Special Issue Title: Changing Perspectives in Fashion Events
Topicality: The fashion industry is globally important, economically and in terms of consumer culture. The industry has experienced much change over the last few decades with globalized markets, increased competition, internet retailingand overseas production. Fashion also spans a number of genres, from luxury to low-cost to streetwear, this includes sports brands expanding into casual fashion. Given that competition is global, marketing is key to gaining consumer attention and engagement. However, global production and competition has also resulted in criticisms for supply chain ethics and more frequent changes in style that have resulted in the fashion industry being a major polluter. Coupled with digital and technological advancements, consumer expectations are changing; therefore, online marketing is increasingly important and social media and mobile applications are also harnessed within the spectrum of marketing activities. Given the fast pace of change, for both the fashion industry and technology, this special issue seeks to gain an insight into the new and changing roles of fashion events (e.g., fashion shows).
Originality: In the fast-changing world of the fashion industry, it is imperative that researchers and practitioners in the field are kept abreast of the latest trends and developments. After reviewing top marketing journals (e.g., EuropeanJournal of Marketing) and more specialized journals (e.g., Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management), there are few studies on fashion industry’s usage of events when compared to other areas of fashion research, such as online marketing and purchasing behaviors. However, fashion events’ influences on individual, businesses, and society can be profound.
Aims: It is the aim of the special issue to provide insight to fashion industry’s influence on society and businesses by focusing on fashion events. It plans to develop theoretical, conceptual, and practical implications towards a better understanding of fashion events management and marketing in a global / local context.
Fashion event management/marketing
Fashion event in B2B context
Fashion event and social media
Fashion event’s influences
Ethnicity, culture, and fashion event
Fashion event, self, and others
Fashion event’s relationships with luxury fashion brands and fast fashion brands
Globalization/localization and fashion event
Literature review and meta-studies on fashion event
Fashion event programs in higher education
Dr. Elaine Ritch (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 8459 Email: Elaine.Ritch@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Norman Peng (Glasgow Caledonian University) Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow School for Business and Society Cowcaddens Rd, Glasgow G4 0BA Telephone: +44 (0)141 331 3117 Email: Norman.Peng@gcu.ac.uk
Professor Annie Chen (Roehampton University) Roehampton University Roehampton Ln, London SW15 5PU Telephone: +44 (0)20 8392 3000 Email: Annie.Chen@roehampton.ac.uk
Peer review: This journal operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for Event Management. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of twoindependent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor’s decision is final. This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the orderin which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelinesabove under Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23.
Book citation: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in
the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Event Management, an International Journal, has been meeting the research, educational, and analytic needs of the rapidly growing profession focused on global events for more than 20 years. This field has developed and evolved in size and impact globally to become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities and a large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings, conventions, festivals, expositions, sport, and other special events. Event management is also of considerable importance to government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in pursuit of a variety of goals, including fundraising, the fostering of causes, and community development.
Event Management aims to continue to be the leading source of research reports and analysis related to all forms of event management. This journal publishes refereed manuscripts, commentaries, research notes, case studies, invited articles,book reviews, and documentation of news and trends. It also invites topical opinion pieces, profiles of organizations, and management case studies.
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. This board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and process all manuscripts, and from time to time will modify the editorial board, ensuring a continuous improvement in quality. The journal, sold by annual subscription, is published six numbers per volume in print and online.
Kenneth Backman Clemson University PRTM Lehstaky Hall Clemson, SC 29634, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ASSISTANT EDITOR
Karin Emmons, Clemson University REGIONAL EDITOR UK
Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield, UK Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, BC, Canada Sheila J. Backman, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Hyejin “Jina” Bang, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Soyoung Boo, Georgia State University, USA Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK Libby Carter, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, England Jose Andres Coca-Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, London, UK Margaret Daniels, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Simon Darcy, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia Anthony W. Dixon, Troy University, Troy, AL, USA Jason Draper, Hilton University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Mike Duignan, Coventry University, UK Zeynep A. Gedikoglu, Clemson University, USA Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Christian (Chris) D. Hanna, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA Rob Harris, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Tom Hinch, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Yu Chih Huang, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan Caroline Jackson, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Xin (Cathy) Jin, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia Maximiliano E. Korstanje, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina Brian D. Krohn, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA Martinette Kruger, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Griffith University, Australia Renuka Mahadevan, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK Irem Arsal Önder, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Norman Peng, University of Westminster, London, UK James Petrick, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Greg W. Richards, Tilburg University, Tillburg, The Netherlands Geoffrey Koome Riungu, Moi University, Kenya Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK Susan L. Slocum, George Mason University, USA Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Suiwen “Sharon” Zhou, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA Emily Zirbes, Iowa State University/EZ Global Link, Calgary, Canada
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Joe Jeff Goldblatt, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via email to Kenneth Backman (email@example.com). Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with 1-inch margins, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, all author names with their titles, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country and email address. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters maximum should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of up to 300 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (following the guidelines avoveunder Title Page), abstract and 3 to 5 key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text forquoted material from a printed source.] Internet source references must have a functional URL. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book citation:Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London, UK: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book:Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391).New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility orliability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Event Management(EM) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Event Management (EM) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for EM is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The submission, with all identification removed, is sent to an Editorial Board member by the EIC, within 7 days. The Editorial Board member then sends the submission to two other scholars within 7 days. The reviewers are always experts in their field. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers are expected in 4-8 weeks or less and are delivered to the Editorial Board member. The Board member then has 7 days to send his/her recommendation to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on comments received.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection within 7 days. The comments to authors are blinded.
Authors would have 12 months to resubmit a revised paper. Notification of final decision is typically 2 weeks’ time.
As a reviewer for Event Management you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for EM please contact the EIC: Kenneth Backman Clemson University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
As a reviewer for Event Management, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Having a Say? The Potential of Local Events as a Tool for Community Engagement – 435 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855940
School of Architecture and Cities, University of Westminster, London, UK
This article uses a case study to consider community event practices that include local people in discussions about the regeneration of their neighborhood and capture their responses to change. It is set in an area adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, the site of London 2012 Olympic Games, and tracks the Hackney Wick Curiosity Shop (hereafter called the Curiosity Shop), an initiative that used events to engage diverse groups and develop shared experiences. The article explores the nature of these events identifying their potential and limitations. It identifies characteristics (conviviality, playfulness, creativity, and accessibility) that appear to create a powerful tool to involve local people, helping to develop a sense of community and producing locally generated place images. In this case their potential is not fully realized because the Curiosity Shop is situated within the complex context and turbulence associated with a mega-event and a major regeneration project where the market-led processes of reimaging and regenerating the area are dominant. This frenzied regeneration context is unusual, and it is argued the conviviality, playfulness, creativity, and accessibility identified here should be investigated further in a setting that is less turbulent to evaluate their effectiveness in engaging communities in debate, discussion, and collective reimagination of their localities.
Key words: Community events; Community engagement; Regeneration
Motivating and Retaining Festival Patronage – 447 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856101
Michelle (Myongjee) Yoo,* Miranda Kitterlin-Lynch,† and Bomin Kim‡
*Collins College of Hospitality Management, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA †Chaplin School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Florida International University, North Miami, FL, USA ‡Grand Coteau, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
Globally, festivals and host communities face increased competition each year from one another and from the myriad of alternate entertainment options. To remain competitive, festival organizers must fully understand what keeps festival attendees coming back year after year. Festivalscape has been an emerging concept of value in this arena, and previous studies have found that festivalscape has an effect on the attendees’ emotion and behavior that influences their overall perceived value of the festival. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between festivalscape and the attendees’ motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and a structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Study results support the hypotheses, indicating the importance of using festivalscape factors for festival organization and management and effective customer relationship marketing. Further, this study provides academic contributions to theoretical foundations by confirming the effects of these factors. This study also provides practical implications for managing festivals effectively and successfully.
Motivation and Psychological Contract in Sport Event Volunteerism: The Impact of Contract Fulfilment on Satisfaction and Future Behavioral Intention – 463 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856110
Eunjung Kim,* Graham Cuskelly,† and Liz Fredline†
*Sport, Event, Tourism and Hospitality, School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia †Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
This study investigated sport event volunteer motivation and psychological contract (PC) with regard to the relationship between PC fulfilment, satisfaction, and future behavioral intention. Motivation-based volunteer subgroups based on cluster analysis were compared regarding their expectations and experiences of PC types as well as their overall satisfaction and future behavioral intention in a pre- and posttest study. The gap between expectations and experiences of PC types (PC fulfilment by gap: PCFg), and second, experience (satisfaction) of PC types (PC fulfilment by experience: PCFe) were tested using regression analysis to investigate the impact of PC fulfilment on satisfaction and future behavioral intention. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 261 sport event volunteers from three sport events in southeast Queensland, Australia. Among this volunteer sample, ideological PC was considered as the most important PC type overall, but different motivations were associated with different PC preferences. Volunteers who had different motivations had varying experiences of PC types, overall satisfaction, and intention to continue volunteering. PCFe was highly related to overall satisfaction and future behavioral intention and was found to be a better predictor of volunteer satisfaction than PCFg. This study provides important theoretical and practical implications for sport event volunteerism approached from the perspective of PC types and motivations.
Academic Events: An Empirically Grounded Typology and Their Academic Impact – 481 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856598
Thomas Trøst Hansen,* David Budtz Pedersen,* and Carmel Foley†
*Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark †UTS Business School, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
The meetings industry, government bodies, and scholars within tourism studies have identified the need to understand the broader impact of business events. To succeed in this endeavor, we consider it necessary to develop analytical frameworks that are sensitive to the particularities of the analyzed event, sector, and stakeholder group. In this article we focus on the academic sector and offer two connected analyses. First is an empirically grounded typology of academic events. We identify four differentiating dimensions of academic events: size, academic focus, participants, and tradition, and based on these dimensions we develop a typology of academic events that includes: congress, specialty conference, symposium, and practitioners’ meeting. Secondly, we outline the academic impact of attending these four types of events. For this purpose, the concept of credibility cycles is used as an analytical framework for examining academic impact. We suggest that academic events should be conceptualized and evaluated as open marketplaces that facilitate conversion of credibility. Data were obtained from interviews with 22 researchers at three Danish universities. The study concludes that there are significant differences between the events in terms of their academic impact. Moreover, the outcome for the individual scholar depends on the investment being made. Finally, the study calls for a future research agenda on beyond tourism benefits based on interdisciplinary collaborations.
Key words: Typology; Legacy; Impact; Academic event; Business event
Negotiating Costs and Benefits Among 2008 Olympic Volunteers: A Social Exchange Perspective – 499 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856129
Yan Wang,*† Inge Derom,* and Marc Theeboom*
*Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium †School of Economics and Management, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China
Significant financial investments in organizing sport mega-events (SME) and training SME volunteers are frequently justified on the basis that local organizations can benefit from a larger pool of experienced volunteers following the event. By employing social exchange theory as a theoretical framework, this study explores the connection between the SME volunteer experience and subsequent volunteer behavior as a potential return on investment. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 15 Chinese volunteers who participated in the 2008 Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games. Qualitative data offers a rich, contextualized view to understand the long-lasting impact of previous SME volunteer experiences, including not only the perceptions in terms of benefits and costs but also its influence on subsequent volunteering elsewhere in the postevent period. We identified that volunteers continue to garner benefits from their SME experience, even 8 years after the event, and mainly in the forms of social, career-related, training, Olympic-related, psychological, and extrinsic benefits. The costs perceived from the SME appear to fade away because the direct costs were covered, and the opportunity costs were low for student volunteers. The theoretical explanations of (future) volunteer behavior provided mixed evidence in the scope of three social exchange theory propositions (i.e., rationality, deprivation–satiation, and approval–aggression proposition). Findings provide valuable insights to inform organizers of SME and other activities to pay more attention to the volunteer experience and to optimize volunteer benefits and costs. Additional improvements in volunteer recruitment are important for Beijing, in preparation of hosting the 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.
Key words: Cost–benefit analysis; Olympic and Paralympic Games; Proposition; Social exchange theory; Volunteering
Batman Rides Again! The Influence of a Superhero Branded Attraction on Visitation to a Casino-Integrated Resort in Macao – 515 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259855968
Glenn McCartney and Karen Cheong Su Man
Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China
The global popularity and rise of superhero movies from companies such as Marvel, DC Comics, and Dream Works has led to these superhero icons being increasingly integrated into the event and entertainment industry, through brand alliances at movie theme parks and integrated resort complexes, or individual attractions such as the Batman Dark Flight (BDF) ride studied in this research. Given the significant costs to license, stage, and maintain superhero branded entertainment zones and rides at integrated resorts (IR), this preliminary study importantly examined the rationale behind visiting the ride and ultimately the ride’s overall influence in IR visitation. Respondents were questioned while queuing for the BDF ride collecting 304 valid responses specifically asked on their level of interest in Batman including the motives for choosing the ride. Notably the study revealed that the BDF was essentially a peripheral attraction. In the absence of the ride, most respondents would still have visited the IR. Although a preliminary analysis, the findings suggest greater assessment is required on the net economic and competitive worth of event and entertainment hosting at Macao’s IRs and in particular to Chinese audiences who make up most of Macao’s visitation and this study sample.
The Impact of Festival Participation on Ethnic Identity: The Case of Yi Torch Festival – 527 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856156
Changjiang Tao,* Songshan (Sam) Huang,† and Graham Brown‡
*School of Tourism, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan, China †School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia ‡School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
This study examines the impact of ethnic festival participation on community members’ ethnic identity. Applying the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) in a questionnaire survey administered to the Yi ethnic community members attending a Yi Torch Festival in Sichuan Province, China, the study identifies that the festival attendees’ ethnic identity is reflected in two dimensions: ethnic identity commitment and ethnic identity exploration. Independent sample t tests show that there is no difference of ethnic identity commitment between the performers’ group and the spectators’ group in the festival; however, performers as active participants of the festival score much higher on ethnic identity exploration than spectators. Practical festival management implications are discussed. This study has the following contributions. First, it validated the dimensionality and measurement stability of MEIM, in the context of ethnic festivals. Second, this study extends the application of MEIM from the fields of anthropology and ethnology to festival studies. This is the first study applying MEIM in festival research. It demonstrates the applicability of the MEIM scale in studying ethnic festivals. Lastly, this study expanded the knowledge on the relationship between festival participation and ethnic identity. It evidenced through empirical analysis that active participation in ethnic festivals by ethnic community members can effectively contribute to the ethnic identity of the community members, especially on the exploration dimension of ethnic identity.
Key words: Ethnic festival; Ethnic identity; The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM); Yi Torch Festival; China
Exploring the COVID-19 Pandemic as a Catalyst for Stimulating Future Research Agendas for Managing Crises and Disasters at International Sport Events – 537 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856688
Lee Miles* and Richard Shipway†
*Bournemouth University Disaster Management Centre (BUDMC), Bournemouth University, Poole, UK †Department of Sport & Event Management, Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
While the interdisciplinary study of crisis, disaster, and emergency management has become increasingly sophisticated, the identification of synergies, useful concepts, and future research agendas in relation to studies within the domain of sport event management to inform these areas, is still at a very early stage of development. The far-reaching global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic further illustrates the timely importance of this research agenda for both sports events and broader studies in festivals and events. The purpose of this article is to critically scope the resilience landscape to help further understand how studies on both international sports events (ISEs) specifically, and both sport and event management studies more generally, could be better informed by disaster management and resilience studies. The article highlights eight key thematic areas that merits further investigation and combines to identify a multidisciplinary research agenda and framework for advancing knowledge on managing crises and disasters in both sport and event management studies.
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