmentation tool, as it produces a clear and direct profile and understanding of different types of visitors and their preferences as regards festival offerings. The study is the first to identify the stalls visitors preferred at the festival. It shows that, when managed correctly, stalls selling arts and crafts, food and drinks, and so on, enhance the overall festival experience. The study consequently proposes a typology of arts festival visitors to Innibos (Curious wanderers, Loyalists, and Socialites) that may be applicable to other arts festival markets. The results of this research can be used by Innibos and other festivals to better cater to the needs of the market.
Key words: Festival motivation; Innibos; Market segmentation; National arts festival; Push and pull theory; Stall preferences
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