Food experiences and gastronomy tourism in post-pandemic transition
The present COVID-19 crisis raises many new questions for tourism. Conventional thinking is also challenged when it comes to food experiences. While restaurants, bars, cafees, etc., suffer, new food concepts are emerging: for example, take-away and delivery models, forms of operation that also affect menus and communication. When tourism restarts, there is the question of how gastronomy and food provision may be reborn and transformed, potentially with more permanent impacts.
Readers and prior contributors of Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism are invited to submit manuscripts within, but not restricted to, the following topics:
Risk management in food services
Remote social dining and partying
Changes in delivery systems and platform economy solutions
Communication and the use of humoristic disarming strategies
Home cooking concepts versus tourism, replacement or supplement
The development of supportive e-experiences
AR and VR in food and drinks tourism
Substitutive experience design
Food tourism business failures and successes
Scary food and costumers’ fears and phobia
Prospects for food markets and food events
Anti-virus food and restaurant certification systems
Post-pandemic competitive advantages
Restaurant design and aesthetics under social distancing
Challenges for food import dependent resorts and destinations
Governmental food policies and strategies and tourism impacts
The academic interest brings together scholarly perspectives from a range of disciplines from cultural anthropology, sociology, media studies, ethnography, hospitality, food studies, and history, advertising and marketing, to environmental science, rural studies, business management, economics, human geography, and political philosophy. These are also linked with many contemporary perspectives in tourism research, including sustainability, ethics, social justice, and human rights. However, many aspects of gastronomy and tourism also appear grossly underexplored, among these: aesthetics, science, technology, innovation, health, and human relations. Moreover, critical and philosophical approaches such as foodways, foodscapes, and food movements are often weak on gastronomy and tourism underpinnings, which provide ample scope for innovative contributions in these areas of scholarship.
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism invites research contributions of a theoretical as well as empirical and practical nature without specific disciplinary focus. We attempt to ensure a fast publication process, provided the quality of the manuscript. The journal has no submission fees. Please feel free to discuss any publication idea with me. (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism is a multidisciplinary journal inviting research contributions that imaginatively and comprehensively investigate dimensions of food and eating in relation to travel and tourism.
Food has always been an important component of the tourist experience. Tourists eat to survive, but they also consume to discover the place and the intrinsic environments of the visited region. Arousing all senses, food and drink items and the practice of gastronomy include an exhaustive amount of information of significance for both personal well-being and for socializing with others. Gastronomy urges individuals to get profoundly involved, and in recent years this is cleverly exploited in new food related tourism attractions such as food festivals and wine tasting trails, cooking experiences and competitions, open fields, farms and factories, etc. Gastronomy is much more than fine dining.
Gastronomic tourism is becoming a real player in the tourism market, and food and wine related services and events attract greater numbers of tourists each year. Food links into local and regional economies in multifaceted value chains, which includes agriculture, fisheries, food producers, a variety of media, entertainment, learning, research and numerous service providers. As a consequence, the regeneration of rural economics, the discovery of local identity and the re-valuing of heritage and tradition can all flow from growing, processing, marketing, distributing eating and enjoying food and beverages. Food and gastronomy is however, also implicated in the process of globalization, typified by parallel trends: frantic small scale food diversification and massive gastronomic convergence. Other interesting contrasts consistently exist between authenticity and innovation. Increasingly, food and food consumption are seen as key elements in a better more sustainable world, where the interlinkages with tourism need to be further explored.
The academic interest brings together scholarly perspectives from a range of disciplines—from cultural anthropology, sociology, media studies, ethnography, hospitality, food studies, and history, advertising and marketing, to environmental science, rural studies, business management, economics, human geography, and political philosophy. Linked also with many contemporary perspectives in tourism research, including sustainability, ethics’, social justice and human rights. However, many aspects of gastronomy and tourism also appear grossly underexplored, among these: aesthetics, science, technology, innovation, health and human relations. Moreover, critical and philosophical approaches such as foodways, foodscapes and food movements are often weak on gastronomy and tourism underpinnings, which provides ample scope for innovative contributions in these areas of scholarship.
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism invites research contributions of a theoretical as well as empirical and practical nature without specific disciplinary focus. The aim is to provide a source for cutting-edge thinking and evidence in an emerging field, and to be a forum for continuous development and discussion of matters interlinking gastronomy and tourism. The Journal is an academic publication but will also look to cover industry and education perspectives.
SPECIAL FEATURE: Locations on the Food Menu
Purpose: Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism invites brief (1–2 page) portrayals of interesting gastronomic hotspots with a significant tourism ingredient. These portrayals provide a possibility for readers among researchers and practitioners to get themselves acquainted with emerging and innovative food initiatives of interest for further inquiry and research, and with challenging places to visit. The locations may qualify for a presentation on the “Locations on the Food Menu” if they demonstrate, for example, exceptional instances of food heritage reinvention, good use of collaborative measures among food stakeholders, new types of food trail designs, sustainable food management practices, novel ways of communication with customers, visionary food experience inventions, prospective foodway linkages, food in extraordinary tourism settings etc., The section cannot be used for standard promotional purposes by destinations and food providers.
Anyone, for example destination management organizations, food and tourism associations, food and tourism project managers, researchers, etc., can submit examples and text for this section of Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism. The cases are not included in the journal’s review systems, and decision about publication is taken by the Editor-in-Chief.
Template for submission: Click on “Special feature contributions” for formatting.
Anne-Mette Hjalager University of Southern Denmark Universitetsparken 1, Kolding DK-6000 Denmark Tel: +45 6550 4220 E-mail: email@example.com
Mohamed Abioui, Ibn Zohr University, Morocco Abel D. Alonso, Edith Cowan University, Australia Giovanna Bertella, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway Magda AntonioliCorigliano, Università Bocconi, Italy Carlos Fernandes, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Portugal ElisabeteFigueiredo, University of Aveiro, Portugal Isabelle Frochot, University de Savoie, France Roger Haden, Southern Cross University, Australia Marcus Hansen, Wrexham Glyndwr University, UK JafarJafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA Leo Jago, University of Surrey, UK Laura James, Aalborg University, Denmark Francisco Flores Madrid, Anahuac University, Mexico John Thomas Mgonja, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania MuchazondidaMkono, Southern Cross University, Australia Lena Mossberg, Gothenburg University, Sweden Bendegul Okumus, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, FL Greg Richards, Tourism Research and Marketing, Spain Richard Robinson, The University of Queensland, Australia David J. Telfer, Brock University, Canada
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism uses CrossRef Similarity Check and is sustained by Portico Preservation Services.
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscripts electronically via Scholastica at https://gat.scholasticahq.com
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters (or less) should also be included.
Writing Style: The manuscript must be written in the third person and all submissions must be in English. Readers need to grasp information quickly; thus, authors should use straightforward declarative sentences, making every effort to help readers understand the concepts presented. All manuscripts should be comprehensible to all readers, regardless of their areas of specializations and academic backgrounds. Manuscripts may include tables, drawings, charts, or photographs.
Paper Length: Manuscripts should be between 4,000 and 10,000 words. Each figure and table counts for approximately 300 words. Book Reviews, Commentaries, and Research Notes should be 600–1,200 words in length.
Abstracts and key words: The abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five key words pertinent to the central theme.
Text: The manuscript itself will be composed of three parts: introduction, the study, and conclusion. Headed with an appropriate title, the study (or the main body of the paper) is in turn divided into subtitled sections. The whole submission should be arranged in the following order: cover page, title page, abstract and key words, introduction, the study, conclusion, acknowledgment, biographical note, reference list. Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Abbreviations and terminologies: These should be fully spelled out and defined when first used in the text.
References: In the text, references are cited using the author/date style following the APA Publication Manual (7th ed.). Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always providecitation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.]The reference list, placed at the end of the text, must be in alphabetical order. Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list. A referenced article should contain all authors’ names, year of publication, title of the article, name of the publication, volume, and inclusive page numbers. A referenced book should list author name(s), year of publication, title of the book, place of publication, and publisher per the following examples:
Text citations: (Armstrong, 2015) or (Armstrong, 2015; Dolan et al., 2012; Hall & Sharples, 2003; Koc, 2016) or (Robertson, 2014 p. 39) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Koc, E. (2016). Food Consumption in all-inclusive holidays: Illusion of control as an antecedent of inversionary consumption. Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism, 2(2), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.3727/216929716X14720551277844
Book: Robertson, M. (2014). Sustainability. Principles and practice. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Chapter/pages in edited book: Gössling, S., & Hall, C. M. (2013). Sustainable culinary systems. An introduction. In C. M. Hall & S. Gössling (Eds.), Sustainable culinary systems: Local foods, innovation, tourism and hospitality (pp. 3–44). Routledge.
Internet Source: Armstrong, C. (2015). Everyone in Utah absolutely loves these 9 foods and drinks. Only in Your State. Retrieved from https://www.onlyinyourstate.com/utah/ut-foods-and-drinks/
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be prepared to be suitable for reproduction at high resolution. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for color (see Author Options below)]. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters, and light lines and shading should be avoided. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included (do not incorporate figure legends as part of the figure itself).
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book Reviews: Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism(GAT)also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies.
Evaluation: GAT is a refereed journal. All manuscripts are evaluated by at least two independent referees. The evaluation is double blind and anonymous: neither referees nor the authors are aware of each other’s identities.
Special Feature—Locations on the Food Menu: In addition to applicable formatting instructions above, this 1–2 page section should include the following: Title: Provide a good title that indicates what is special about the location and its food activities. Photographs: optional supplied by author @600 dpi. Background and context: A brief introduction to what the initiative attempts to achieve and why; What is done and what is special; Description of the characteristics of the location and the particular food and tourism activities; Stakeholders; Outcomes and implications (optional); Reflections on how the gastronomy activity benefits the location; Prospects for further development; References and links.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must becompleted and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism (GAT) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism (GAT) utilizes a double blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers is not known to authors and the authors are not shown on the article being reviewed.
The peer review process for GAT is laid out below:
An article is first checked for its topical suitability and basic formatting by the Editor-In-Chief (EIC).
The EIC then selects between 2 and 5 reviewers for detailed peer review. The reviewers are always experts in their field and could be part of the editorial board. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Comments from the reviewers (minimum 2 reviewers) are expected in 4 weeks or less and are delivered to the EIC who assesses the merit of the manuscript based on these comments as well as on her own assessment of the article.
Authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision of: accept, accept with minor revisions, accept with major revisions, or rejection. The comments to authors are blinded.
As a reviewer for GAT you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early state, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for GAT please contact the EIC:
As a reviewer for Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in cultural anthropology, sociology, media studies, ethnography, hospitality, food studies, and history, advertising and marketing, to environmental science, rural studies, business management, economics, human geography, and political philosophy and other related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at:https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/journal-of-gastronomy-and-tourism under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Which Coastal Vacay Enjoyer Wants Local Oysters, Him or Her? – 1 https://doi.org/10.3727/216929720X15846938924102
GulizCoskun,* Laura W. Jodice,† and William C. Norman†
*Department of Recreation Management, Faculty of Tourism, Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Sakarya, Turkey †Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, College of Behavioral, Social and Health Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
Investment in mariculture is increasing as an alternative to wild-caught seafood in order to support sustainability of fisheries resource. A persistent negative perception continues to create barriers to consumer demand for maricultured products. Previous research indicates that consumer decision-making between wild-caught and maricultured seafood is affected by many factors. Of particular interest to this study is prior findings indicating differences between men and women with regard to general attitudes about mariculturedseafood and environmental sustainability. Since shellfish mariculture occurs in coastal communities that are also popular tourist destinations, there is an opportunity to promote it through positive tourist interactions. On the South Carolina (USA) coast interest in eating wild-caught shellfish has gradually increased among tourists, but the recent introduction of shellfish produced by mariculture makes consumer decision-making more complex. This study examined differences between men and women for attitude, importance, and intention to eat wild-caught or maricultured oysters while visiting a popular coastal tourist destination in South Carolina, where both types of oysters were local. Data were collected from 380 individuals during October 2014. Results showed that even though women have a more negative attitude towards maricultured oysters compared to men, their intention to eat maricultured oysters was not different than men. This study provides insight into how strongly gender differences may influence tourists’ perception towards maricultured and wild-caught oysters, in the context of purchasing seafood where seafood is harvested.
Key words: Mariculture; Wild-caught seafood; Gender; Local food; Attitude; Intention
Tourists’ Motivations, Emotions, and Memorable Local Food Experiences – 17 https://doi.org/10.3727/216929720X15968961037881
EroseSthapit,* SenthilkumaranPiramanayayagam,† and Peter Björk‡
*Research, Development and Innovation Services, Haaga-HeliaAmmattikorkeakoulu–Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland †Department of Allied Hospitality Studies, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India ‡Hanken School of Economics, Vasa, Finland
This study aimed to explore tourists’ general local food preferences, whether tasting local food was one of their major motivations for undertaking a recent trip, the emotions they associated with the experience, and what constituted a memorable local food experience. Data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire. Based on the survey responses of 210 tourists, almost all the respondents were Indian nationals. The majority of the respondents could be categorized as food neophiliacs, since they exhibited a tendency to seek new food tastes while traveling. For more than half the respondents, tasting local food was one of the main motivations for taking particular trips and was considered a primary activity. Experiencing novelty and local culture were the main motivations for tasting local food. In connecting local food consumption memories with emotions, respondents experienced the positive emotions of joy and love. This article proposes a new conceptual framework for memorable local food experiences, which comprises several components: taste, socializing with friends and family members, novelty, authenticity, ambience, affordable price, and interacting with locals. The findings provided little evidence of special occasions, hospitality, or food souvenirs contributing to a memorable food experience, as claimed by previous studies, suggesting that such factors are not inevitable components of all tourist food experiences.
Key words: Food preference; Local food; Motivation; Emotions; Memorable local food experience
Sámi Gastronomy: The Role of Traditional Knowledge – 33 https://doi.org/10.3727/216929720X15968961037890
RavdnaBiretMarja E. Sara*†‡ and SveinDischMathiesen*†§
*Sami allaskuvla/Sami University of Applied Sciences, Guovdageaidnu/Kautokeino, Norway †UArctic EALAT Institute at International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, Guovdageaidnu/Kautokeino, Norway ‡UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway §North-Eastern Federal University (NEFU), UNESCO International Department on Adaptation of Society and Man in the Arctic Regions in the Context of Climate Change and Globalization, Yakutsk, Russia
Traditional knowledge in food security is important for achieving sustainable food production systems. One example of food security is tenderness and meat quality. This article investigates the lack of Sami reindeer herders’ knowledge of meat tenderness and explores its relation to gastronomy and food sovereignty. Sami family-produced reindeer meat is regarded as tender, while such meat is rarely available for visiting tourists. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach combines different knowledge of meat tenderness in this article. When slaughtering in cold temperatures, a common slaughtering procedure is performed: dievasnjuovvat(slaughtering reindeer outdoors on the ground) and bakkahit(a deliberate action of reindeer herder to leave the rumen inside the reindeer for tenderization). Decrease in intramuscular pH in sirloin, longissimus dorsi, from the bagganreindeer supports Sami traditional knowledge of high-quality meat. In the Sami language there are a variety of concepts that include knowledge of slaughtering practices and quality of meat. This is the first scientific study of Sami reindeer herders’ traditional knowledge and their specialist language of reindeer meat quality. The Sami language is a prerequisite for the food sovereignty governed by Sami reindeer herders’ families through generations, regardless of state policies and modernization. Everyday food from Sami households could offer an important template for future Sami gastronomy, and lead to stronger food sovereignty and improved food for visiting tourists.
Back issues are available in online version. Order Here
Advertisements: Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism will accept advertisements. All advertisements are subject to approval by the Editors-in-Chief. For details and rates contact the Publisher.
Copyright Notice: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright for the article is transferred to the publisher, if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic, or any other reproductions of similar nature and translations. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without permission in writing from the copyright holder.
Photocopying information for users in the USA: The Item Fee Code for this publication indicates that authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by the copyright holder for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service provided the stated fee for copying beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the United States Copyright Law is paid. The appropriate remittance of $60.00 per copy per article is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. The copyright owner’s consent does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific written permission must be obtained from the publisher for such copying. In case of doubt, please contact Cognizant Communication Corporation.
The Item Fee Code for this publication is 2169-2971/10 $60.00