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Aims & Scope
Event Management is the leading peer-reviewed international journal for the study and analysis of events and festivals, meeting the research and educational needs of this rapidly growing industry for more than 20 years.
- Publish high-quality interdisciplinary event studies work and therefore promote a broad spectrum of theoretical perspectives from management and organizational studies to sociology and social science.
- Encourage the study of all kinds of physical, digital, and hybrid events from small- to large-scale cultural and sporting events, festivals, meetings, conventions, exhibitions, to expositions, across a range of geographical and cultural contexts.
- Actively support authors to take a critical perspective concerning the power and potential of events as a force for social, economic, and environmental good, while challenging where events can do better and make a positive contribution to society.
- Promote bold, interesting, relevant research problems and questions. Examples include why events play a key role for individual and collective transformational experiences; how social movements like #BlackLivesMatter and #Metoo can be advanced by attaching to events like the Academy Awards; through to the way large-scale events are leveraged for urban regeneration and community development.
- Believe research insights are integral to high-quality learning and teaching and we encourage all authors to transform manuscript into a set of Event Management branded PowerPoint slides for colleagues to integrate into research informed and hybrid teaching approaches. Where provided by authors, slides will feature alongside each published manuscript for ease. All subscribing organizations and authors will have access to this library of learning and teaching content.
We offer authors four routes to publication, with simple submission guideline (see “Submission guidelines” tab).
- Research article – a traditional submission route of up to 10,000 words focused on contributing to theory.
- Research note – a short note of up to 2,000 words focused on providing novel and/or innovative insights to contribute to our body of theory and/or empirical knowledge. These can also include debates and/or commentaries.
- Event case study – a new route of up to 10,000 words providing in-depth empirical insights and application of existing theoretical ideas to a specific event or series of events.
- Event education – a new route of up to 10,000 words providing in-depth insights into events-related education policy and/or practice for colleagues to support high-quality international learning and teaching experiences.
Event Management is governed by a high-quality editorial board consisting of international leading experts across a range of disciplines and fields, including events, tourism, sport, hospitality, to business studies (see “Editorial board” tab).
Our double-blind peer review process is rigorous and supportive.
STEP 1: All manuscripts submitted to Event Management will go through a rigorous screening process by either the Editor-in-Chief or Deputy Editors to be desk rejected or progressed to one of 40+ Associate Editors who handle the review process.
STEP 2: An Associate Editor reviews the manuscript and decides whether to progress or rejected. If progressed, 2-3 members of the Editorial Advisory Board or those with appropriate expertise are invited to review with an average 2-3 rounds of peer review. Authors have 8 weeks to revise and resubmit for each round of peer review.
STEP 3: Toward the end of peer review the Associate Editor recommends a final decision to the Editor-in-Chief or Deputy Editor who makes the final decision and provides final constructive feedback where appropriate.
STEP 4: Manuscripts accepted are swiftly uploaded to our “Fast Track” system with a DOI while our editorial assistants work with authors to deal with author queries before final manuscripts are made available. FINAL PUBLISHED ARTICLES WILL BE MADE OPEN ACCESS FOR 30 DAYS FOR FREE and actively promoted by our Social Media Editor who works with authors to create a short tweet and author video alongside free links to promote colleagues’ work, across our Twitter and LinkedIn sites. (After the 30 days manuscripts will only be available to subscribers, unless the author has paid for the Open Access option.)
Mike Duignan, University of Surrey, UK
Head of Department and Reader in Events
Director, Observatory for Human Rights and Major Events (HaRM)
School of Hospitality and Tourism Management
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
University of Surrey
Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Griffith University, Australia
David McGillivray, University West of Scotland, UK
Milena Parent, University of Ottowa, Canada
Emma Wood, Leeds Beckett, UK
Social Media Editor
Seth Kirby, Nottingham Trent University, UK
Laurence Chalip, George Mason University, USA
Alan Fyall, University of Central Florida, USA
Leo Jago, University of Surrey, UK
Adele Ladkin, Bournemouth University, UK
Stephen Page, University of Hertfordshire, UK
Holger Preuss, University of Mainz, Germany
Richard Shipway, Bournemouth University, UK
Donald Getz, University of Calgary, Canada
Bruce Wicks, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Kayode Aleshinloye, University Central Florida, USA
Jane Ali-Knight, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
Charles Arcodia, Griffith University, Australia
Sandro Carnicelli, University of the West of Scotland, UK
Chris Chen, University of Canterbury, Australia
Willem Coetzee, University of Otago, NZ
Simon Darcy, University Technology Sydney, Australia
Kate Dashper, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Tracey Dickson, University of Canberra, Australia
Sally Everett, Kings College London, UK
Sheranne Fairley, University of Queensland, Australia
Kevin Filo, Griffith University, Australia
Rebecca Finkel, Queen Margaret University, UK
Tom Fletcher, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Chris Gaffney, New York University, USA
Sandra Goh, Auckland University of Technology, NZ
Kirsten Holmes, Curtin University, Australia
Xin Jin, Griffith University, Australia
Kiki Kaplanindou, University of Florida, USA
Donna Kelly, The University of Technology, Jamaica
James Kennell, University of Greenwich, UK
Zengxian (Jason) Liang, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
Eleni Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK
Laura Misener, Western University, Canada
Bri Newland, New York University, USA
Nikolaos Pappas, University of Sunderland, UK
Luke Potwarka, University of Waterloo, Canada
Greg Richards, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Martin Robertson, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
Debbie Sadd, Bournemouth University, UK
Martin Schnitzer, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Nancy Stevenson, University of Westminster, UK
Aaron Tkaczynski, University of Queensland, Australia
Louise Todd, Edinburgh Napier, UK
Oscar Vorobjovas-Pinta, Edith Cowan University, Australia
Karin Weber, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Nicholas Wise, Arizona State University, USA
Jinsheng (Jason) Zhu, Guilin Tourism University and Chiang Mai University, Thailand
Vassillios Ziakas, University of Surrey, UK
Editorial Advisory Board
Emma Abson, Sheffield Hallam University, UK
John Armbrecht, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Jarrett Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Canada
Ken Backman*, Clemson University, USA
Sheila Backman, Clemson University, USA
Jina Hyejin Bang, Florida International University, USA
Rui Biscaia, University of Bath, UK
Charles Bladen, Anglia Ruskin University, UK
Glenn Bowdin, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Ian Brittain, Coventry University, UK
Federica Burini, University of Bergamo, Italy
Krzysztof Celuch, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
Jean-Loup Chappelet, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Ubaldino Couto, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, China
Juliet Davis, Cardiff University, UK
Emma Delaney, University of Surrey, UK
Simon Down, University of Birmingham and Högskolan Kristianstad, UK
Colin Drake, Victoria University, Australia
Carmel Foley, University Technology Sydney, Australia
Alan Fyall, University Central Florida, USA
Susanne Gellweiler, Dresden School of Management, Germany
David Gogishvili, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
John Gold, Oxford Brookes University, UK
Barbara Grabher, University of Graz, Austria
Jeannie Hahm, University Central Florida, UK
Kirsten Hallman, German Sport University Cologne, Germany
Chris Hanna, Georgia Southern University, USA
Luke Harris, University of Birmingham, UK
Najmeh Hassanli, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Burcin Hatipoglu, University New South Wales, Australia
Claire Haven-Tang, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK
Ted Hayduck, New York University, USA
Freya Higgins-Desbiolles, University of South Australia, Australia
Yoshifusa Ichii, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Dewi Jaimangal-Jones, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK
David Jarman, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
Allan Jepson, Herts University, UK
Jamie Kenyon, Loughborough University, UK
Brendon Knott, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
Nicole Koenig-Lewis, Cardiff University, UK
Maximiliano Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina
Niki Koutrou, Bournemouth University, UK
Jeetesh Kumar, Taylor’s University (Malaysia), Malaysia
Chantel Laws, University of Westminster, UK
Weng Si (Clara) Lei, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, China
Clifford Lewis, Charles Sturt University, Australia
Yanning Li, University of Surrey, UK
Erik Lundberg, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Judith Mair, University of Queensland, Australia
Matt McDowell, University of Edinburgh, UK
Rutendo Musikavanhu, Coventry University, UK
Barbara Neuhofer, Salzburg University, Austria
Margarida Abreu Novais, Griffith University, Australia
Danny O’Brien, Bond University, Australia
Eric D. Olsen, Metropolitan State University of Denver, USA
Faith Ong, University of Queensland, Australia
Ilaria Pappalepore, University of Westminster, UK
Emilio Fernandez Pena, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain
Marko Perić, University of Rijeka, Croatia
Hongxia Qi, Victoria University Wellington, NZ
Meng Qu (Mo), Hiroshima University, Japan
Bernadette Quinn, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland
Gregory Ramshaw, Clemson University, USA
Vanessa Ratten, La Trobe, Australia
Alector Ribeiro, University of Surrey, UK
Tiago Ribeiro, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Alector Ribiero, University of Surrey, UK
Giulia Rossetti, Oxford Brookes University, UK
Katie Schlenker, University Technology Sydney, Australia
Hugues Seraphin, Winchester University, UK
Jonathan Skinner, University of Surrey, UK
Ryan Snelgrove, University of Waterloo, Canada
Sarah Snell, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
Andres Coca Stefaniak, University of Greenwich, UK
Adam Talbot, Coventry University, UK
Aaron Tham, University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
Jill Timms, University of Surrey, UK
Lewis Walsh, Anglia Ruskin University, UK
Trudie Walters, Independent, New Zealand
Xueli (Shirley) Wang, Tsinghua University, China
Stephen Wassong, German Sport University, Germany
Craig Webster, Ball State University, USA
Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Kim Werner, Hochschule Osnabrück, Germany
Kyle Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Jialin (Snow) Wu, University of Huddersfield, UK
Sakura Yamamura, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Germany
Pamela Zigomo, University of Greenwich, UK
*(remaining Editor for submissions pre-November 2021)
PhD/ECR Editorial Board
Erik L. Lachance, University of Ottawa, Canada
(Chair of the PhD/ECR Editorial Board)
Oluwaseyi Aina, University of the West of Scotland, UK
Elizabeth Ashcroft, University of Surrey, UK
Nicola Cade, Anglia Ruskin University, UK
Libby Carter, Birmingham City University, UK
David Cook, Coventry University, UK
Meg Hibbins, Naresuan University, Thailand
Montira Intason, Naresuan University, Thailand
Denise Kamyuka, Western University, Canada
Truc Le, Griffith University, Australia
Jason King, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Erin Pearson, Western University, Canada
Briony Sharp, University of the West of Scotland, UK
Darina Svobodova, University of Surrey, UK
Yann Tournesac, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Katy Tse, University of Surrey, UK
Beau Wanwisa, University of Surrey, UK
Emmy Yeung, University of Chester, UK
Nicole Yu, The University of Queensland, Australia
Our aim is to make initial submission to Event Management as simple as possible, for all submission routes. Authors can use the following information as a checklist before submitting.
HOW TO SUBMIT: All manuscripts to be submitted via this link:
WHAT TO SUBMIT: Authors are asked to submit three documents:
- Impact Statement
- Title page
Cover letters are optional but we do encourage authors to also provide this to help detail the theoretical, empirical, and/or practical contribution of the manuscript.
WHAT TO INCLUDE IN YOUR “IMPACT STATEMENT”: up to 500 words detailing the potential or actual impact of this article on society.
WHAT TO INCLUDE IN YOUR “TITLE PAGE”: Please ensure all of the following headings are present and addressed:
- Title (20 words max)
- Author(s) name
- Affiliation (Department, Institution, City, (State), Country)
- Corresponding author and email address
- Corresponding author ORCID
- Declaration of interest
- Part of a Special Issue? If so, state the name of the Special Issue.
WHAT TO INCLUDE AND HOW TO FORMAT MANUSCRIPTS: We provide authors with the flexibility to format and organize manuscripts in they way they prefer for initial submission. Authors will then work with our editorial assistants after acceptance to conform with journal standardized format before publication. We do however have a simple checklist of things below we do require at initial submission stage:
Sections to include:
- Title (up to 20 words, in CAPITAL LETTERS and BOLD)
- Highlights (3-5 highlights, max 80 characters including spaces for each bullet point)
- Abstract (150 words max)
- Keywords (up to 8, placed immediately after the Abstract)
- A “Literature Review” and “Methodology” section must feature, unless not appropriate.
- Arial font, size 12.
- All manuscripts should be thoroughly checked for spelling and grammar.
- In-text citations and ‘References’ (these can be formatted to your choosing but must be consistent).
- Double spaced, with line numbering and page numbers.
- ‘Tables’ and high quality ‘Images’ and ‘Figures’ embedded in the manuscript, not as separate files.
- Clearly identifiable headings with no more than three levels (see example below).
- Research article (up to 10,000 words)—traditional full-length research articles contribute to theory.
- Research note (up to 2,000 words)—short pieces that are theoretically or methodologically relevant, novel and innovative that can be developed further and advanced by other scholars. Commentaries and debates can be submitted under this submission type too.
- Event case study (up to 10,000 words)—full-length empirically based research articles that rigorously apply theory but do not necessarily seek to develop theory. Authors must however stress the implications of empirical work beyond the event case study context.
- Event education (up to 10,000 words)—full-length pieces focusing on events-related learning and teaching innovation and impact on student education, experience, and performance.
GENERAL AND SPECIFIC QUESTIONS EDITORS AND REVIEWERS WILL CONSIDER WHEN EVALUATING MANUSCRIPTS
- Is there a clear research issue or problem statement presented at the beginning that establishes the “so what” factor?
- Is the theoretical, methodological, or empirical contribution of the manuscript clearly stated? And is the significance of this contribution clearly stated?
- Is the manuscript interesting, bold, and/or innovative?
- Is the theoretical framework robust, providing a good conceptual grounding in relevant literature?
- Is the methodology designed and executed in a reliable and valid way?
- Is the manuscript written in a clear and concise way (without “academese”) and accessible to academic and nonacademic audiences?
- Is the argument written in an easy to follow and logical way?
- Are there clear conceptual and practical conclusions drawn on in the latter parts of the manuscript?
- Which of the following submission routes do you think the manuscript is best suited for:
– Research article (strong theoretical or methodological contribution)
– Research Note (shortened version with a strong theoretical or methodological contribution)
– Event Case Study (limited theoretical or methodological contribution, but interesting empirical insights)
– Events Education
Specific events-related questions:
- Does the manuscript present an analysis of contemporary events-related issues?
- Does the manuscript present a balanced perspective on the power and potential of events for good or for bad?
- Do you think this manuscript helps advance events research: how and why?
- Are there clear and well-justified recommendations to help advance the policy and practice of events in the future?
- Does the manuscript present a future academic research agenda that seeks to push the boundaries of events research?
- Is it clear how either descriptive or conceptual features of the event in question impacts on the empirical phenomenon in question? (In other words, does the author position the event simply as the “background” or “context” or are distinct features of the event recognized?)
NB: We ask this last question because in Event Management journal we want continue building a more conceptual understanding as to why events and festivals are particularly interesting organizational constructs to advance theory and knowledge, over let’s say other types of organizations like businesses or government institutions.
ONLINE FAST-TRACK PUBLICATION
Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
- Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content(artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) fall under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
- Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Articles appearing in Event Management are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
- A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
- Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
- Color figures: Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee).
If you choose to have your article be open access, a payment form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. If you choose to have figures in color a payment form will be provided with your proof, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive a free pdf file of the final press article, which will be sent by email.
Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liabilitywhatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Event Management (EM) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Event Management (EM) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for EM is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The submission, with all identification removed, is sent to an Editorial Board member by the EIC, within 7 days. The Editorial Board member then sends the submission to two other scholars within 7 days. The reviewers are always experts in their field. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers are expected in 4-8 weeks or less and are delivered to the Editorial Board member. The Board member then has 7 days to send his/her recommendation to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on comments received.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection within 7 days. The comments to authors are blinded.
Authors would have 12 months to resubmit a revised paper. Notification of final decision is typically 2 weeks’ time.
As a reviewer for Event Management you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for EM please contact the EIC: Mike Duignan
University of Surrey, UK. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
As a reviewer for Event Management, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Event Management have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Event Management is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in event management, tourism, business, sport, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/event-management under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Table of Contents:
Volume 25, Number 6
Message From the Editor-in-Chief – 581
In Recognition of Ken Backman – 583
Bob Miranda, Don Getz, Bruce Wicks
Exploring Usability and Gratifications for Virtual Reality Applications at Festivals – 585
M. Claudia Tom Dieck, Dario Tom Dieck, and Timothy Jung
Department of Operations, Technology, Events and Hospitality Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
The digital creation of virtual environments has opened many doors for the creation of new experiences, offering the trend of ever immersive, engaging, and multisensory virtual reality (VR) experiences. However, studies on VR within the science festival context are limited. Therefore, with a focus on usability and gratifications, this study aims to explore the antecedents of the behavioral intention to use VR at science festivals. Before participating in a questionnaire, 447 users experienced a VR application and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings reveal that usability influences gratification factors, which influence users’ behavioral intention to engage with science.
Key words: Virtual reality; Usability; Gratifications; Immersion; Emotions; Flow
Meeting Planners: Views of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices and Motivations Across Two Continents – 601
James Musgrave,* Jonathan Sibley,† and Simon Woodward*
*School of Events, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK
†Business School, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
Interpretation of, and commitment to, corporate social responsibility (CSR) differs from country to country, resulting in variances in implementation. It is theorized that these variances originate from organizational and cultural context. There is limited research dedicated to contextual variances of CSR in the meetings industry. As such, the objective of this article is twofold: first, to understand whether meeting planners in America and Western Europe differ in their current and future motives for engaging with CSR. Second, to establish whether the differences in motivation are influenced by their conceptual understanding of CSR or the wider socioeconomic and political environment. The authors analyzed over 1,000 self-reporting questionnaires from meeting planners across the two continents. Results were analyzed using unrelated t tests in order to establish if the two groups differ in their underlying motives to engage with CSR. An exploratory factor analysis was used to determine how meeting planners conceptualized CSR across the two continents. Results suggests similar strategic motives to engage in CSR. European meeting planners identify egoistic motives to engage in CSR. In contrast to America, CSR practice in Europe will change in the future as value-driven motives become prevalent. The article provides evidence of context as a defining factor in CSR, where ubiquitous constructs of CSR cannot be easily applied to meeting planners. The findings demonstrate the incongruent nature of CSR practice. The results advance the application of CSR to meeting planner’s practice in both America and Western Europe, reigniting the definitional debate of CSR within the meetings industry.
Key words: Corporate social responsibility (CSR); Meeting planners; Motivations; Events management and context
Stakeholder Management of Temporary Sport Event Organizations – 619
Elsa Kristiansen,* Birgit A. A. Solem,† Therese Dille,* and Barrie Houlihan‡
*USN School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Campus Drammen, Norway
†USN School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Campus Vestfold, Norway
‡School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
The aim of this study is to investigate, through the application of stakeholder theory, the challenges faced by the Bergen 2017 Organizing Committee when hosting the 2017 Road World Championship in cycling. Data for the case study were collected through interviews with eight senior representatives from stakeholders such as the Organizing Committee Bergen 2017 and international and national federations, event observations, and from the analysis of selected documents. The study examined the development of stakeholder relationships through three phases in the development and delivery of the event (i.e., preevent, event time, and postevent). The Bergen 2017 organizing committee members were referred to as happy amateurs by the media but proved to be astute in managing their relationship with the international federation as a primary stakeholder and resourceful in coping with a shortage of professional staff due to the help by volunteers. The research illustrates the problematic nature of stakeholder management in temporary event organizations and how it is possible to host a major event with limited resources, in terms of skills, time, staff, finance, and support from important stakeholders. These results have significant implications for event organizers facing similar resource challenges and who have to manage a complex network of stakeholders. The results also have implications for stakeholder theory in relation to the distinctive challenges arising from the temporary nature of the organizing committee and their evolution through the different phases.
Key words: Event management; Stakeholder theory; Sport policy; Norway; Road World Championship in cycling
Creating an Event Volunteering Legacy: The 2014 Host City Volunteer Initiative – 641
Robert J. Rogerson,* Fiona Reid,† and Rafaelle Nicholson‡
*Institute for Future Cities, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
†Independent Researcher, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
‡Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK
This article examines why as part of the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, Glasgow Life failed to achieve its aspired legacy of promoting further volunteering by Host City Volunteers (HCVs) despite the implementation of best practice. This practice included providing dedicated funding of a volunteer legacy program, supporting recruitment from groups generally underrepresented among regular volunteers, and the provision of a dedicated team to support HCVs before, during, and after the event. Drawing on research conducted at the time of the event and a follow up study 3 years later, the article suggests that the absence of such legacy arose because, although highly motivated by the one-off prestigious event, the event volunteers were less motivated by other opportunities, many of those involved as event volunteers were already committed volunteers, and were reluctant to take over responsibility for engaging with future volunteering opportunities. The article considers the wider implications for future event managers seeking to generate volunteering legacies as part of major events. In so doing, it underlines that despite the scheme being constructed around the key characteristics of the much-lauded benchmark model of event volunteering associated with the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games volunteering legacies cannot be guaranteed. Even when there is success in engaging with people markedly different to the common type of event volunteer in underrepresented communities, translating their enthusiasm into postevent volunteering is problematic.
Key words: Event volunteering; Sporting mega-event; Legacy planning; Commonwealth Games
Evaluation of Katara Cultural Village Events and Services: A Visitors’ Perspective – 653
Khalid Ibrahim Al-Sulaiti,* Khalid Hamad Abaalzamat,† Hamzah Khawaldah,‡ and Nidal Alzboun‡
*Cultural Village Foundation, Katara, Doha, Qatar
†College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
‡Geography Department, School of Arts, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Perceived value is understood to be a precursor of visitor satisfaction and loyalty and it is impacted by product quality. The relations between quality, value, and satisfaction have been gaining increasing attention in the marketing and tourism fields. Accordingly, this study examines visitors’ evaluations of Katara Cultural Village events and services and their satisfaction. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire was conducted and distributed to 532 visitors in Katara. Results showed that Katara was a successful tourism destination in Doha, which attracts large numbers of visitors with different demographic characteristics. According to respondents, Katara has several social, economic, and environmental impacts, which are mainly positive. The social impacts of Katara seemed to be most noticeable because cultural events and activities represent the core of Katara’s model. As mentioned, results showed a high level of visitors’ satisfaction with Katara’s events and services, with an overall assessment score of 78.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Additionally, the results from one-way ANOVA and t tests revealed that there are no significant differences in visitors’ assessment of Katara’s events and services between demographic groups in terms of gender, nationality, and age. However, these results contribute to the understanding of event attendee behavior, providing researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in Katara with insights into how to effectively design and manage events.
Key words: Katara cultural village; Events; Satisfaction; Cultural tourism; Qatar
Open Water Swimming Events, Social Capital, and Sociality – 665
Sophie Greenwood*† and Thomas Fletcher†
*Manchester City Football Club, Manchester, UK
†School of Events, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK
There is strong evidence to suggest that a connection exists between sports participation and the accumulation of social capital. Event research is also beginning to recognize that non-elite mass participation sport events can foster a sense of temporary casual sociality, community, and camaraderie within the event space, and thus, create meaningful social impact for participants. Through analysis of data obtained via semistructured interviews and surveys conducted with open water swimmers and observations undertaken at open water swimming events, this article seeks to contribute to the small (but growing) body of empirical and case specific research on the social capital potential of mass participation sports events. We adopt Putnam’s notions of bonding and bridging social capital to interpret the social impact (if any) of open water swimming events on participants. It is the first of its kind to explicitly explore the social capital potential of open water swimming events in the UK. In so being it will develop ideas of whether social connections are temporary, delimited by the duration of the event, or whether they can endure outside of the event space as broader social networks and groups. We argue that events can facilitate meaningful social connections, and we analyze the durability of these social connections. Our data suggest that open water swimming events can facilitate casual social interactions with individuals from outside of already bonded groups. However, evidence of bridging capital was less convincing, in that it tended to be associated with a certain type of event and where participants shared a particular identity.
Key words: Event; Open water swimming; Putnam; Social capital; Sport
Using Communication Boundaries to Minimize Athlete Social Media Distractions During Events – 683
Michelle Hayes,* Kevin Filo,† Caroline Riot,* and Andrea N. Geurin‡
*Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia
†Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia
‡Institute for Sport Business, Loughborough University, London, UK
Sport organizations regulate athletes’ use of social media for many reasons including the protection of the organization’s reputation. Several strategies have been introduced to minimize issues related to the negative consequences athlete social media use may present, yet whether these strategies also work to address social media distractions experienced by athletes during major sport events is not well known. Utilizing communication privacy management (CPM) theory, the purpose of the current research was to examine the aspects of social media that sport administrators perceive to be distracting to athletes and what support and management mechanisms are utilized to address such concerns during major sport events. Semistructured interviews (N = 7) with Australian national sport organization (NSO) administrators were conducted. Sport administrators reported several aspects of social media that are perceived to distract athletes including personal and performance criticism and a fixation with social media profiles. Social media could also be used to manage athlete temperament. As a result, organizations highlighted both proactive and reactive communication boundaries and mechanisms that could be used to address concerns including content restrictions, best practice case studies, engaging in conversations, and monitoring. Opportunities for sport practitioners are described including conducting consultation sessions with athletes to better understand their needs regarding their social media use.
Key words: Major sport events; National sport organizations; Social media; Communication privacy management; Distractions
Utilizing Field Theory to Examine Mega-Event-Led Development – 705
Michael B. Duignan
School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK
Scholars and practitioners have long been analyzing and evaluating the way events, particularly mega-events, serve as a mechanism of change. Powerful descriptions are typically brought to life via event impact and legacy case studies: yet, I argue such work can remain atheoretical—or—conceptually disorganized. I draw on Bourdieu’s field theory and the management study of Field Configuring Events to develop a new analytical framework: the “Cognitive and Relational Mapping of Field Configuring Events”—offering a set of interrelated concepts to strengthen analysis and conceptual consistency between studies, while providing latitude to overlay different disciplinary perspectives. I detail methodological and conceptual advantages afforded alongside six ways the framework could be applied and extended across various cases and contexts.
Key words: Field theory; Field configuring events; Mega-events; Event-led field development; Cognitive and relational mapping of field configuring events
What Predicts the Sport Event Volunteer Experience? Examining Motivation, Satisfaction, Commitment, and Sense of Community – 721
Erik L. Lachance, Jordan T. Bakhsh, Ashley Thompson, and Milena M. Parent
Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Despite the large body of literature on sport event volunteers, researchers have a poor understanding of the volunteer experience despite studies claiming direct and indirect relationships involving motivation, satisfaction, commitment, and sense of community towards the volunteer experience. In fact, most studies fail to statistically measure experience as a dependent variable. As such, the importance of these four antecedents as predictors of the volunteer experience remains assumed and uncertain. The purpose of this study was to empirically test if and how sport event volunteers’ motivation, satisfaction, commitment, and sense of community predict their experience. Following the 2019 Osprey Valley Open, 161 volunteers (65% response rate) completed an online self-administered questionnaire. A two-step structural equation model analysis tested the hypothesized linear relationships. Results indicated direct (i.e., motivation and satisfaction) and indirect (i.e., commitment and sense of community) relationships between antecedents and the volunteer experience. Commitment had an indirect relationship to the volunteer experience through motivation’s direct relationship, while the indirect relationship of sense of community occurred through satisfaction’s direct relationship to the volunteer experience. Confirmatory factor analysis also indicated motivation and sense of community had poor factor loadings, while satisfaction and commitment loaded adequately. Moreover, only the egoistic motivation factor was supported in this study motivation’s direct relationship to the volunteer experience. These findings empirically support previous claims for motivation and satisfaction’s direct relationship to the volunteer experience but dispute previous claims of direct relationships involving sense of community and commitment. Contributions include the need to move beyond investigating individual antecedents of the volunteer experience as it requires a multifaceted analysis due to conceptual interrelationships. Event managers should understand their volunteers’ experience as being complex and develop strategies aimed at each of the four antecedents.
Key words: Sport event; Volunteers; Questionnaire; Structural equation modeling
The Study of Consumption Decision Key Factors in Chinese Wedding Banquet – 739
Chun-Hsien Lo,* Tung-Hsuan Wan,* Jehn-Yih Wong,* and Yi-Fang Hsieh†
*Department of Business Administration, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan
†Department of Food and Beverage Management, Taipei University of Marine Technology, Taiwan
Marriage is a once-in-a-lifetime experience for most people and all new couples want the details to be perfect for a good memory. However, in the Chinese world, it is not up to the new couple to decide all details of a wedding banquet on their own, the opinions of their parents must be considered. Therefore, under the circumstances of many decision makers with different expectations, wedding consumption decisions become onerous and complex. In this study, we used the focus group method to obtain the factors for the selection of the wedding restaurant and confirmed the key facets and criteria of the factors of wedding restaurant selection and the consumption value model through the Delphi method and then looked for the important correlation among the factors and their causal relationship through DANP analysis. The research shows that the most critical facets are “emotional value” and “social value” and that the most critical criteria are “word-of-mouth” and “restaurant evaluation.” Restaurant operators are suggested to consider the needs of customers, strengthen the quality of project package content, pay attention to online comments and voice volume, strengthen staff training, and understand consumer demands.
Key words: Chinese wedding banquet; Consumption decision; DANP analysis; Focus group method; Wedding restaurant selection factors
The Welcome to the Village Festival as an Interactive Space for Entrepreneurial Innovation: Lessons Learned – 755
Sybrith M. Tiekstra and Carla K. Smink
Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
This article presents an exploratory study of the potential role of a music and arts festival in supporting entrepreneurial innovation processes. Although festivals in practice are developing their function as innovation facilitators, there has been only little academic attention from both entrepreneurship and festival studies for this trend. This article brings together extant literature on entrepreneurial innovation and festival spaces to conceptualize how interactions enabled by festivals may support entrepreneurial value proposition development. Based on a qualitative exploratory case study of the innovation program of the Dutch Welcome to the Village festival it is shown that festivals can potentially facilitate useful interactions with various stakeholders for entrepreneurs. It is found that these interactions can inform the direction of the entrepreneurial process and product/service development. However, relevant potential interactions remained latent and the transference of the results beyond the festival was limited. Recommendations are made on how this potential of the festival may be more strategically exploited. We propose that a more purposeful interaction design could benefit the festival-innovation programs (e.g., by mapping the connections as we have in this article). It also recommended for managers of these innovation programs to develop organizational structures that bridge the apparent divide between the festival and real world.
Key words: Music and arts festivals; Interactive spaces for innovation processes; Experimentation; Entrepreneurship; Value proposition development
Volume 25 Subject and Author Index – 775
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Number of submissions: 103
Number of reviews requested: 309
Number of reviews received: 206
Approval rate: 36% after first revision, 50% after second revision
Average time between submission and publication: 16 months
Special Issue: Event Innovation and Resilience During Uncertainty
Deadline: March 13, 2022
Dr. Elina (Eleni) Michopoulou, University of Derby, United Kingdom
Dr. Nikolaos Pappas, University of Sunderland, United Kingdom
Dr. Iride Azara, University of Derby, United Kingdom
In recent years, studies on innovation and resilience, often adopt the angle of crisis recovery or focus on value-creating innovative and creative strategies and practices. While those studies have begun to explore the underpinning principles of innovation and resilience, they often focus on a specific sector or region or viewed through the narrow lenses of economic recovery. Moreover, the theoretical and applied aspects of innovation and resilience need to be approached from a multidisciplinary point of view, to enable a better understanding of the internal and external dynamics that affect the evolution, planning and delivery of events at times of uncertainty. The pathway to success (or failure) lies on the overall innovative stance adopted by event stakeholders and the resilience demonstrated by companies and communities alike to externalities that yield not only challenges and threats; but also bear opportunities for fundamentally rethinking our practices of planning and delivering events. Therefore, an SI revisiting innovation and resilience during uncertainty will be highly relevant to both, industry and academia.
This special issue welcomes theoretical, empirical, experimental, and case study research contributions. These contributions should clearly address the theoretical and practical implications of the research in reference. Both conceptual and empirical work are welcome. Event innovation and resilience can be viewed under a variety of prisms, including but not limited to:
- Innovation, creativity and change management
- Resilience management
- Complexity management
- Competitiveness, sustainability and corporate social responsibility
- Consumer behaviour, decision-making, expectations, experience and satisfaction
- Adaptive capacities
- Crisis management
- Urban resilience
- Multi-disciplinary resilience
- Event design, planning and delivery
- Economics of change impacts and adaptation
- Emerging and innovative research methods and methodologies
- Human resources, equality, diversity, and labour operations
- The role of technology in event innovation and resilience
- Marketing, advertising, branding and promotional activities
- Training and education
- Wellbeing of employees, local communities and event participants
- Other interdisciplinary areas related to event management
Each paper submitted for publication consideration is subjected to the standard review process designated by Event Management journal. Based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the Editor-in-chief along with the guest editors, decisions will be made whether particular submissions will be accepted, revised or rejected. Please note that the review process will start after the full paper submission deadline.
Authors should submit manuscripts electronically via the journal online platform (available from September 2021).
Full paper submission deadline: March 13, 2022
Expected publication date: Mid to end of 2023
All papers should follow the submission guidelines of the Event Management journal. For more information please visit Submitting Articles
HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE OLYMPICS, MEGA- AND MAJOR- EVENTS
EVENT MANAGEMENT JOURNAL SPECIAL ISSUE CALL
PUBLISH DATE: 2021-2022
Dr Michael B. Duignan, Head of Department and Reader in Events, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, UK.
Dr Mike Duignan – Video overview of special issue:
Prof Laurence Chalip, Head of Department and Professor in Sports Management, School of Sport, Recreation, and Tourism Management, George Mason University, USA.
Prof Laurence Chalip – Thoughts on human rights and the Olympics, mega- and major-events:
The Olympics, mega- and major- events have a long history of human rights abuse (Amnesty International, 2021a). An increasing body of work over the last two decades have advanced a rights-based agenda in the context of large-scale events (e.g. Caudwell and McGee’s (2017) Special Issue on ‘Human Rights and Events, Leisure and Sport’ and more recently the European Funded ‘Event Rights’ (2020) project). Specific case study works have too sought to frame stakeholder exclusion as a human rights issue, as numerous social groups find have been identified to be exploited in one way or another in the melee of planning, delivery, and in the post-event legacy periods (e.g. Talbot and Carter, 2018; Duignan, Pappalepore and Everett, 2019). Indeed, large scale events too act as a platform for amplifying human rights abuses already existing in the host city and/or country context, as well as those produced as a direct and indirect result of hosting. For example, the Qatar 2022 FIFA World Cup not only exposed limited national legislation protecting labour rights in Qatar, but this was also evidenced by poor working and living conditions, as well as delayed salaries for those working on the Khalifa Stadium (Amnesty International, 2021b). Occurring over protracted time-periods and geographical boundaries, the host country and city provides a useful incubator to examine human rights issues.
Owners and organisers of large-scale events acutely recognise human rights abuses as a problem that warrants new policy interventions and closer practical relations with host cities and countries, whether that be the Commonwealth Games Foundation’s (2017): ‘Transformation 2022 Strategy – A Human Rights Commitment’, through to the “International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) human rights strategy and policy commitment” (…) looking at “further embedding human rights in the good governance principles, and the establishment of the previously announced Human Rights Advisory Committee.” (IOC, 2020). This is part of a wider movement of large events pressuring hosts to consider embedding principles and objectives aligned to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (2021). Furthermore, local organisingcommittees increasingly work with human rights organisations to tackle specific types of abuses. For example, ‘It’s a Penalty’: an international charity dedicated to raising awareness of human trafficking in host cities, works directly with Olympic venues to screen campaign videos to warn fans of the signs and how to report potential abuses (https://itsapenalty.org/)
This CFP on Human Rights and the Olympics, Mega- and Major-Events hopes to 1) expose significant human rights abuses that have not been adequately amplified to date; 2) bring together a disparate body of work looking at human rights; 3) publish existing and on-going work evaluating the legacy of previous events or looking forward to events in the year of 2021 and beyond; 4) identify good practice, like It’s a Penalty’s work, that illustrates the power of large-scale events for exposing and tackling human rights abuses too; 5) encourage scholars to act as a critical friend and work with policy makers and/or industry to help stimulate positive change.
We are looking for:
- Multidisciplinary research papers that draw on a range of different ideas, concepts, theories and traditions appropriate to explain the human rights issue under investigation.
- Scholars may wish to take a global perspective (i.e. by drawing on a range of event examples and cases to illustrate the ubiquity of the human rights abuse), or for example may present a specific human right issue in a specific event case study.
- All papers must provide a set of policy and/or industry recommendations centred around the following themes:
- EDUCATE– educating stakeholders and raising awareness of the chosen human rights issue.
- EQUIP– equipping stakeholders and those affected to help tackle chosen human rights issue.
- ENCOURAGE– how to encourage stakeholders and those affected to come forward to report chosen human rights issue.
N.B. Clarify how educate, equip, and encourage recommendations have transferability beyond the context you are speaking about to have more universal and/or value across numerous events.
Though this list in not exhaustive, below are examples of human rights issues found across major events:
- Human trafficking
- Freedom of speech
- Labour rights and worker exploitation
- Lack of personal safety
- Poverty and socio-economic deprivation
- Athlete abuse
- LGBTQ+ rights
- Torture and execution
- Police brutality
- Black Lives Matter
- Forced evictions and displacement
- Host community disruption
- Gentrification and indirect displacement
For those looking for a deeper understanding regarding the types of human rights issues and the ways these can be analysed and tackled across the entire lifecycle of major events, we have provided two documents below.
- The United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High Commissioner (https://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/pages/listofissues.aspx) has a comprehensive list of human rights issues and related resources; and
- The Institute for Business and Human Rights provides a useful overview of the ways human rights issues can be analysed and tackled across the entire lifecycle of major events too (https://www.sporthumanrights.org/uploads/resources/The_MSE_Lifecycle_-_Embedding_Human_Rights_from_Vision_to_Legacy.pdf)
Amnesty International UK. (2021a). Sports and Human Rights. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org.uk/issues/sport-and-human-rights
Amnesty International UK. (2021b). Qatar World Cup: The ugly side to the beautiful game. Available at: https://www.amnesty.org.uk/qatar-world-cup-ugly-side-beautiful-game
Commonwealth Games Foundation. (2017). Transformation 2022 Strategy – A Human Rights Commitment. Available at: https://thecgf.com/content/cgf-human-rights-statement
Duignan, M.B., Pappalepore, I., & Everett, S. (2019). The ‘summer of discontent’: Exclusion and communal resistance at the London 2012 Olympic Games. Tourism Management, 70, 355-367.
EventRights. (2021). Introduction. Available at: http://eventrights.net/
IOC. (2020). IOC moves forward with its human rights approach. Available at: https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-moves-forward-with-its-human-rights-approach
It’s a Penalty. (2021). Introduction. Available at: https://itsapenalty.org/
Raco, M., & Tunney, E. (2010). Visibilities and invisibilities in urban development: Small business communities and the London Olympics 2012. Urban Studies, 47(2), 2069–2091.
Talbot, A., & Carter, T. (2018). Human rights abuses at the Rio 2016 Olympics. Leisure Studies, 37(1), 77–88.
- Deadline for extended abstracts of max 500 words by 12th March, 2021.
Note: send your abstract to: M.Duignan@surrey.ac.uk
- Confirmations of acceptance/rejection by 19th March, 2021.
- Deadline to submit full paper by 11th October, 2021.
If you have any questions, please email: M.Duignan@surrey.ac.uk