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Special Issue: Event Innovation and Resilience During Uncertainty
Deadline: March 13, 2022
Dr. Elina (Eleni) Michopoulou, University of Derby, United Kingdom
Dr. Nikolaos Pappas, University of Sunderland, United Kingdom
Dr. Iride Azara, University of Derby, United Kingdom
In recent years, studies on innovation and resilience, often adopt the angle of crisis recovery or focus on value-creating innovative and creative strategies and practices. While those studies have begun to explore the underpinning principles of innovation and resilience, they often focus on a specific sector or region or viewed through the narrow lenses of economic recovery. Moreover, the theoretical and applied aspects of innovation and resilience need to be approached from a multidisciplinary point of view, to enable a better understanding of the internal and external dynamics that affect the evolution, planning and delivery of events at times of uncertainty. The pathway to success (or failure) lies on the overall innovative stance adopted by event stakeholders and the resilience demonstrated by companies and communities alike to externalities that yield not only challenges and threats; but also bear opportunities for fundamentally rethinking our practices of planning and delivering events. Therefore, an SI revisiting innovation and resilience during uncertainty will be highly relevant to both, industry and academia.
This special issue welcomes theoretical, empirical, experimental, and case study research contributions. These contributions should clearly address the theoretical and practical implications of the research in reference. Both conceptual and empirical work are welcome. Event innovation and resilience can be viewed under a variety of prisms, including but not limited to:
- Innovation, creativity and change management
- Resilience management
- Complexity management
- Competitiveness, sustainability and corporate social responsibility
- Consumer behaviour, decision-making, expectations, experience and satisfaction
- Adaptive capacities
- Crisis management
- Urban resilience
- Multi-disciplinary resilience
- Event design, planning and delivery
- Economics of change impacts and adaptation
- Emerging and innovative research methods and methodologies
- Human resources, equality, diversity, and labour operations
- The role of technology in event innovation and resilience
- Marketing, advertising, branding and promotional activities
- Training and education
- Wellbeing of employees, local communities and event participants
- Other interdisciplinary areas related to event management
Each paper submitted for publication consideration is subjected to the standard review process designated by Event Management journal. Based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the Editor-in-chief along with the guest editors, decisions will be made whether particular submissions will be accepted, revised or rejected. Please note that the review process will start after the full paper submission deadline.
Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via the journal online platform (available from September 2021).
Full paper submission deadline: March 13, 2022
Expected publication date: Mid to end of 2023
All papers should follow the submission guidelines of the Event Management journal. For more information please visit Submitting Articles
HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE OLYMPICS, MEGA- AND MAJOR- EVENTS
EVENT MANAGEMENT JOURNAL SPECIAL ISSUE CALL
PUBLISH DATE: 2021-2022
Dr Michael B. Duignan, Head of Department and Reader in Events, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, UK.
Dr Mike Duignan – Video overview of special issue:
Prof Laurence Chalip, Head of Department and Professor in Sports Management, School of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism Management, George Mason University, USA.
Prof Laurence Chalip – Thoughts on human rights and the Olympics, mega- and major-events:
The Olympics, mega- and major- events have a long history of human rights abuse (Amnesty International, 2021a). An increasing body of work over the last two decades have advanced a rights-based agenda in the context of large-scale events (e.g. Caudwell and McGee’s (2017) Special Issue on ‘Human Rights and Events, Leisure and Sport’ and more recently the European Funded ‘Event Rights’ (2020) project). Specific case study works have too sought to frame stakeholder exclusion as a human rights issue, as numerous social groups find have been identified to be exploited in one way or another in the melee of planning, delivery, and in the post-event legacy periods (e.g. Talbot and Carter, 2018; Duignan, Pappalepore and Everett, 2019). Indeed, large scale events too act as a platform for amplifying human rights abuses already existing in the host city and/or country context, as well as those produced as a direct and indirect result of hosting. For example, the Qatar 2022 FIFA World Cup not only exposed limited national legislation protecting labour rights in Qatar, but this was also evidenced by poor working and living conditions, as well as delayed salaries for those working on the Khalifa Stadium (Amnesty International, 2021b). Occurring over protracted time-periods and geographical boundaries, the host country and city provides a useful incubator to examine human rights issues.
Owners and organisers of large-scale events acutely recognise human rights abuses as a problem that warrants new policy interventions and closer practical relations with host cities and countries, whether that be the Commonwealth Games Foundation’s (2017): ‘Transformation 2022 Strategy – A Human Rights Commitment’, through to the “International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) human rights strategy and policy commitment” (…) looking at “further embedding human rights in the good governance principles, and the establishment of the previously announced Human Rights Advisory Committee.” (IOC, 2020). This is part of a wider movement of large events pressuring hosts to consider embedding principles and objectives aligned to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (2021). Furthermore, local organisingcommittees increasingly work with human rights organisations to tackle specific types of abuses. For example, ‘It’s a Penalty’: an international charity dedicated to raising awareness of human trafficking in host cities, works directly with Olympic venues to screen campaign videos to warn fans of the signs and how to report potential abuses (https://itsapenalty.org/)
This CFP on Human Rights and the Olympics, Mega- and Major-Events hopes to 1) expose significant human rights abuses that have not been adequately amplified to date; 2) bring together a disparate body of work looking at human rights; 3) publish existing and on-going work evaluating the legacy of previous events or looking forward to events in the year of 2021 and beyond; 4) identify good practice, like It’s a Penalty’s work, that illustrates the power of large-scale events for exposing and tackling human rights abuses too; 5) encourage scholars to act as a critical friend and work with policy makers and/or industry to help stimulate positive change.
We are looking for:
- Multidisciplinary research papers that draw on a range of different ideas, concepts, theories and traditions appropriate to explain the human rights issue under investigation.
- Scholars may wish to take a global perspective (i.e. by drawing on a range of event examples and cases to illustrate the ubiquity of the human rights abuse), or for example may present a specific human right issue in a specific event case study.
- All papers must provide a set of policy and/or industry recommendations centred around the following themes:
- EDUCATE– educating stakeholders and raising awareness of the chosen human rights issue.
- EQUIP– equipping stakeholders and those affected to help tackle chosen human rights issue.
- ENCOURAGE– how to encourage stakeholders and those affected to come forward to report chosen human rights issue.
N.B. Clarify how educate, equip, and encourage recommendations have transferability beyond the context you are speaking about to have more universal and/or value across numerous events.
Though this list in not exhaustive, below are examples of human rights issues found across major events:
- Human trafficking
- Freedom of speech
- Labour rights and worker exploitation
- Lack of personal safety
- Poverty and socio-economic deprivation
- Athlete abuse
- LGBTQ+ rights
- Torture and execution
- Police brutality
- Black Lives Matter
- Forced evictions and displacement
- Host community disruption
- Gentrification and indirect displacement
For those looking for a deeper understanding regarding the types of human rights issues and the ways these can be analysed and tackled across the entire lifecycle of major events, we have provided two documents below.
- The United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High Commissioner (https://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/pages/listofissues.aspx) has a comprehensive list of human rights issues and related resources; and
- The Institute for Business and Human Rights provides a useful overview of the ways human rights issues can be analysed and tackled across the entire lifecycle of major events too (https://www.sporthumanrights.org/uploads/resources/The_MSE_Lifecycle_-_Embedding_Human_Rights_from_Vision_to_Legacy.pdf)
Amnesty International UK. (2021a). Sports and Human Rights. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org.uk/issues/sport-and-human-rights
Amnesty International UK. (2021b). Qatar World Cup: The ugly side to the beautiful game. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org.uk/qatar-world-cup-ugly-side-beautiful-game
Commonwealth Games Foundation. (2017). Transformation 2022 Strategy – A Human Rights Commitment. Available at: https://thecgf.com/content/cgf-human-rights-statement
Duignan, M.B., Pappalepore, I., & Everett, S. (2019). The ‘summer of discontent’: Exclusion and communal resistance at the London 2012 Olympic Games. Tourism Management, 70, 355-367.
EventRights. (2021). Introduction. Available at: http://eventrights.net/
IOC. (2020). IOC moves forward with its human rights approach. Available at: https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-moves-forward-with-its-human-rights-approach
It’s a Penalty. (2021). Introduction. Available at: https://itsapenalty.org/
Raco, M., & Tunney, E. (2010). Visibilities and invisibilities in urban development: Small business communities and the London Olympics 2012. Urban Studies, 47(2), 2069–2091.
Talbot, A., & Carter, T. (2018). Human rights abuses at the Rio 2016 Olympics. Leisure Studies, 37(1), 77–88.
- Deadline for extended abstracts of max 500 words by 12th March, 2021.
Note: send your abstract to: M.Duignan@surrey.ac.uk
- Confirmations of acceptance/rejection by 19th March, 2021.
- Deadline to submit full paper by 11th October, 2021.
If you have any questions, please email: M.Duignan@surrey.ac.uk
Aims & Scope
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
PRTM Lehstaky Hall
Clemson, SC 29634, USA
Karin Emmons, Clemson University, USA
REGIONAL EDITOR UK
Martin Robertson, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK
Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, UK
Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Australia
Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Canada
Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, USA
Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, USA
Soyoung Boo, Georgia State University, USA
Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Libby Carter, Birmingham City University, England
Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, UK
Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, USA
Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, USA
Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, USA
Mike Duignan, University of Surrey, UK
Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA
Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, USA
Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Canada
Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, UK
David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Australia
Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina
Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA
Martinette Kruger, North-West University, South Africa
Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Yanning Li, University of Surrey, UK
Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Griffith University, Australia
Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Australia
Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK
Irem Arsal Önder, University of Massachusetts, USA
Norman Peng, University of Westminster, UK
James Petrick, Texas A&M University, USA
Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Canada
Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, USA
Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Geoffrey Koome Riungu, Moi University, Kenya
Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, UK
Susan L. Slocum, George Mason University, USA
Wayne Smith, Ryerson University, Canada
Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Canada
Craig Webster, Ball State University, USA
Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, USA
Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, USA
Emily Zirbes, Iowa State University/EZ Global Link, Canada
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Australia
Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Canada
Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (firstname.lastname@example.org). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with 1-inch margins, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, all author names with their titles, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country and email address. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters maximum should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of up to 300 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines above under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Mahadevan, 2019) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Kruger & Saaymen, 2018; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Shipway & Miles, 2020) or (Porter, 2019, p. 242) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Pernecky, T., & Rakic, T. (2019. Visual methods in event studies. Event Management, 23(2), 179–190. https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15378845225447
Book citation: Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2016). Event studies: Theory, research, and policy for planned events (3rd ed.). Routledge.
Book chapter in edited book: Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., & Spurr, R. (2006). Economic evaluation of special events. In L. Dwyer & P. Forsyth (Eds.), International handbook on the economics of tourism (pp. 316–355). Edward Elgar.
Internet source: Chipps, W. (2010, June 3). FIFA secures $1.6 billion in world cup sponsorship revenues. IEG. http://www.sponsorship.com/About-IEG/Press-Room/FIFA-Secures-$1-6-Billion-in-World-Cup-Sponsorship.aspx
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept noresponsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Event Management (EM) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Event Management (EM) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for EM is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The submission, with all identification removed, is sent to an Editorial Board member by the EIC, within 7 days. The Editorial Board member then sends the submission to two other scholars within 7 days. The reviewers are always experts in their field. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers are expected in 4-8 weeks or less and are delivered to the Editorial Board member. The Board member then has 7 days to send his/her recommendation to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on comments received.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection within 7 days. The comments to authors are blinded.
Authors would have 12 months to resubmit a revised paper. Notification of final decision is typically 2 weeks’ time.
As a reviewer for Event Management you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for EM please contact the EIC: Kenneth Backman
Clemson University. E-mail: email@example.com
As a reviewer for Event Management, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Table of Contents:
Volume 25, Number 4
Exploring Ex Ante Impacts and Social and Sportive Challenges of Hosting a Future New International Major Event: A Case Study of the World Roller Games in Barcelona – 311
Albert Salo and Laia Lopez
Hotel Management and Tourism School, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus de la UAB, Vila Universitaria, Edifici Blanc, Bellatera, Spain
This analysis arises from the decision of the current local council of Barcelona regarding the postponement of the sporting mega-event “World Roller Games,” due to a lack of a social and sportive implication in this event. This research tries to shed some light on the matter and give evidence to the local council to become the world capital of skating. The research question is to analyze whether noneconomic impacts could be relevant enough to organize a mega-event. The methodology is based on the perception and experience of spectators and participants on four main impacts (social, economic, sports city image, and sports practice) using a survey from a National Roller Skating Championship in Spain, considering that this profile of respondents have a better knowledge of the current situation of this sport. There are positive expected future consequences of this mega-event to be held in Barcelona in social and sportive terms. We can also conclude that the local council must still introduce some social and sportive policies in the city in order to improve the chances of success in social, sports practice, and sportive brand image development. It is demonstrated that a mega-event should not be seen purely from a perspective of business generation, especially with minority sports like roller skating. There is a clear opportunity to develop social and sportive practice initiatives that can push social cohesion throughout the city thanks to a mega-event such as this one.
Key words: Event management; Governance; Mega-sport event; Social cohesion; Perceived value
Social Media Analytics in Event Marketing: Engaging Marathon Fans in Facebook Communities – 329
Seunghyun “Brian” Park,* Kwangsoo Park,† Jeong-Yeol Park,‡ and Robin M. Back‡
*Division of Administration and Economics (Hospitality Management), St. John’s University, Queens, NY, USA
†Department of Apparel, Merchandising, Interior Design, and Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA
‡Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
This research is to examine the effects of attributes related to designing post content in Facebook marathon community pages on enhancing levels of engagement. Marketer- and user-generated content of 3,142 posts published on three Facebook pages for the Boston, Chicago, and New York City marathons were collected. Social media analytics were used to discover major topics and engagement trends on the pages. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to examine how publisher type, content type, event case, time, and interactions among these factors affected the engagement levels of Facebook users. Results show that main and interaction effects significantly increase engagement among Facebook users. In particular, content generated by marketers was more effective in engaging users than content generated by users. Posting photos and videos enhanced engagement more than status posts. The effects of inserting hyperlinks varied depending on the marathon page. This exemplary study extends the social media marketing literature in event marketing and provides useful information on how social media marketing strategies can be made more effective through engaging social media users. Findings will be of benefit to both researchers and marketers.
Key words: Engagement; Facebook; Marathon; Social media analytics; Marketer-generated content
Recreation Specialization for Runners and Event Attachment – 347
Isao Okayasu,* Chi-Ok Oh,† and Duarte B. Morais‡
*Department of Sport Business Administration, Hiroshima University of Economics, Hiroshima, Japan
†Graduate School of Culture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea
‡Equitable and Sustainable Tourism, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Running is one of the most popular activities in the world. Runners’ attitudes and behaviors vary depending on their running style. This study aims to construct different measures of running specialization based on the theory of specialization. This study also tests a runner’s stage of specialization segmentation based on recreation specialization and examines the predictive relationship between a runner’s specialization and event attachment. Three groups of sampling data assess the performance of diverse specialization measures for running in three marathon events. First, two surveys were conducted with marathon participants to assess the performance of diverse specialization measures for runners. Second, the third dataset was used to examine the relationship between a runner’s recreation specialization and event attachment. The study results showed that the 15 measures of specialization showed a good fit to the data. Our research showed how runners’ recreation specialization is connected to their event attachment. In addition, this study suggested event management for subdivisions of runners. Its practical implication is that recreation specialization for running can help us understand event attachment.
Key words: Recreation specialization; Event attachment; Runners
Reaching Across the Divide: The Role of Cultural Events in Peacebuilding – 363
Adrian Devine,* Bernadette Quinn,† and Frances Devine*
*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ulster Business School, Ulster University (Coleraine Campus), Coleraine, Northern Ireland
†College of Arts & Tourism, Technological University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
This article assesses whether or not a cultural event can play a peacebuilding role during the postviolence phase of conflict. Cultural expression has long been a contentious issue in Northern Ireland, no more so than in Derry/Londonderry, the city at the center of this study. Adopting a qualitative approach, the authors used the city’s Fleadh Cheoil (2013) event as a case study and found that it served three of the seven peacebuilding functions outlined by Paffenholz and Spurk: social cohesion, in-group socialization, and intermediation/facilitation. The findings suggest that the event enabled positive change by building “bridges” and developing intercommunal trust and cross-culture understanding. This did not happen by chance and nor was it unproblematic. However, inclusivity was a core objective and the event was planned and managed accordingly. This required strong leadership, risk taking, sensitivity, and a willingness to negotiate and compromise. In turn, this created the conditions for cross community dialogue that had ramifications beyond the cultural realm. Although this article has demonstrated how a cultural event can play a role in peacebuilding, it does not suggest that culture events are a panacea for sectarianism, bias, or conflict in Northern Ireland or elsewhere. However, if planned properly they can contribute to the peacebuilding process by providing an opportunity for people to navigate difficulties and develop shared experiences in complex and challenging conditions. These can help build trust, tolerance, understanding and confidence that enable divided societies to coexist more peacefully.
Key words: Peacebuilding; Events, Northern Ireland; Social cohesion; In-group socialization
Constraints and Facilitators of Sport Participation in Qatar: Perceptions of Ooredoo Marathon Participants – 381
Kevin Filo,* Millicent Kennelly,† and Rana Sobh‡
*Griffith Business School, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
†Griffith University, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
‡Qatar University, Department of Marketing, Doha, Qatar
The Qatari government has increasingly supported education of Qatar residents on the importance of physical activity, along with developing and improving sport infrastructure, and bidding for and hosting a collection of sport events. Despite these efforts, a number of challenges inherent to Qatar may hinder participation among the country’s residents. The current research examines constraints to physical activity described by participants in a sport event in Qatar, along with factors that facilitated their participation. Semistructured interviews were conducted with Qatari residents who had participated in the Ooredoo Marathon (N = 22), the largest participatory sport event in Doha, Qatar that targets individuals of all running abilities. Four constraints (social life, reluctance to walk, lack of time and competing priorities, and expectations for women) along with three facilitators (technology, peer and familial support, and government support) emerged from these interviews. The findings provide implications for sport and event managers to promote the social aspects of sport event participation in Qatar, as well as heightening awareness of sport focused technology.
Key words: Participatory sport events; Sport event participation; Physical activity; Constraints; Facilitators
Tourism Mobility at the Summer Olympic Games Rio 2016 – 399
Amanda Cabral,* Carolin Lusby,† and Ricardo Uvinha*
*School of Arts Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
†Chaplin School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Florida International University, North Miami, FL, USA
Sports tourism as a segment is growing exponentially in Brazil. The sports mega-events that occurred in the period from 2007 to 2016 helped strengthen this sector significantly. This article examined tourism mobility during the Summer Olympic Games Rio 2016, hosted by the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study expands the understanding of the relationship between tourism and city infrastructure, therefore being relevant to academics, professionals of the area, and to the whole society due to its multidisciplinary field. The existence of a relationship between means of transportation and the Olympic regions as well as tourist attractions for a possible legacy was observed. Data were collected from official sources, field research, and through participant observation and semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed. The results indicate that the city was overall successful in its execution of sufficient mobility. New means of transportation were added and others updated. Bus rapid transits (BRTs) were the main use of mass transport to Olympic sites. However, a lack of public transport access was observed for the touristic sites.
Key words: Brazil; Rio de Janeiro; Summer Olympic Games 2016; Tourism; Tourism mobility; Transport; Sports
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