Special Issue Theme: Revisiting value co-creation and co-destruction in events
The special issue is supported by the International Conference (THE INC 2020) “Revisiting value co-creation and co-destruction in Tourism, Hospitality and Events,” which will be held from June 9–11, 2020 in Leeuwarden, Netherlands. For more information about the conference please visit: https://theinc2020.wordpress.com
Events are susceptible to uncertainty and incidents that can directly impact the supply and demand of their discretionary products and services. Nowadays, consumer experience in both, events and host destinations is more important than ever as the sector has become globalized, reached maturity and became highly competitive. The pathway to success (or failure) lies on the overall satisfaction of visitors and event participants, which heavily depends on perceived value; a concept that can be co-created or co-destroyed by the very interaction between all social actors and stakeholders involved (including customers and businesses, at the very least).
This special issue welcomes theoretical, empirical, experimental, and case study research contributions. These contributions should clearly address the theoretical and practical implications of the research in reference. Both conceptual and empirical work are welcome. The proposed topics may include but are not limited to the following:
Competitiveness, sustainability and corporate social responsibility
Consumer behavior, decision-making, expectations, experience and satisfaction
Cultural, heritage and event planning and development studies
Demand–supply forecasting, and performance studies
Economics and finance
Emerging and innovative research methods and methodologies
Human resources, equality, diversity, and labor operations
Innovation, creativity and change management
IT, ICT, event related e-tourism, and emerging technologies
Marketing, advertising, branding and promotional activities
Policy, planning, and development
Psychology, sociology, and social anthropology
Training and education
Other interdisciplinary areas related to events
Each paper submitted for publication consideration is subjected to the standard review process designated by Event Management journal. Based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the Editor-in-chief along with the guest editors, decisions will be made whether particular submissions will be accepted, revised or rejected.
For the Special Issue Theme: Revisiting value co-creation and co-destruction in Events please submit the papers via email to Eleni Michopoulou (email@example.com) AND Nikolaos Pappas (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Full Paper Submission Deadline: Sunday, March 14, 2020.
Expected Publication Date: Mid or end of 2021.
All papers should follow the submission guidelines of the Event Management. For more information see the Submitting articles TAB at left.
Call for Papers: Deadline 6/30/20
Special Issue Title: Changing Perspectives in Fashion Events
Topicality: The fashion industry is globally important, economically and in terms of consumer culture. The industry has experienced much change over the last few decades with globalized markets, increased competition, internet retailingand overseas production. Fashion also spans a number of genres, from luxury to low-cost to streetwear, this includes sports brands expanding into casual fashion. Given that competition is global, marketing is key to gaining consumer attention and engagement. However, global production and competition has also resulted in criticisms for supply chain ethics and more frequent changes in style that have resulted in the fashion industry being a major polluter. Coupled with digital and technological advancements, consumer expectations are changing; therefore, online marketing is increasingly important and social media and mobile applications are also harnessed within the spectrum of marketing activities. Given the fast pace of change, for both the fashion industry and technology, this special issue seeks to gain an insight into the new and changing roles of fashion events (e.g., fashion shows).
Originality: In the fast-changing world of the fashion industry, it is imperative that researchers and practitioners in the field are kept abreast of the latest trends and developments. After reviewing top marketing journals (e.g., EuropeanJournal of Marketing) and more specialized journals (e.g., Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management), there are few studies on fashion industry’s usage of events when compared to other areas of fashion research, such as online marketing and purchasing behaviors. However, fashion events’ influences on individual, businesses, and society can be profound.
Aims: It is the aim of the special issue to provide insight to fashion industry’s influence on society and businesses by focusing on fashion events. It plans to develop theoretical, conceptual, and practical implications towards a better understanding of fashion events management and marketing in a global / local context.
Fashion event management/marketing
Fashion event in B2B context
Fashion event and social media
Fashion event’s influences
Ethnicity, culture, and fashion event
Fashion event, self, and others
Fashion event’s relationships with luxury fashion brands and fast fashion brands
Globalization/localization and fashion event
Literature review and meta-studies on fashion event
Fashion event programs in higher education
Dr. Elaine Ritch (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 8459 Email: Elaine.Ritch@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Norman Peng (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 3117 Email: Norman.Peng@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Annie Chen (Roehampton University) Roehampton University Roehampton Ln, London SW15 5PU Telephone: +44 (0)20 8392 3000 Email: Annie.Chen@roehampton.ac.uk
Peer review: This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Event Management. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of twoindependent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the orderin which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelinesabove under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23.
Book citation: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in
the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
Kenneth Backman Clemson University PRTM Lehstaky Hall Clemson, SC 29634, USA E-mail: email@example.com ASSISTANT EDITOR
Karin Emmons, Clemson University REGIONAL EDITOR UK
EDITORIAL BOARD Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield, UK Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, BC, Canada Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Soyoung Boo, Georgia State University, USA Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, London, UK Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, Troy, AL, USA Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan Wendy Hultsman, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA Martinette Kruger, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK Irem Arsal Önder, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Norman Peng, University of Westminster, London, UK James Petrick, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, Tillburg, The Netherlands Geoffrey Koome Riungu, Moi University, Kenya Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK Susan L. Slocum, George Mason University, USA Sandie Strick, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Joe Jeff Goldblatt, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (firstname.lastname@example.org). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with 1-inch margins, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, all author names with their titles, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country and email address. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters maximum should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of up to 300 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines avoveunder Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text forquoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book citation:Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London, UK: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book:Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391).New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility orliability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
A Study of Spectator Emotions at the Tour de France – 753 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856372
Graham Berridge,* Daryl May,† Eliza Kitchen,‡ and Gavin Sullivan§
*School of Hospitality and Tourism, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK †Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK ‡College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia §Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations, Coventry University, Coventry, UK
This article contributes to the canon of literature on spectator emotions by examining spectator emotions at a major hallmark event. Spectator experience emotions were surveyed via an online questionnaire resulting in 188 valid responses. This resulted in three groups of spectators being surveyed: 1) those who watched live from the roadside, 2) those watching via a spectator viewing hub, and 3) those watching on television. Variables tested were via PANAS scale emotions. They included the positive emotions of interested, excited, strong, enthusiastic, proud, alert, inspired, determined, attentive, and active. The negative emotions were distressed, upset, hostile, irritable, scared, nervous, afraid, guilty, ashamed, and jittery. There are also nine categories within the model, which are (1) attentive, (2) excited, (3) proud, (4) strong, (5) distressed, (6) angry, (7) fearful, (8) guilty, and (9) nervous. The highest positive value feelings of “interested, excited, and enthusiastic” occurred during the live action by those watching on the roadside. Negative feelings were more variable but a highest rating for “afraid” increased during the event, suggesting feelings of not wanting to miss anything (action). Further exploration of the emotions experienced before, during, and after an event is required in order to more fully understand the complexity of the factors. For those planning and staging cycling and similar multistage or multisite events the mapping (route) and layout of the active spectator and participant arena can be carefully constructed to provide potential emotional hot spots. Emotions vary across time and this appears to be related to mode and location of spectating. It implies that event organizers can utilize different “experiential components” within an event setting to create conditions that would be conducive to an optimal viewing environment.
Key words: Affective experiences; Spectator emotions; Tour de France; Sports events impacts; Optimal viewing environment Adapting the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for Business Events: The Event Organizer Perspectives – 773 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855832
Purimprach Sangkaew, Leo Jago, and Alkmini Gkritzali
School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK
Information communication technology plays a vital role in the staging of business events including the promotion and organization of events. However, determining what drives organizers to adopt communication technology in conferences has been largely overlooked. This study seeks to address this gap by proposing a modification to the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to examine adoption behavior at the organization level. Qualitative data were collected from 13 semistructured interviews with professional conference organizers who had experience in using technology for conference participation. Findings demonstrate that external environment and organization technology capability influence professional conference organizers (PCOs) to adopt technology in their conference. In addition, job relevance, output quality, perceived playfulness, and trustworthiness are four technology characteristics that have a direct effect on the perception of usefulness and ease of use. Recommendations to the PCOs to improve strategy in adopting technology in business events are discussed base on the results.
Key words: Technology adoption and use; Business events industry; Technology characteristics; Organization capability
Distinction in Locals’ Support for a Major and Mega-Event: Case of EXPO 2020 Dubai and Grand Prix F1 – 789 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721259 Nataša Slak Valek
College of Communication and Media Sciences, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
The purpose of the present research is to examine and explain any possible variance in the perception of local Emiratis towards hosting a major and a mega-event in the preevent phase. The Grand Prix Formula One was considered as a major event, which is organized yearly in Abu Dhabi. The EXPO Dubai 2020 was considered as an example of a one-time mega-event. Data of Emirati nationals living in UAE were collected in person in the fall 2016. A self-administered questionnaire was developed that consisted of tourism perception, negative and positive impacts of the events, and individual support for the events. The questionnaire was adjusted to each event and N = 360 were collected for EXPO 2020 Dubai and N = 533 were received for the Grand Prix F1 Abu Dhabi questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and t tests were used to identify differences in participants’ perception of the events. Results show that significant differences exist in locals’ perspectives towards a major and mega-event, especially in perceptions of positive impacts and individual support. UAE residents have never experienced a mega-event such as EXPO or Olympics organized on their soil, which means they do not know exactly what to expect. The perceived impacts of EXPO might be different after the first experience. Thus, the present research opens more questions, which may be considered for a future research. This work contributes to knowledge base and it confirms a need to specifically and independently approach by size different events.
Key words: Hosting community; Emirati nationals; United Arab Emirates; Differences; Residents’ support
The Types of Authority and Problems at Olympic Events: Insights Into Grint’s Model of Decision-Making Positions – 801 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856408
Business School, Department of Business Systems and Operations, University of Bedfordshire, Park Square, Luton, Bedfordshire, UK
Grint’s model of leadership is used in this article to extend discussion of how problems are responded to prior to, during, and after sport mega-events. The purpose of this study is to understand the types of authority associated with the three types of problems: tame, wicked, and critical, prior to, during, and after Olympic Games. A quantitative methods approach was used to gather the data. Three hundred and eighty-seven surveys were completed prior to, during, and after the Sochi 2014 Olympic Games. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The results revealed that three types of authority: management, leadership, and command are needed prior to and during Olympic Games, while only management and leadership are needed after Olympic Games. More importantly, unlike prior to or after an Olympic Games, each authority type can be used to solve more than one type of problem during an Olympic Games. Practical implications of the findings are discussed, together with limitations and ideas for future research.
Key words: Problem; Leadership; Management; Command; Olympic Games
Investigating Tourism Impacts of Festivals: An Exploratory Case Study of a Big-Scale Comic-Con – 817 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855823
Yesim Tonga Uriarte, Tiziano Antognozzi, and Maria Luisa Catoni
Analysis and Management of Cultural Heritage, IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Lucca, Italy
In recent years, festivals have been increasing their prominence as a medium for endorsing local development, promoting tourism, and improving city image. Subsequently, festivalization of culture has become a growing phenomenon that not only serves for primary purposes, such as audience outreach, cultural creativity and exchange, but also brings along a significant resonance with extensive socioeconomic impacts both in and out of the local destination. On the other hand, cultural production has been evolving with increasing variety and availability of multimedia products and expanding its audience with new consumption patterns; thus, giving birth to emerging forms of alternative cultures. As an interesting example, the fantasy genre in popular culture became a large umbrella of declinations that includes literature, games, comics, cinema, and their transmedial convergences, as well as related forms of lifestyle narratives. On the intersection of these two phenomena, this article aims at investigating the tourism impacts of a unique festival, a comic-con, Lucca Comics & Games (LC&G), in light of the festival motivations, experience, and meanings. The history of LC&G dates back to 1966 and today it brings around 500,000 attendees to the historic city of Lucca as one of the biggest festivals dedicated to fantasy culture in the world. To investigate festival-related tourism impacts, we focused on the LC&G audience and conducted a comprehensive survey with 7,147 visitors during the event in 2015. The results indicate the uniqueness of the festival with a very loyal, big amount of audience, and widespread impacts, including a drastic rise in the demand for tourism facilities with a high short-term direct economic impact. Nevertheless, tourism impacts that are an indispensable component of the festival and of crucial importance mainly for the development of the territory, occur intrinsically as a consequence of the festival’s success to address its core communities’ expectations, rather than being a primary aim.
Key words: Cultural tourism; Cultural economy; Event management; Festivals; Impact assessment; Comic-con; Lucca Comics & Games
The Influence of Social Media Communication on Consumer’s Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions Concerning Brand-Sponsored Events – 835 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721268
Bruno Schivinski,* Daniela Langaro,† and Christina Shaw‡
*Department of Management, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK †Department of Marketing and Operations, Instituto Universitario de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Lisbon, Portugal ‡Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK
Social media communication was suggested to influence consumers on their decision process of participating in events. Despite the relevance of evaluating this proposition, the effects of social media brand-related communications on event attendance were not yet validated. To address this literature gap, it was evaluated whether firm-created and user-generated social media brand-related content influenced consumers’ attitudes and, consequently, their intentions to participate in brand-sponsored events. Additionally, the mediating role of consumers’ attitudes towards the brand and the event was examined. An online survey (n = 307) was implemented and results were analyzed with structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings contribute to managers and scholars in the field of events marketing in general and brand-sponsored events in specific, by means of proposing and validating a model that confirms (1) the effects of firm-created social media (SM) brand-related content on brand attitude, (2) the influence of user-generated SM brand-related content on both brand and event attitudes, (3) the impact of brand attitude on event attitude, (4) the influence of event attitude on the consumers’ intentions to participate; and (5) identifies different arrays revealing how consumers’ attitudes towards the brand and the event mediate the relationship between SM communications on consumers’ behavioral intentions, while distinguishing the type of SM brand-related content source.
Key words: Social media; Event marketing; Brand attitude; Event attitude; Event participation Sexual Harassment and Violence at Events and Festivals: A Student Perspective – 855 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721277
Tomas Pernecky, Safira Abdat, Beatrice Brostroem, Danielle Mikaere, and Hazen Paovale
School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
Sexual harassment at large events is a pressing concern that affects people around the world. Although the topic has been addressed in hospitality and tourism, research on sexual harassment in the fields of event management and event studies is almost nonexistent and has thus far failed to provide an adequate, knowledge-based response. This article seeks to address the impoverished treatment of the problem by drawing on a student-centered project. In addition to identifying the key issues around sexual harassment facing the events industry, the article highlights the importance of early career female scholarship—making a case for curriculum development that leads to engagement with contemporary societal problems and critical citizenship.
Key words: Critical citizenship; Critical pedagogy; Event risk management; Sexual harassment; Events education The Path to Adoption and Advocacy: Exploring Dimensions of Brand Experience and Engagement at Trade Shows – 871 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855814
Pamela A. Kennett-Hensel,* Elyria Kemp,* Kim Williams,† and Aberdeen Leila Borders‡
*Department of Management and Marketing, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA †Department of Hospitality and Tourism, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA ‡Department of Marketing and Professional Sales, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA
Trade shows are typically second only to personal selling in business-to-business promotional expenditures. As a result, trade show attendees are often inundated with product offerings by competing firms. In order to successfully vie for attention, firms must find ways to engage attendees and potential consumers. A key component of engaging with a brand is considering how consumers experience the brand. This research examines the dynamics which enhance brand engagement by understanding the factors which contribute to the brand experience of attendees at trade shows. Both qualitative and quantitative data collected from actual trade show attendees highlight the dimensions of brand experience and indicate that a positive brand experience is related to product adoption, which in turn is related to advocacy for the brand. Considering how to shape the brand experience of consumers in trade show settings enables a brand to successfully compete for attention with other offerings as well as helps to foster engagement levels that eventually lead to positive outcomes for the firm. Implications for considering brand experience as a key element of trade show marketing strategy are discussed.
Key words: Brand experience; Engagement; Adoption; Advocacy; Trade show
Influencing Factors on Spectators’ Revisit Intention in Minor League Baseball (MiLB): Spectators’ Perceptions of Complaint Management Practices – 883 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721295
Cindy Lee* and Doyeon Won†
*College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA †Department of Kinesiology, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, USA
This study investigates four influencing factors (i.e., facility quality, performance quality, interaction quality, and complaint management) on fans’ satisfaction and perceived value, which further leads the intention to return. A total of 238 respondents of a Class A Short Season Minor League Baseball (MiLB) team participated in an online survey. Data were analyzed primarily with structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate the relationship between study variables. The results indicated that spectators’ satisfaction was influenced by interaction quality, performance quality, and complaint management while perceived value was predicted by facility quality and interaction quality. In predicting spectators’ revisit intention, fans’ perceived value was more critical in comparison to their perceived level of satisfaction.
Key words: Service quality; Interaction quality; Complaint management; Fan satisfaction; Perceived value; Customer retention Evaluating Special Events: Merging Two Essential Approaches – 897 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856417
Larry Dwyer*†‡ and Peter Forsyth§
*School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia †Griffith Institute for Tourism (GIFT), Griffith University, Nathan, Australia ‡ Faculty of Economics, Ljubljana University, Ljubljana, Slovenia §Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
In special event evaluation, given the shift away from standard economic impact analysis based on input–output modeling, increased attention is being paid to the roles that computable general equilibrium modeling (CGE) and cost–benefit analysis (CBA) can play in event evaluation. This article analyzes the strengths and limitations of CGE and CBA in the context of event assessment. A “hybrid” approach is outlined which includes a role for the advantages of both techniques to be included in the evaluation process. The issues addressed are theoretically important for both impact and benefit estimation, while having significant practical implications for event assessment.
Key words: Special events; Evaluation; Economic impact analysis; Computable general equilibrium modeling; Cost–benefit analysis Analysis of The NASCAR Hall of Fame Exhibition Event: A Generation-Based Market Segmentation Approach – 913 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721312
Kakyom Kim* and Giri Jogaratnam†
*College of Hospitality Management, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA †Hotel and Restaurant Management, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USA
Research findings on generations have been becoming useful for event organizers and destination developers over the past decades. The current study investigated generational differences in exhibition dimensions, satisfaction, and future intentions along with trip characteristics of visitors to the NASCAR Hall of Fame Exhibition event held in a medium-sized city in the southeastern region of the US. Analysis confirmed the existence of six exhibition dimensions labeled as “exhibits,” “staff,” “facility,” “concessions,” “audio tours,” and “hard cards” on the event. As part of the most substantial results, there were both dissimilarities and similarities in the exhibition dimensions across four generations including “Matures,” “Baby Boomers,” “Generation X,” and “Generation Y.” Analysis also suggested significant differences in exhibition visitors’ overall satisfaction, future intentions, and trip characteristics across the generations. Some useful implications are discussed for exhibition event managers and organizers.
Leadership Skills in Event Management Courses – 927 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721321
Thomas C. Padron* and Matthew J. Stone†
*Department of Hospitality, Recreation, and Tourism, California State University, East Bay, Hayward, CA, USA †Department of Recreation, Hospitality, and Parks Management, California State University, Chico, CA, USA
Event management education continues to increase in popularity and importance. However, in many event management courses, learning outcomes are often expressed in learning process-oriented skills. Beyond event management skills, this research proposes that leadership skills should also be included in event management courses. Experiential learning activities are an ideal opportunity to develop, practice, and enhance leadership skills and the optimal situation is experiential learning activities. Students were surveyed after completing an event management course, which included an experiential learning activity where they developed and produced instructor-led events. Students indicated that they learned many leadership skills, including communication, commitment, strategic planning, and accountability. Communication was the most cited skill that students both learned and demonstrated, and this correlated to the students’ perception that communication is also the most important leadership skill required for a career in event management. It is proposed that event management courses utilize leadership skills in the course objectives and that, by doing so, it may provide additional student benefits and academic legitimacy to these courses.
Liminality Creation Strategies at Supplemental Events – 939 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856381
Scott Bingley,* Stephen Burgess,† Leonie Lockstone-Binney,‡ and Gerry Urwin§
*Victoria School of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia †Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia ‡Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia §Faculty of Business and Law, Coventry University, Coventry, UK
The celebratory nature that some events generate creates a liminoid space through which participants can obtain social benefits. This article examines Chalip’s five liminality strategies in the context of supplemental events, which are events run in conjunction with major sporting events. The discussion is framed within the context of two supplemental events aligned to the 2015 ICC Cricket World Cup, the Fan Zone, and the Trophy Tour. Using 152 short interviews with attendees, the study found some evidence of the presence of Chalip’s strategies at these events and that these lead to social benefits. However, the level of liminality and communitas created was minimal, due to the open access nature of the event spaces and also because “live” World Cup matches were not broadcasted akin to typical “live sites.” The study contributes to understanding in relation to liminality strategies in the context of supplemental events.
Key words: Supplemental events; Case study; Liminality; Fan zone; Trophy tour
Long Strange Trips: Tourism, Events, and the Grateful Dead – 945 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855850
Department of Parks, Recreation & Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
The Grateful Dead are one of the most studied musical groups of the 20th century. Though the band as an entity ceased to exist in 1995, various spin-off groups from surviving members continue to tour and play the band’s music. Furthermore, numerous other events continue to use the Grateful Dead name and legacy to gain attention and attract visitors. Despite the fact the band and its fans—the Deadheads—have been explored by researchers in a variety of academic fields and disciplines, there are relatively few studies that directly investigate the tourism and events aspects of group, particularly given that fan travel and the band’s unique concert scene remain integral components of the Grateful Dead experience. Therefore, this article explores the ways in which existing research about the Grateful Dead from other academic fields intersects with topics and issues in tourism and events and suggests that there are numerous avenues for tourism and events researchers to directly explore the ongoing Grateful Dead phenomenon.
Key words: Grateful Dead; Tourism; Events; Music heritage Who Buys the Amsterdam Dance Event? – 953 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856426
Department of Media and Communications, KIMEP University, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
The purpose of the research was to examine the profile of the national Amsterdam Dance Event (ADE) visitor. It explored the demographic profile, the buying behavior, the communication activity, and the motivators behind visiting ADE. A quantitative methodology was employed using a convenience sampling method. The research applied an online survey and research literature methodology. Dutch ADE visitors received an active link to the online survey. It was designed in https://surveyplanet.com and distributed via Facebook. The researchers set a 95% confidence level and a margin of error of 10%. Thus, the sample size was calculated as 96 respondents out of 285,000 Dutch ADE visitors for 2016. A total number of 104 (male n = 53, female n = 51) fully completed surveys were returned. Overall, the profile of the ADE visitors of ADE were young people (aged 22–29), predominantly single or in a relationship who attended ADE more than once. They were active communicators on social media before, during, and after the ADE. The ADE visitors’ main reasons to attend the festival were the opportunities to experience electronic music in the company of friends, to meet like-minded people, and express themselves. They were primarily students or working people with a medium level of disposable income. They were price sensitive both on tickets and on-site spending. The primary limitation researchers faced was the lack of funding. It affected the research strategy, access to up-to-date industry reports, and the representativeness of the research. However, the study is the first to try to explore the buyer person of the Amsterdam Dance Event.
Key words: Amsterdam dance event; Electronic dance music (EDM) buyer persona; Music festival; Planned events
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