Special Issue Title: Changing Perspectives in Fashion Events
Topicality: The fashion industry is globally important, economically and in terms of consumer culture. The industry has experienced much change over the last few decades with globalized markets, increased competition, internet retailingand overseas production. Fashion also spans a number of genres, from luxury to low-cost to streetwear, this includes sports brands expanding into casual fashion. Given that competition is global, marketing is key to gaining consumer attention and engagement. However, global production and competition has also resulted in criticisms for supply chain ethics and more frequent changes in style that have resulted in the fashion industry being a major polluter. Coupled with digital and technological advancements, consumer expectations are changing; therefore, online marketing is increasingly important and social media and mobile applications are also harnessed within the spectrum of marketing activities. Given the fast pace of change, for both the fashion industry and technology, this special issue seeks to gain an insight into the new and changing roles of fashion events (e.g., fashion shows).
Originality: In the fast-changing world of the fashion industry, it is imperative that researchers and practitioners in the field are kept abreast of the latest trends and developments. After reviewing top marketing journals (e.g., EuropeanJournal of Marketing) and more specialized journals (e.g., Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management), there are few studies on fashion industry’s usage of events when compared to other areas of fashion research, such as online marketing and purchasing behaviors. However, fashion events’ influences on individual, businesses, and society can be profound.
Aims: It is the aim of the special issue to provide insight to fashion industry’s influence on society and businesses by focusing on fashion events. It plans to develop theoretical, conceptual, and practical implications towards a better understanding of fashion events management and marketing in a global / local context.
Fashion event management/marketing
Fashion event in B2B context
Fashion event and social media
Fashion event’s influences
Ethnicity, culture, and fashion event
Fashion event, self, and others
Fashion event’s relationships with luxury fashion brands and fast fashion brands
Globalization/localization and fashion event
Literature review and meta-studies on fashion event
Fashion event programs in higher education
Dr. Elaine Ritch (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 8459 Email: Elaine.Ritch@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Norman Peng (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 3117 Email: Norman.Peng@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Annie Chen (Roehampton University) Roehampton University Roehampton Ln, London SW15 5PU Telephone: +44 (0)20 8392 3000 Email: Annie.Chen@roehampton.ac.uk
Peer review: This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Event Management. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of twoindependent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the orderin which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelinesabove under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23.
Book citation: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in
the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
Kenneth Backman Clemson University PRTM Lehstaky Hall Clemson, SC 29634, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ASSISTANT EDITOR
Karin Emmons, Clemson University REGIONAL EDITOR UK
EDITORIAL BOARD Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield, UK Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, BC, Canada Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, London, UK Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, Troy, AL, USA Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan Wendy Hultsman, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA Martinette Kruger, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Irem Arsal Önder, MODUL University, Vienna, Austria Norman Peng, University of Westminster, London, UK James Petrick, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, Tillburg, The Netherlands Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK Sandie Strick, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Joe Jeff Goldblatt, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (email@example.com). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
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Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines avoveunder Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text forquoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book citation:Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London, UK: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book:Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391).New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
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Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
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SPECIAL ISSUE EVENTS IN A CHANGING WORLD Guest Editors: Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, Iride Azara, and Nikolaos Pappas
“Events in a Changing World”: Introductory Remarks – 491 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721510
Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou,* Iride Azara,* and Nikolaos Pappas†
*Centre for Contemporary Hospitality and Tourism, University of Derby, Buxton, UK †Department of Tourism, Hospitality & Events, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK
What Preevent Motives Determine the Decision to Volunteer at a Sporting Event: How Can Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Help? – 495 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855643
David Lamb* and Alfred Ogle†
*Business School, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Australia †School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia
This article examines the preevent motivations of volunteers recruited from the local community for a sporting event. Using empirical data and Herzberg’s two-factor theory as a framework, satisfaction attributes impacting upon volunteer expectations prior to the actual event were investigated. The researchers sought to determine why volunteers involved themselves with the event, and what key factors underpinned their decision-making process. A paper-based survey administered to registered volunteers probed volunteers’ preevent motives. The emergent themes from analysis of the respondents’ (N = 97) feedback ranged from altruism (helping others) to self-interest (a complimentary round of golf). The predominant theme was the respondents’ “love of the game,” which encompassed the subthemes of self-interest and perceived personal benefits. Also, community benefits such as the building of community identity, social recognition, and pride were deemed as important due to the affiliative nature of the local golfing fraternity, the primary distinguishing factor for volunteering at the material event. The study found that hygiene factors were crucial in forming the foundations for a positive volunteer experience, whereas satisfaction was closely linked to the presence of motivational attributes of the event. The identification of hygiene and satisfaction factors can be invaluable input for event organizer’s strategy to recruit volunteers. Furthermore, by putting into place hygiene factors volunteers are less likely to experience dissatisfaction and by targeting the primary motivators of their volunteers, the attention of prospective volunteers can be captured and then effectively converted into an interest in the event eventually leading to making the commitment to participate. The effective engagement with volunteers can engender a positive experience, which increases the likelihood of repeat volunteering.
Talent Management and Retention in Events Companies: Evidence From Four Countries – 511 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855760
Evangelia (Lia) Marinakou
Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset, UK
A variety of social, economic, and political factors (such as enhanced labor mobility, refugees’ phenomenon, and immigration) have led to a volatile business environment and a changing labor profile in the events industry. Against this highly competitive and volatile background, events management businesses must deal with the challenging task of effectively attracting, managing, and retaining their talented employees contributing to their competitive advantage. This study aims at exploring talent management and retention strategies in the events industry. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected with semistructured interviews from four countries: the UK, the US, Greece, and Australia. Participants in this study recognized the strategic value of effective talent management. The findings suggest that the main strategies to retain talent in the events sector in the Western context include a friendly and open access culture, teamwork, mentoring, leadership, compensation, succession planning, and training and development as the key strategies to retain talent. More importantly, events companies should focus on staff engagement; highly engaged employees are more aligned with the company’s vision and culture. This enables managers reduce staff turnover and enhance job satisfaction.
Key words: Talent; Retention; Events; Engagement
Challenges in Managing Peripheral Workers Within Diverse Environments – 527 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855751
Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou and Claudia Melpignano
Centre for Contemporary Hospitality and Tourism, University of Derby, Buxton, UK
This article explores the HR issues that tour operators experience in the planning, coordination, and management of tours revolving around cycling events. It does so by using a tour operator based in the UK as a case study and by deploying a qualitative ethnographic approach. This methodology was deemed as the most fitting to enable an in-depth and rich analysis of the issues that characterize the complex management of core (office-based employees) and peripheral workers (tour guides on the event site). Not only do the different operations, time frames, environments, and activities within which the employees operate result in the company’s workforce division into two distinctive groups, but they also determine low levels of professional satisfaction and motivation among the tour guides. Investigating the stances held by the company’s employees in relation to the difficulties encountered in the workplace is necessary to develop a strategy that allows for retaining peripheral workers, for creating synergy between the two different teams, and consequently for ensuring the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives. The findings highlight how the adoption of HR practices that aim at enhancing the company’s internal marketing would entail an optimistic shift in the tour guides’ perception of their position within the company, resulting in improved product delivery and reduced absenteeism, burnout, and turnover challenges.
Key words: Human resources; Peripheral workers; Tour guides; Internal marketing; Tourism; Events
The Stakeholder Sandwich: A New Stakeholder Analysis Model For Events And Festivals – 541 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855742
Kevin Wallace and Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou
Centre for Contemporary Hospitality and Tourism, University of Derby, Derbyshire, UK
The significance of stakeholders in the festival and events sector is demonstrated in the literature and is a growing area of interest. The application of conventional stakeholder theory to this sector has proved to be problematic and new models developed as alternatives. Since the 1980s a number of matrices and models have been established to identify and categorize stakeholders, but limitations have been exposed in the context of festival and events research. This study set out to explore the use of established stakeholder models for their usefulness and effectiveness in the sector, consider alternative models and to examine empirically a proposed alternative. To do so, a multiphased qualitative methodology was used. Results indicated that none of the conventional or proposed sector-specific models were in common usage by sector professionals but did confirm that Ed Freeman’s founding stakeholder definition of 1984 continues to be valid and hold true. The framework for a new conceptual test model was developed and then refined to produce the Stakeholder Sandwich Model for testing on a live event. This model proved to be effective in identifying and mapping a wide range of stakeholders with flexibility and fluidity, overcoming the limitations of both established conventional models and more recent sector-specific typographies. This model has significant potential for application in the festival and events sector, with implications for both researchers and event practitioners.
Key words: Event management; Stakeholders; Participation; Involvement; Live events
Guided Walking Tours Exploring the Landscapes of Communist Urban Modernity in Prague and Krakow: Sets of Small-Scale Events With the Capacity to Influence Society – 559 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855797
Ian Joseph Morton
Tourism and Events, Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Events, Faculty of Business, Law and Tourism, University of Sunderland, Sir Tom Cowie Campus at St. Peter’s, Sunderland, UK
This article contributes to the small but growing body of academic work taking events literature beyond the confines of the events industry: appraising the impact of events on a fundamental sociocultural level, in the long term and in sectors outside of events. This case study, using participant observation, examines the impact of small, guided walking tours operating at the local level as they contribute to setting the theoretical agenda for dark tourism, a phenomenon that resonates heavily at the societal level. The walking tours in Prague and Krakow explore urban landscapes that emerged from historical modernity under Communism. Dark events or visitor attractions, which deal with modernity—often giving attendees a vision of the enormity of change and ambition inherent in modernity—commonly extend to the darkest and most profound reaches of the dark tourism sector. This article identifies three “themes of interpretation” in the tours: the stunning speed of modern change to have occurred in the urban landscapes visited; the greater abundance of “open air” between neighboring structures that can be sensed by the human being in the modern city, which can, at times be impressive to behold but can result in a dark or insecure experience for the pedestrian user; and the vast power of the state in the Communist regimes historically at work in Prague and Krakow to plan and bring about wholesale change of a landscape. This study also deepens understanding of interpretative techniques used in guided walking tours and appropriate research methods to study them.
Key words: Small-scale events; Impact of events; Guided walking tours; Dark tourism; Urban landscapes of modernity; Participant observation
Walkability in the Historic City of Oaxaca, Mexico – 573 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855689
Daniel Barrera-Fernandez and Marco Hernandez-Escampa
Faculty of Architecture “5 de Mayo,” Autonomous University of Oaxaca “Benito Juarez,” Oaxaca, Mexico
The renovation of traditional events to suit contemporary demands carries important benefits for the hosting cities, such as the increase in the number of visitors, and the differentiation of destinations and urban spaces that are apparently similar for potential tourists. However, street events attract a considerable number of visitors that are concentrated in a very limited space for a short stay. Especially in historic cities with large number visitors, the so-called tourist-historic cities, events contribute to the commodification of public space, overcrowding, and overuse of certain public spaces and heritage assets during a very short period. Thus, the walkability of this urban area plays a key role in visitors’ satisfaction and experience. This article explores the perceptions of tourists in relation to walkability in the streets of the city center of Oaxaca, Mexico, during the celebration of the Guelaguetza Festival. The city center of Oaxaca was included in UNESCO’s World Heritage List and is one of the most visited urban destinations in Mexico, while the Guelaguetza is the most popular annual event in the city for national and international visitors. A mixed methodology was developed based on direct observation of tourists walking along the streets of central Oaxaca and the application of a questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on personal aspects and external aspects that affect the desire to walk, such as safety, cleanliness, traffic congestion, and pollution. The results showed relevant differences according to the visitor’s background and allowed to suggest some urban improvements to increase visitors’ satisfaction. Urban design to achieve a more walkable city is closely related to the success of street festivals and should be included in the early stages of an event’s design.
Key words: Urban tourism; Cultural events; Walkability; Historic city; World Heritage
Escaping From the Event? Residents’ Perception of Christmas Markets in Northern Italy – 599 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855715
Anja Marcher,* Greta Erschbamer,* and Harald Pechlaner*†
*Center for Advanced Studies, Eurac Research, Bolzano, Italy †Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Eichstätt, Germany
Christmas markets as annual cultural events are constantly changing and have become a mass phenomenon of our day. Even though they represent a promising strategy to extend low seasons in tourism, the growing number of visitors can negatively impact residents’ perceptions of the event and its authenticity. The central purpose of this study is to gain a new perspective on Christmas markets as cultural events focusing on residents by considering them as important actors within a tourism destination. Qualitative interviews with residents of Meran, a Christmas market destination in Northern Italy, explored their meaning for the locals and the impact of increasing numbers of visitors on their loyalty to the event, by implementing the GABEK qualitative research strategy. The results give insights into central aspects of the events’ authenticity, show a shift to less commercial settings in rural areas, and highlight some negative impacts.
Key words: Authenticity; Christmas market; Cultural event; Overcrowding; Residents’ perception
Making Sure They Have the Time of Their Lives: Identifying Cocreation Opportunities at the Dirty Dancing Festival – 613 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855706
Stefanie Benjamin,* Whitney Knollenberg,† and Rachel Chen*
*Department of Retail, Hospitality & Tourism Management, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA †Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Film-induced festivals are becoming more popular, generated through accessibility of streaming platforms and acceptance for popular culture fandom. This is different than any general film festival, because there is a sense of community and desire for recreation among film-induced festival attendees, who are seeking a very specific feel and experience. This excitement can also spill over into the surrounding community, thus sparking interest with festival organizers and community hospitality and retail business owners. Knowing what experiences film-induced festival attendees are seeking can potentially increase visitation, facilitate positive word of mouth, and promote return intentions. This study explored The 2017 Dirty Dancing Festival at Lake Lure, NC, USA where social media posts were collected to understand how attendees experienced the festival. Informed by cocreation theory and a qualitative content analysis, seven themes related to the lived experiences of festival attendees were identified providing in-depth information on attendees’ expectations of film-induced festivals. Their experiences related to recreating film scenes and scouting film locations helped to contribute evidence for how festival organizers can maximize cocreation through film-induced festivals using social media posts.
Key words: Film-induced tourism; Film-induced festivals; Cocreation theory; Volunteer employed photography; Social media
Priming Host City Physical Legacy Plans: The Bidding Chronicles of Brazil’s Derailed Sporting Event Infrastructure Projects – 627 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855724 Seth I. Kirby* and Lauren A. H. Crabb†
*Lord Ashcroft International Business School, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK †Department of Management and Human Resources, Coventry University London, London, UK
This article presents a case study of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil and the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro to explore infrastructure development and physical legacies connected to the planning, bidding, and staging of mega-sporting events. Primary data were collected in Cuiabá in two phases during the 2014 World Cup and after the event in 2015. This entailed participant observation, structured observation, document analysis, and 15 semistructured interviews with the local population, as well as current and former government and stadium employees. Following the Rio 2016 Olympic Games primary data were collected from Porto Maravilha, Rio de Janeiro. In January 2018, 15 semistructured interviews were undertaken with tour operators and cultural businesses. Significant evidence indicates the ineffectiveness of urban and rural infrastructure development and facility improvements, delays and cancellations in infrastructure programs, stadiums and venues overshooting their original costs and budgetary requirements, and controversial targeted transport interventions. Practical managerial recommendations and strategies are offered to aid the implementation, management, and maintenance of host city infrastructure during the planning, bidding, hosting, and post-sporting event phases.
Key words: Mega-sport event (MSE); Infrastructure; Legacy; Event planning and policy; Brazil 2014; Rio 2016; Cuiabá; Porto Maravilha
Conserving Italian World Heritage Sites Through Live Music Events: Exploring Barriers and Opportunities – 641 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855788
Claudia Melpignano and Iride Azara
Centre for Contemporary Hospitality and Tourism, University of Derby, Buxton, UK
Consumers’ demands for innovative forms of heritage consumption combined with a desire for long-lasting memories have highlighted the role that staged events and other live music performances at cultural and historical sites can play in the conservation of these assets. However, to date, research on these aspects remains fragmented and indeed lacking within the Italian landscape. Building on these considerations, this article explores the tensions inherent in the reuse and conservation of Italian cultural and historical assets through live events. The research uses three World Heritage sites (WHS) distributed across the Italian territory as case studies to identify the positions of different stakeholders involved in the production of live music performances. A qualitative, comparative, case study design has been deemed as the most fitting to enable an in-depth investigation of the stances held by public and private sector organizations involved in the staging of events at WHS and to enable a rich analysis of the issues. Findings show significant ideological and cultural barriers impacting the use of staged live events at such venues. Besides suggesting a cross-sectorial cooperative approach to help rejuvenate these WHS and to generate funding for conservation purposes findings suggest the need to develop a sustainable strategy for managing national heritage assets incorporating clear guidelines on the reuse of WHS.
Crisis Management Communications for Popular Culture Events – 655 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855652
Department of Tourism, Hospitality & Events, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK
Based on the conceptualization of the existing literature, the aim of this article is to discuss the risk and crisis communication aspects in tourism with reference to popular culture events. It focuses on (1) the influence of potential crises in popular culture events on destination image and branding, (2) the crisis marketing aspects that need to be considered from the event organizers and destination marketing organization (DMO) authorities, and (3) the communications’ reaction of stakeholders in respective crises. From a theoretical perspective, its contribution deals with the provision of an understanding in terms of marketing communications in popular culture events when facing crises. Managerially, this article contributes through the formulation of essential tools for crisis communications in the respective events, including both external and internal marketing strategies.
Key words: Popular culture; Risk and crisis management; Tourism; Events; Disaster management communications
Events Are Bound to Happen, Spank You Very Much: The Importance of Munch Events in the BDSM Community – 669 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599518X15403853721529
Craig Webster* and Stanislav Ivanov†
*Department of Management, Miller College of Business, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA †School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Varna University of Management, Varna, Bulgaria
The kinkster/BDSM community is a sexual minority that largely operates underground. Although not linked directly with the sexual practices of the community, the prevailing social institution of the subculture is the munch, social gatherings in which no “kink” activities take place. In this research, we analyze data from two international surveys, one of munch organizers and one of munch participants. The findings show the lifestyle and demographic variables that are linked with placing importance on the institution of the munch. One major finding from the research is that munch participants are most strongly motivated with a desire to socialize, rather than looking for partners for sexual experiences, although these two motivations are not mutually exclusive. In addition, we see that for both organizers and participants in munches, the more years in the lifestyle, the less importance organizers and participants place on the munch for their involvement in the lifestyle.
Environmentally Sustainable Lifestyle Indicators of Travelers and Expectations for Green Festivals: The Case of Canada – 685 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855661
Rachel Dodds,* Philip R. Walsh,† and Burcu Koc‡
*School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada †Department of Entrepreneurship and Strategy, Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ‡School of Tourism, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
Festivals are emerging as one of the most attractive events in the tourism industry as their cultural and social wealth can contribute to the general promotion of a destination. Increased desire by communities to behave more responsibly has encouraged more sustainability-focused strategies on the part of festival organizers and have stimulated other industry stakeholders towards such actions. Accordingly, understanding what ecological behaviors might contribute to encouraging festival attendance can be important to planning a festival. In this regard, the main purpose of this research was to investigate real life environmentally sustainability tendencies of festivalgoers and their attitude towards attending environmentally sustainable festivals. Survey data were collected from 849 Canadian respondents who had attended a festival at least once in 2017. Our findings illustrate that a positive attitude towards attending a green festival is more strongly predicted by the level of intrinsic voluntary environmental actions that reflect personal commitment than by more mechanistic environmental activities such as waste reduction and recycling.
Key words: Sustainability; Sustainable practices; Green festivals; Ecological behavior; Canada
Understanding Festival-Goers and Their Experience at UK Music Festivals – 699 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855733
Alyssa Eve Brown* and Richard Sharpley†
*Department of Tourism, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, UK
†Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Events, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK
This article explores the influence of sociodemographic characteristics in determining the perceived importance of attributes of the UK music festival experience to festival-goers. Quantitative data were collected through an online survey using a cluster, snowball sampling technique and 586 respondents completed the survey. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to identify factors of the festival experience, whereas linear regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of festival-goers and the resulting experience constructs against the overall evaluated experience. From eight major factors, seven hypotheses were identified. The results revealed the most important factors to the overall experience to be entertainment, added value, and music, whereas the remaining factors did not have a direct impact. Conversely, the sociodemographic characteristics contributing to the dependent constructs were primarily age and gender, followed by education and marital status. The location where festival-goers grew up and their employment status had minimal impact. The practical implications of this study provide the opportunity for festival organizers to direct their strategic management efforts towards the elements of the festival experience that are most important to their targeted or typical festival-goers. This article also addresses a notable gap in the literature by evaluating the importance of specific experience attributes in the context of popular UK music festivals. Moreover, it examines the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics of festival-goers and the importance of experience attributes to the overall UK music festival experience.
Key words: Music festival; Experience; Festival-goer; Event management
Together Alone: An Exploration of the Virtual Event Experience – 721 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855625
Olivia Wreford,* Nigel L. Williams,† and Nicole Ferdinand‡
*Business Growth & Development Executive, Wasserman, London, UK †Faculty of Business and Law, Portsmouth Business School, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK ‡Oxford Brookes Business School, The Oxford School of Hospitality Management, Headington Campus, Oxford, UK
After 50 years in development, virtual reality (VR) has now become commercially available to consumers. The events industry has started to adopt this transformational technology, by implementing it into live events or using it as an alternative method for providing event experiences. However, little research attempts to compare real to virtual event experiences to understand perceived user benefits and drawbacks. Using Uses and Gratifications (UG) Theory, this study aims to understand the possible user benefits provided from virtual event experiences. A process was designed that incorporated the viewing of a VR experience that was similar to an event previously attended by respondents. They were then interviewed and performed a product reaction card exercise to compare their experiences. Analysis of the data suggests that current 360 VR technology can be used to extend the experiencescape but not replace live events. Respondents indicate that VR provides emotional gratifications that may build positive associations with event organizations and brands. However, VR in its current form does not provide the social and sensory gratifications of live events. VR can therefore be used to deepen relationships with existing participants or encourage future participation at events.
Trends in Tourism-Related Academic Conferences: An Examination of Host Locations, Themes, Gender Representation, and Costs – 733 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855670 Shu-Hsiang (Ava) Chen* and Aaron Tham†
*Business School, Shantou University, Shantou, China †USC Business School, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia
This article examines trends associated with tourism-related academic conferences scheduled between mid-2016 and end-2018. As a subset of a lucrative business events market, studies on academic conferences remain underinvestigated. Moreover, academic literature to date reveal that extant studies are often fragmented—using one conference or through the perspective of a single stakeholder group. To address the paucity of literature related to academic conferences, this article uncovers trends within 360 tourism-related academic conferences through four aspects: Host locations, themes, gender representation, and costs. The findings reveal that tourism-related academic conferences are mostly held within the continents of Asia and Europe, mirror academic and industry contemporary discourses, reflect the persistent gap in terms of gender representation, and present increasing costs of attendance unequally skewed towards a few conferences. Timing of tourism-related academic conferences are also largely scheduled towards the first half of the year. Further recommendations are made to organizers planning for future tourism-related academic conferences to make these events more inclusive such as (1) deriving themes from industry inputs, (2) creating a balanced profile of male and female keynotes speaker, and (3) considering cost-efficient practices to create more sustainable academic conferences.
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