Special Issue Title: Changing Perspectives in Fashion Events
Topicality: The fashion industry is globally important, economically and in terms of consumer culture. The industry has experienced much change over the last few decades with globalized markets, increased competition, internet retailingand overseas production. Fashion also spans a number of genres, from luxury to low-cost to streetwear, this includes sports brands expanding into casual fashion. Given that competition is global, marketing is key to gaining consumer attention and engagement. However, global production and competition has also resulted in criticisms for supply chain ethics and more frequent changes in style that have resulted in the fashion industry being a major polluter. Coupled with digital and technological advancements, consumer expectations are changing; therefore, online marketing is increasingly important and social media and mobile applications are also harnessed within the spectrum of marketing activities. Given the fast pace of change, for both the fashion industry and technology, this special issue seeks to gain an insight into the new and changing roles of fashion events (e.g., fashion shows).
Originality: In the fast-changing world of the fashion industry, it is imperative that researchers and practitioners in the field are kept abreast of the latest trends and developments. After reviewing top marketing journals (e.g., EuropeanJournal of Marketing) and more specialized journals (e.g., Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management), there are few studies on fashion industry’s usage of events when compared to other areas of fashion research, such as online marketing and purchasing behaviors. However, fashion events’ influences on individual, businesses, and society can be profound.
Aims: It is the aim of the special issue to provide insight to fashion industry’s influence on society and businesses by focusing on fashion events. It plans to develop theoretical, conceptual, and practical implications towards a better understanding of fashion events management and marketing in a global / local context.
Fashion event management/marketing
Fashion event in B2B context
Fashion event and social media
Fashion event’s influences
Ethnicity, culture, and fashion event
Fashion event, self, and others
Fashion event’s relationships with luxury fashion brands and fast fashion brands
Globalization/localization and fashion event
Literature review and meta-studies on fashion event
Fashion event programs in higher education
Dr. Elaine Ritch (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 8459 Email: Elaine.Ritch@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Norman Peng (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 3117 Email: Norman.Peng@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Annie Chen (Roehampton University) Roehampton University Roehampton Ln, London SW15 5PU Telephone: +44 (0)20 8392 3000 Email: Annie.Chen@roehampton.ac.uk
Peer review: This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Event Management. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of twoindependent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the orderin which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelinesabove under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23.
Book citation: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in
the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
Kenneth Backman Clemson University PRTM Lehstaky Hall Clemson, SC 29634, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ASSISTANT EDITOR
Karin Emmons, Clemson University, USA REGIONAL EDITOR UK
Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, UK Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Australia Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Canada Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, USA Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, USA Soyoung Boo, Georgia State University, USA Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK Libby Carter, Birmingham City University, England Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, UK Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, USA Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, Australia Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, USA Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, USA Mike Duignan, University of Surrey, UK Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, USA Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Australia Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Canada Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, UK David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, UK Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Australia Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA Martinette Kruger, North-West University, South Africa Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Griffith University, Australia Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Australia Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK Irem Arsal Önder, University of Massachusetts, USA Norman Peng, University of Westminster, UK James Petrick, Texas A&M University, USA Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Canada Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, USA Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, The Netherlands Geoffrey Koome Riungu, Moi University, Kenya Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, UK Susan L. Slocum, George Mason University, USA Wayne Smith, Ryerson University, Canada Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, UK Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Canada Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, USA Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, USA Emily Zirbes, Iowa State University/EZ Global Link, Canada
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Australia Joe Jeff Goldblatt, Queen Margaret University, UK Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Canada Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (email@example.com). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with 1-inch margins, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, all author names with their titles, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country and email address. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters maximum should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of up to 300 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines above under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Mahadevan, 2019) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Kruger & Saaymen, 2018; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Shipway & Miles, 2020) or (Porter, 2019, p. 242) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Pernecky, T., & Rakic, T. (2019. Visual methods in event studies. Event Management, 23(2), 179–190. https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15378845225447 Book citation:Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2016). Event studies: Theory, research, and policy for planned events (3rd ed.). Routledge. Book chapter in edited book:Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., & Spurr, R. (2006). Economic evaluation of special events. In L. Dwyer & P. Forsyth (Eds.), International handbook on the economics of tourism (pp. 316–355). Edward Elgar. Internet source: Chipps, W. (2010, June 3). FIFA secures $1.6 billion in world cup sponsorship revenues. IEG. http://www.sponsorship.com/About-IEG/Press-Room/FIFA-Secures-$1-6-Billion-in-World-Cup-Sponsorship.aspx
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept noresponsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Event Management(EM) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Event Management (EM) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for EM is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The submission, with all identification removed, is sent to an Editorial Board member by the EIC, within 7 days. The Editorial Board member then sends the submission to two other scholars within 7 days. The reviewers are always experts in their field. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers are expected in 4-8 weeks or less and are delivered to the Editorial Board member. The Board member then has 7 days to send his/her recommendation to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on comments received.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection within 7 days. The comments to authors are blinded.
Authors would have 12 months to resubmit a revised paper. Notification of final decision is typically 2 weeks’ time.
As a reviewer for Event Management you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for EM please contact the EIC: Kenneth Backman Clemson University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
As a reviewer for Event Management, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Prioritizing Strategic Factors of Creative Tourism Industry in Iran by Analytic Network Process (ANP) – 553 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855977
Reza Kiani Mavi,* Hamed Gheibdoust,† and Ahmad A. Khanfar*
*School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia †Department of Industrial Management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University (QIAU), Qazvin, Iran
Nowadays, it is obvious that creative tourism industry has become very essential for countries and societies; therefore, governments work on constituting policies in order to develop this industry. To be successful in improving creative tourism industry, governments should identify the influential factors and focus on ones that are more important rather than investing a bit on many different factors. Because of the interrelations among factors, this research is aiming to prioritize factors that influence strategic policies of creative tourism industry in Iran using analytic network process (ANP). Data were collected during the period of May 2017 to February 2018. Participants in this research are 13 tourism experts with more than 10 years’ experience in the field. Results show that the most influential criterion is “business support” and the most influential subcriterion is “supporting midsize businesses.” This study helps policy makers to improve creative tourism by emphasizing on those factors that have high priority from the viewpoint of strategic policymaking.
Key words: Creative tourism; Strategic policies; Analytic network process (ANP) method; Iran Wackiness and Event Management: The Case of the World Alternative Games – 567 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856174 Lucia Aquilino,* Nicholas Wise,† and John Harris‡
*Faculty of Business Law and Social Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK †Tourism and Events Management, Education, Health and Community, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK ‡Glasgow School for Business and Society, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, UK
The World Alternative Games (WAG) is a biennial event that takes place in Britain’s smallest town. This article considers the ways in which wackiness is central to event spaces within the town of Llanwrtyd Wells, Wales. Based on a social constructivist approach, this work sheds light on aspects of the concept development, planning, and organization of events within a particular locale. It shows how wackiness is an important element of the event management development in the town and a key part of wider rural tourism development.
Key words: Rural; Tourism development; Wackiness; Wales
From Ephemeral Events to Multiple Legacies: An International Comparison of Festival Demarcations and Management Approaches – 579 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856192
Jasper Eshuis,* Bonno Pel,† and J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak‡
*Department of Public Administration and Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands †Center for Sustainable Development Studies, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Institut de Gestion de l’Environnement et d’Aménagement du Territoire, Brussels, Belgium ‡Department of Marketing, Events and Tourism, University of Greenwich, Business School, Old Royal Naval College, London, UK
Festivals have come to play an important role in tourism and managing their legacy has become an important challenge for governments and the events industry. Festivals typically take place over limited periods of time, but they also bring longer lasting legacies for the economy, local communities, and the environment. Festival legacies are characterized by interpretive flexibility; they are interpreted differently by various actors. This complicates attempts to adapt the management of festivals in such a way that aspired legacies are realized and unwanted (negative) legacies minimized. This article elicits the recursive relationship between the ways in which event legacies are socially constructed, and how events are managed. Building on constructivist approaches to governance and management and drawing on the empirical variety of six cultural festivals in different parts of Europe, this contribution shows how event legacy can be unpacked along actors’ diverse cognitive, social, temporal, and spatial demarcations, and how these understandings relate to particular repertoires of management and governance. Highlighting how event legacies are pursued through combinations of control-oriented project management and more broadly scoped process management approaches, the study concludes with strategic reflections on the possibilities for elevating ephemeral events into vehicles for social change.
Key words: Event management; Legacy; Social construction; Project management; Process management
Knowledge Sharing and Power in the Event Workforce – 597 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856228
Birgit Muskat* And Judith Mair†
*Research School of Management, ANU College of Business & Economics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia †UQ Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
The aim of this study is twofold. First, we draw on organizational behavior, strategic management, and events literature to conceptualize the event workforce. We show that events are a highly heterogeneous organization with a temporary and project-based structure, and are characterized by a high fluctuation of paid employees and volunteers. Second, we contextualize these unique characteristics to understand knowledge sharing behavior of the event workforce. We analyze interview data from volunteers and paid employees at tourism events to make two theoretical contributions: 1) We advance theory in events literature, showing that event organizations are unique in terms of their processes and team composition; 2) We contribute with novel insights of how knowledge is used in heterogeneous event teams, explaining how knowledge serves as a source of power for both volunteers and paid event managers alike.
Key words: Event workforce; Volunteers; Heterogeneous teams; Knowledge sharing; Power theory
Community Events: Committees, Challenges, and Cooperation – 611 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856480 Marjory Brewster
Business School, Queen Margaret University, East Lothian, Edinburgh, UK
Despite the growing interest in community-led organizations there remains some events operated by not-for-profit organizations that have not been fully explored, even when there is a significant sociocultural contribution to the host communities. Although this study is set within Highland Games there are many similarities to a variety not-for-profit event organizations managing traditional community events or cultural celebrations such as Hogmanay or Common Ridings. The challenges facing volunteer organizations are considerable when attempting to maintain cultural traditions and committee stabilization, for numerous not-for-profit event organizations. Furthermore, the organizers of community events may not be traditionally perceived as the protectors of a country’s culture, there is no doubt that many events play a significant role in promoting unique elements of tradition and culture. Adopting a qualitative methodology, the article highlights some of the challenges encountered to maintain a stable support system for dedicated groups of individuals. Findings highlight the community focus and need for synergetic support systems in communities to ensure longevity of significantly important events.
Key words: Management; Community; Not-for-profit; Culture; Volunteers; Highland Games
Motorsport Event Attendees: Who Are They, What Is Their Environmental Worldview, and How Does it Relate to Trip Spending? – 629 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856264
Jarrett R. Bachman
International School of Hospitality, Sports, & Tourism Management, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, BC, Canada
The relationship between economics and sustainability within the event industry is becoming increasingly important. Events with a reputation of not being sustainable (i.e., motorsport events) are chronically underserved in the literature. This research incorporated the revised New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) as a theoretical foundation to assess sustainability attitudes of motor racing event attendees at a series of major racing events in Monterey County, California (USA). The NEP assessment created the basis for examining relationships between sustainability attitudes and motorsport event patrons’ characteristics including demographic information, tourist patrons’ total trip spending, and per-day spending. Interestingly, patrons attending these traditionally nonenvironmentally sustainable events were found to have similar NEP scores to other event and nonevent research. Sustainability attitudes were not significantly different based on demographic variables, including age and income. However, an inverse relationship was found between environmental attitudes and spending. Tourist patrons with a less sustainable environmental worldview spent more per day and more per trip than those with a more sustainable environmental worldview. These surprising results provide a basis for industry and academic discourse within event management, sustainability, and marketing.
Perspectives on the Volunteering Legacy of the London 2012 Olympic Games: The Development of an Event Legacy Stakeholder Engagement Matrix – 645 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856327
Richard Shipway,* Leonie Lockstone-Binney,† Kirsten Holmes,‡ and Karen A. Smith§
*Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, UK †Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia ‡School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Australia §School of Management, Victoria Business School, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
Using a sustainable event legacy timeline, this article examines the extent to which the existing volunteering infrastructure supporting volunteer management in the host city were engaged before, during, and after the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, to generate a legacy for volunteering. This infrastructure includes volunteering peak bodies, volunteer resource centers, national sport governing bodies, community organizations and local government. A case study of the London 2012 Games was employed involving extensive documentary evidence and interviews with senior level informants. The findings revealed limitations with official legacy planning and a failure to engage with the voluntary sector in the host city. The event legacy timeline is combined with four key themes to emerge from the data to conceptualize an event legacy stakeholder engagement matrix. This identifies recommendations to enable future host cities to optimize opportunities from Olympic Games volunteer programs to generate wider community benefits.
Using Job Advertisements To Advance Event Management Research – 661 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599520X15894679115529
Charles Arcodia, Margarida Abreu Novais, and Truc H. Le
Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Continued progress in the tourism industry and rapid technological advances have pointed to the continued need for well-educated managers in the event sector. Attempts at professionalizing have also identified formal tertiary education and industry training to be significant components in these efforts, and although there is a clear association between education and the needs of the industry, the correlation has often been questioned. This discussion examines the prevailing, but limited discourse on event management skills and attributes, analyzes its implications, and offers several explicit research propositions to advance knowledge using job advertisement analysis. These suggestions will be of benefit to formal education providers and the event sector as an international agenda for event management skilling is advanced.
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