The Olympics, mega- and major- events have a long history of human rights abuse (Amnesty International, 2021a). An increasing body of work over the last two decades have advanced a rights-based agenda in the context of large-scale events (e.g. Caudwell and McGee’s (2017) Special Issue on ‘Human Rights and Events, Leisure and Sport’ and more recently the European Funded ‘Event Rights’ (2020) project). Specific case study works have too sought to frame stakeholder exclusion as a human rights issue, as numerous social groups find have been identified to be exploited in one way or another in the melee of planning, delivery, and in the post-event legacy periods (e.g. Talbot and Carter, 2018; Duignan, Pappalepore and Everett, 2019). Indeed, large scale events too act as a platform for amplifying human rights abuses already existing in the host city and/or country context, as well as those produced as a direct and indirect result of hosting. For example, the Qatar 2022 FIFA World Cup not only exposed limited national legislation protecting labour rights in Qatar, but this was also evidenced by poor working and living conditions, as well as delayed salaries for those working on the Khalifa Stadium (Amnesty International, 2021b). Occurring over protracted time-periods and geographical boundaries, the host country and city provides a useful incubator to examine human rights issues.
Owners and organisers of large-scale events acutely recognise human rights abuses as a problem that warrants new policy interventions and closer practical relations with host cities and countries, whether that be the Commonwealth Games Foundation’s (2017): ‘Transformation 2022 Strategy – A Human Rights Commitment’, through to the “International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) human rights strategy and policy commitment” (…) looking at “further embedding human rights in the good governance principles, and the establishment of the previously announced Human Rights Advisory Committee.” (IOC, 2020). This is part of a wider movement of large events pressuring hosts to consider embedding principles and objectives aligned to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (2021). Furthermore, local organisingcommittees increasingly work with human rights organisations to tackle specific types of abuses. For example, ‘It’s a Penalty’: an international charity dedicated to raising awareness of human trafficking in host cities, works directly with Olympic venues to screen campaign videos to warn fans of the signs and how to report potential abuses (https://itsapenalty.org/)
This CFP on Human Rights and the Olympics, Mega- and Major-Events hopes to 1) expose significant human rights abuses that have not been adequately amplified to date; 2) bring together a disparate body of work looking at human rights; 3) publish existing and on-going work evaluating the legacy of previous events or looking forward to events in the year of 2021 and beyond; 4) identify good practice, like It’s a Penalty’s work, that illustrates the power of large-scale events for exposing and tackling human rights abuses too; 5) encourage scholars to act as a critical friend and work with policy makers and/or industry to help stimulate positive change.
We are looking for:
Multidisciplinary research papers that draw on a range of different ideas, concepts, theories and traditions appropriate to explain the human rights issue under investigation.
Scholars may wish to take a global perspective (i.e. by drawing on a range of event examples and cases to illustrate the ubiquity of the human rights abuse), or for example may present a specific human right issue in a specific event case study.
All papers must provide a set of policy and/or industry recommendations centred around the following themes:
EDUCATE– educating stakeholders and raising awareness of the chosen human rights issue.
EQUIP– equipping stakeholders and those affected to help tackle chosen human rights issue.
ENCOURAGE– how to encourage stakeholders and those affected to come forward to report chosen human rights issue.
N.B. Clarify how educate, equip, and encourage recommendations have transferability beyond the context you are speaking about to have more universal and/or value across numerous events.
Though this list in not exhaustive, below are examples of human rights issues found across major events:
Freedom of speech
Labour rights and worker exploitation
Lack of personal safety
Poverty and socio-economic deprivation
Torture and execution
Black Lives Matter
Forced evictions and displacement
Host community disruption
Gentrification and indirect displacement
For those looking for a deeper understanding regarding the types of human rights issues and the ways these can be analysed and tackled across the entire lifecycle of major events, we have provided two documents below.
Special Issue Title: Changing Perspectives in Fashion Events
Topicality: The fashion industry is globally important, economically and in terms of consumer culture. The industry has experienced much change over the last few decades with globalized markets, increased competition, internet retailingand overseas production. Fashion also spans a number of genres, from luxury to low-cost to streetwear, this includes sports brands expanding into casual fashion. Given that competition is global, marketing is key to gaining consumer attention and engagement. However, global production and competition has also resulted in criticisms for supply chain ethics and more frequent changes in style that have resulted in the fashion industry being a major polluter. Coupled with digital and technological advancements, consumer expectations are changing; therefore, online marketing is increasingly important and social media and mobile applications are also harnessed within the spectrum of marketing activities. Given the fast pace of change, for both the fashion industry and technology, this special issue seeks to gain an insight into the new and changing roles of fashion events (e.g., fashion shows).
Originality: In the fast-changing world of the fashion industry, it is imperative that researchers and practitioners in the field are kept abreast of the latest trends and developments. After reviewing top marketing journals (e.g., EuropeanJournal of Marketing) and more specialized journals (e.g., Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management), there are few studies on fashion industry’s usage of events when compared to other areas of fashion research, such as online marketing and purchasing behaviors. However, fashion events’ influences on individual, businesses, and society can be profound.
Aims: It is the aim of the special issue to provide insight to fashion industry’s influence on society and businesses by focusing on fashion events. It plans to develop theoretical, conceptual, and practical implications towards a better understanding of fashion events management and marketing in a global / local context.
Fashion event management/marketing
Fashion event in B2B context
Fashion event and social media
Fashion event’s influences
Ethnicity, culture, and fashion event
Fashion event, self, and others
Fashion event’s relationships with luxury fashion brands and fast fashion brands
Globalization/localization and fashion event
Literature review and meta-studies on fashion event
Fashion event programs in higher education
Dr. Elaine Ritch (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 8459 Email: Elaine.Ritch@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Norman Peng (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 3117 Email: Norman.Peng@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Annie Chen (Roehampton University) Roehampton University Roehampton Ln, London SW15 5PU Telephone: +44 (0)20 8392 3000 Email: Annie.Chen@roehampton.ac.uk
Peer review: This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Event Management. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of twoindependent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the orderin which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelinesabove under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23.
Book citation: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in
the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
Kenneth Backman Clemson University PRTM Lehstaky Hall Clemson, SC 29634, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ASSISTANT EDITOR
Karin Emmons, Clemson University, USA REGIONAL EDITOR UK
Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, UK Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Australia Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Canada Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, USA Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, USA Soyoung Boo, Georgia State University, USA Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK Libby Carter, Birmingham City University, England Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, UK Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, USA Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, Australia Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, USA Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, USA Mike Duignan, University of Surrey, UK Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, USA Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Australia Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Canada Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, UK David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, UK Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Australia Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA Martinette Kruger, North-West University, South Africa Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland Yanning Li, University of Surrey, UK Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Griffith University, Australia Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Australia Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK Irem Arsal Önder, University of Massachusetts, USA Norman Peng, University of Westminster, UK James Petrick, Texas A&M University, USA Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Canada Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, USA Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, The Netherlands Geoffrey Koome Riungu, Moi University, Kenya Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, UK Susan L. Slocum, George Mason University, USA Wayne Smith, Ryerson University, Canada Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, UK Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Canada Craig Webster, Ball State University, USA Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, USA Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, USA Emily Zirbes, Iowa State University/EZ Global Link, Canada
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Australia Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Canada Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (email@example.com). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with 1-inch margins, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, all author names with their titles, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country and email address. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters maximum should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of up to 300 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines above under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Mahadevan, 2019) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Kruger & Saaymen, 2018; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Shipway & Miles, 2020) or (Porter, 2019, p. 242) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Pernecky, T., & Rakic, T. (2019. Visual methods in event studies. Event Management, 23(2), 179–190. https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15378845225447 Book citation:Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2016). Event studies: Theory, research, and policy for planned events (3rd ed.). Routledge. Book chapter in edited book:Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., & Spurr, R. (2006). Economic evaluation of special events. In L. Dwyer & P. Forsyth (Eds.), International handbook on the economics of tourism (pp. 316–355). Edward Elgar. Internet source: Chipps, W. (2010, June 3). FIFA secures $1.6 billion in world cup sponsorship revenues. IEG. http://www.sponsorship.com/About-IEG/Press-Room/FIFA-Secures-$1-6-Billion-in-World-Cup-Sponsorship.aspx
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept noresponsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Event Management(EM) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Event Management (EM) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for EM is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The submission, with all identification removed, is sent to an Editorial Board member by the EIC, within 7 days. The Editorial Board member then sends the submission to two other scholars within 7 days. The reviewers are always experts in their field. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers are expected in 4-8 weeks or less and are delivered to the Editorial Board member. The Board member then has 7 days to send his/her recommendation to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on comments received.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection within 7 days. The comments to authors are blinded.
Authors would have 12 months to resubmit a revised paper. Notification of final decision is typically 2 weeks’ time.
As a reviewer for Event Management you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for EM please contact the EIC: Kenneth Backman Clemson University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
As a reviewer for Event Management, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Test Events as Risk Management Tools in the Context of the Olympic Movement’s Agenda 2020 – 115 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856165
Kristin Behrens Brynildsen* and Milena M. Parent†
*Winter Sport & IF Relations, MEMOS, UniversitéCatholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium †School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
With the advent of the Olympic Movement’s Agenda 2020, the purpose of this article was to explore the role of test events (TEs) as risk management tools by: 1) evaluating how TEs support the preparation and staging the Olympic (Winter) Games; and 2) assessing the feasibility of reducing their cost and scale without increasing the risks associated with hosting the Games. Based on documents and interviews, results revealed TEs reduce risk, as they permit relevant stakeholders to get hands-on experience. Besides reducing risk, TEs enhance collective knowledge and foster teambuilding as well as readiness and operationalization. Three additional TE-specific risk issue categories emerged: (1) overproportioning (e.g., overscoping); (2) readiness (e.g., ability to successfully deliver on time); and (3) knowledge. This study demonstrates it is possible to have a lower cost and scale TE program without increasing risk, but this depends on (1) the organizers’ sport event hosting experience, and (2) a solid, contextualized TE strategy. To reduce risk within TEs themselves, findings indicate organizers use a knowledge feedback loop, financing, and partnerships. Finally, we provide TE-related recommendations to assist Olympic stakeholders in anticipating, measuring, and mitigating risks associated with preparing and hosting Olympic (Winter) Games.
Organizational Issues in Olympic Games: A Systematic Review – 135 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856570
Tiago Ribeiro,* Abel Correia,* RuiBiscaia,† and Tom Bason†
*Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Cruz Quebrada, Portugal †School of Marketing and Management and Centre for Business in Society, Faculty of Business and Law, Coventry University, Coventry, UK
The purpose of this study is to extend previous research on organizational issues of sport mega-events through the development of a framework for the Olympic Games. A three-step approach was taken. Firstly, a systematic literature review was conducted based on journal articles, academic books, and official reports published by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and Olympic Games Organizing Committees (OGOC). Secondly, the issues identified within the media regarding the 2016 Olympic Games were analyzed. Lastly, semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 stakeholders to further examine the organizational issues of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. A new extended conceptual framework of organizational issues associated with the Olympic Games is then proposed. Issue categories faced by the organizing committee include politics, marketing, media and visibility, financial, planning, negotiation and ethics, operations, infrastructure, human resources, social, environmental, and legacy. These 12 dimensions of organizational issues account for a total of 76 specific issues. The article provides critical information to aid the IOC and OGOCs in understanding organizational issues that may arise in future of Olympic Games.
Creating Social Legacy: Flow in Mega-Event Ceremonies – 155 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856471
Libby Carter,* Lara Spiteri Cornish,† Edward Turner,† and Nigel Berkely‡
*Department of Strategy, Marketing and Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK †School of Marketing and Management, Coventry University, Coventry, UK ‡Faculty of Business and Law, Coventry University, Coventry, UK
The article offers a novel conceptual framework linking narrative, attention, immersion, and flow as antecedents of social legacy using examples of polysemic events, such as mega-event ceremonies. By doing this the article uses a multidisciplinary approach to conceptualize the connection between narrative and social legacy, a relationship currently overlooked. Through the creation of this framework, we propose several key findings. First, narrative within polysemic events is useful for creating a targeted social legacy. This happens when the consumer’s attention is caught and maintained by the narrative, allowing them to become immersed in their experience. Second, we suggest that to optimize this process, the narrative must position consumers within a state of flow. Once in this state of flow, the individual’s goals shift to reflect that of the narrative, thus contributing to social legacy. In proposing this framework, this article makes a valuable contribution by addressing the surprisingly overlooked links between narrative, flow, and social legacy. Using the case of ceremonies, the article also adds to the limited literature surrounding the social legacy of mega-events, currently dominated by economic perspectives.
Key words: Presence of flow; Event experience; Ceremony narrative; Immersion; Social legacy
Revisit to Expenditure-Based Segmentation: The Case of the US Kids Golf World Championship – 173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856219
Kakyom Kim* and GiriJogaratnam†
*College of Hospitality Management, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA †Hotel and Restaurant Management, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USA
The current study segments the youth golf event market based on expenditure of families who participated in the US Kids Golf World Championship. Expenditure was analyzed from the perspective of parents of young golfers who played at the event. Analysis confirmed the existence of three dissimilar groups of spenders that included light spenders, medium spenders, and heavy spenders. These spenders significantly differed in 1) the expenditure variables such as lodging, food & beverage, golf, retail, transportation, and entertainment & recreation, 2) the overall satisfaction with the event, and 3) trip characteristics. The findings help better appreciate the expenditure patterns and characteristics of families who attended the special youth golf event, a market that has hitherto been infrequently addressed in the literature. Marketing implications are discussed for golf event marketers and associated businesses.
Key words: Golf tourism; The US Kids Golf World Championship; Satisfaction; Expenditure-based segmentation; Trip characteristics
Testing a Structural Model of Constraints Negotiation in Spectator Sports: The Moderating Effect of Satisfaction With Marketing Strategies – 185 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856255
Shang Chun Ma,* Shang Min Ma,† and Ian D. Rotherham‡
*Institute of Physical Education, Health, & Leisure Studies, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan †Department of Recreational Sport & Health Promotion, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Taiwan ‡Department of the Natural and Built Environment, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK
This study extends the leisure constraints literature and empirically tests the constraints–effects–mitigation model within the context of spectator sports. The moderating effects of satisfaction with marketing strategies on the constraints–negotiation relationship and the motivation–negotiation relationship were also examined. Data (n = 997) were collected from spectators attending Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) games during the regular seasons in 2014 and 2015. Results showed that 1) negotiation works to independently influence participation; 2) the relationship between motivation and participation is partially mediated by negotiation strategies; 3) the relationship between motivation and negotiation is moderated by satisfaction with marketing strategies; and 4) constraints have no significant influence on participation and negotiation. The results advance our understanding of the factors influencing consumers’ leisure participation and the decision-making mechanism. This could help professional sport teams develop more effective and targeted marketing strategies. The findings may also help enrich sport spectators’ consumption of leisure experiences.
Key words: Constraints; Negotiation; Motivation; Sport marketing; Professional sport
Explaining the Behaviors of Culinary Event Attendees: A Path Model From Motivation to Behavioral Intentions – 201 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856282
Yueying Hazel Xu* and YuejiongGrandy Zhang†
*School of Hospitality Management, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China †Customs of Macao Special Administrative Region, Macao, China
The study clarifies the definition of “event motivation” and verifies the dimensions of event motivation measurement scale. It then proposes and tests a path model of consumer behaviors incorporating event motivation, event perceived value, event satisfaction, and behavioral intentions, within a context of a regional culinary event. The path model fits well with the collected data of a sample of 394 from the Macau Food Festival, an important event in the well-known gaming destination. Findings show that the first two of the four event motivational factors extracted via EFA (cultural exploration, escape/relaxation, socialization, and family togetherness) have significantly positive effects on event perceived value, which further affects the event attendees’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions toward the event. Furthermore, escape/relaxation is found to have direct effects on both event satisfaction and event behavioral intentions. Results of the study provide theoretical and practical implications for event research and event management.
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