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Aims & Scope
The aim of Tourism Analysis is to promote a forum for practitioners and academicians in the fields of Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH). As a interdisciplinary journal, it is an appropriate outlet for articles, research notes, and computer software packages designed to be of interest, concern, and of applied value to its audience of professionals, scholars, and students of LRTH programs the world over. The scope of the articles will include behavioral models (quantitative-qualitative), decision-making techniques and procedures, estimation models, demand-supply analysis, monitoring systems, expert systems and performance evaluation, assessment of site and destination attractiveness, new analytical tools, research methods and related areas such as validity and reliability, scale development, development of data collection instruments, methodological issues in cross-national and cross-cultural studies, and computer technology and use.
Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management
College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management
University of South Carolina
Columbia, SC 29208
Associate Professor, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management
School of Health and Human Development
Penn State University
704M Ford Building
University Park, PA 16802
REGIONAL ASSOCIATE EDITORS FOR THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION
Dan Wang, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Faruk Balli, Massey University, New Zealand
Keith Hollinshead, Independent Scholar, England and Australia, Warwickshire, UK
BOOK REVIEWS EDITOR
Marcjanna M. Augustyn, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK
RESEARCH NOTES EDITOR
Rich Harrill, International Tourism Research Institute, China Tourism Group, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
Kathleen L. Andereck, Arizona State University, USA
Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA
Guy Assaker, Lebanese American University, Lebanon
Ernest Azzopardi, University of Malta, Malta
Faruk Balli, Massey University, New Zealand
Mark A. Bonn, Florida State University, USA
Ilenia Bregoli, University of Lincoln, UK
Juan Antonio Campos-Soria, University of Malaga, Spain
Laurence Chalip, University of Illinois, USA
Annie Chen, University of West London, UK
Rachel J. C. Chen, University of Tennessee, USA
Mingming Cheng, University of Otago, New Zealand
Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada
Germa Coenders, University of Girona, Spain
Nuno Crespo, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Jonathon Day, Purdue University, USA
Giacomo Del Chiappa, University of Sassari, Italy
Jinyang Deng, West Virginia University, USA
Tarik Dogru, Boston University, USA
Oleksandr Dorokhov, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine
Yuksel Ekinci, University of Portsmouth, UK
Erdogan H. Ekiz, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Matthias Fuchs, Mid Sweden University, Sweden
Martina González-Gallarza Granizo, Universitat de Valéncia, Spain
Ulrike Gretzel, University of Southern California, USA
Huimin Gu, Beijing International Studies University, China
Ulrich Gunter, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Rob Hallak, University of South Australia, Australia
Tzung-Cheng Huan, National Chiayi University, Taiwan
Tazim Jamal, Texas A&M University, USA
SooCheong (Shawn) Jang, Purdue University, USA
Pandora Kay, Deakin University, Australia
Ksenia Kirillova, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR
Jennifer Laing, La Trobe University, Australia
Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan
Jun (Justin) Li, South China Normal University, China
Vincent Magnini, Virginia Tech, USA
Bruce Marti, University of Rhode Island, USA
Xavier Matteucci, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Yeganeh Morakabati, Bournemouth University, UK
Ana María Munar, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Jaume Rosselló Nadal, Universitat de Illes Balears, Spain
Sarah Nicholls, Michigan State University, USA
Harmen Oppewal, Monash University, Australia
Ahmet Bulent Ozturk, University of Central Florida, USA
Steven Pike, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Yaniv Poria, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández, University of Jaén, Spain
Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon, Curtin University, Australia
Wiston Adrián Risso, University of the Republic, Uruguay
José António C. Santos, Universidade do Algarve, Portugal
Zvi Schwartz, University of Delaware, USA
Ercan Sirakaya-Türk, University of South Carolina, USA
M. Joseph Sirgy, Virginia Tech, USA
Vincent Wing Sun Tung, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR
Anja Tuohino, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Shui-Ki Wan, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR
Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Hung Che Wu, Sun Yat-sen University, China
Anita Zehrer, MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Austria
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Seyhmus Baloglu, University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts, College of Charleston, USA
Geoffrey I. Crouch (former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia
Larry Dwyer, Griffith University, Australia
Daniel Fesenmaier (co-founding editor), University of Florida, USA
Josef Mazanec, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada
Harry Timmermans, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Muzaffer Uysal (co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
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Tourism Analysis (TA) employs a double blind review process.
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If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TA, please contact the Editor in Chief: Ercan Sirakaya-Türk, Professor, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA – Email: email@example.com
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Table of Contents:
Volume 26, Numbers 2–3
WINE AND CULINARY TOURISM FUTURES
Guest Editors: Donna Senese, John S. Hull, and Kellee Caton
Wine and Culinary Tourism Futures: Introduction to the Special Issue – 105
Donna Senese,* John S. Hull,† and Kellee Caton†
*University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, Canada
†Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, Canada
Terroir and Tourism in the Age of Mass Production – 109
Robert C. Ulin
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA
The concept of terroir has an extensive history in France linking a multitude of agricultural products to climate, soil, and local knowledge. More recently, terroir is used in viticulture to emphasize the distinctiveness of wine with respect to regional natural and cultural resources and in so doing has become important to tourism. This article addresses terroir by pointing to its substantial virtues while unveiling its potential for mystification. In the age of mass production, terroir offers distinction, an essential attribute for touristic appeal. However, in its emphasis on climate and soil in the viticultural domain, terroir conceals important historical processes that in the end speak as much, if not more, to how we rank and regard wine. Moreover, the focus on natural conditions rather than those that are social also masks social relations that are embedded in class privilege and thus give the impression that wine has a life of its own independent of its historical and social contexts.
Key words: Terroir; History; Class; Distinction
Rural Wine and Food Tourism for Cultural Sustainability – 121
*Okanagan College, Kelowna, Canada
†University of British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada
This conceptual article explores the relationships between culture, sustainability, and rural tourism. The development of food and wine tourism and its role in cultural sustainability is given special consideration. Soini and Dessein’s three-part, interdisciplinary conceptual framework for culture in, for, and as sustainability is presented as a means to understand the relationships between culture and sustainability. When applied to rural tourism, the framework reveals that rural tourism can support cultural sustainability in all three ways described: culture in sustainability, where tourism is a means to conserve tangible and intangible cultural capital and the diversity of cultural expressions; culture for sustainability, where tourism is a resource for rural development and a way to shape development processes; and ultimately, culture as sustainability, where tourism is a vehicle to facilitate a fundamental paradigm shift towards a shared “culture of sustainability.” Illustrative case examples are discussed. Culture in, for, and as sustainability offers a framework for researchers and developers to critically analyze what is being sustained through tourism and why. Further research considering the transformative potential of rural wine and food tourism to support cultural sustainability is suggested.
Key words: Cultural sustainability; Rural tourism; Wine and food tourism; Transformational tourism
Agrifood Tourism, Rural Resilience, and Recovery in a Postdisaster Context: Insights and Evidence From Kaikōura-Hurunui, New Zealand – 135
Joanna Fountain,* Nicholas Cradock-Henry,† Franca Buelow,† and Hamish Rennie*
*Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
†Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research, Lincoln, NZ
On November 14, 2016 an earthquake struck the rural districts of Kaikōura and Hurunui on New Zealand’s South Island. The region—characterized by small dispersed communities, a local economy based on tourism and agriculture, and limited transportation connections—was severely impacted. Following the quake, road and rail networks essential to maintaining steady flows of goods, visitors, and services were extensively damaged, leaving agrifood producers with significant logistical challenges, resulting in reduced productivity and problematic market access. Regional tourism destinations also suffered with changes to the number, characteristics, and travel patterns of visitors. As the region recovers, there is renewed interest in the development and promotion of agrifood tourism and trails as a pathway for enhancing rural resilience, and a growing awareness of the importance of local networks. Drawing on empirical evidence and insights from a range of affected stakeholders, including food producers, tourism operators, and local government, we explore the significance of emerging agrifood tourism initiatives for fostering diversity, enhancing connectivity, and building resilience in the context of rural recovery. We highlight the motivation to diversify distribution channels for agrifood producers, and strengthen the region’s tourism place identity. Enhancing product offerings and establishing better links between different destinations within the region are seen as essential. While such trends are common in rural regions globally, we suggest that stakeholders’ shared experience with the earthquake and its aftermath has opened up new opportunities for regeneration and reimagination, and has influenced current agrifood tourism trajectories. In particular, additional funding for tourism recovery marketing and product development after the earthquake, and an emphasis on greater connectivity between the residents and communities through strengthening rural networks and building social capital within and between regions, is enabling more resilient and sustainable futures.
Key words: Agrifood tourism; Rural resilience; Postdisaster recovery; New Zealand
Non-Economic Impact of Craft Brewery Visitors in British Columbia: A Quantitative Analysis – 151
Jarrett R. Bachman,* John S. Hull,† and Byron Marlowe‡
*International School of Hospitality, Sports, & Tourism Management, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
†School of Adventure, Culinary, & Tourism, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada
‡Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Richland, WA, USA
The number of craft breweries in British Columbia has grown significantly in recent years, numbering over 140 in 2017. Very little is known about the effects of the craft brewery industry in British Columbia, specifically as it relates to impacts not related to brewery revenue and job creation. Beyond British Columbia, the craft beer industry has not empirically examined nonrevenue impacts in a manner that reflects the global growth of the sector. Tourism experiences, such as those offered by craft breweries, are becoming increasingly important for resilience and sustainable growth and success of destinations. The goal of this research was to determine who visitors to craft breweries are, how tourist and resident patrons differ, and what effects craft breweries have on tourists who visit breweries. A 55-item survey was distributed at 11 craft breweries in three regions in British Columbia during the summer of 2017. Results found differences between tourist and resident patrons in self-image congruency, age, and travel party size, but no difference in gender, education, or household income. From a tourism standpoint, it was found that memories have a significant, positive impact on loyalty regarding the brewery and the destination. For tourists, strong connections were found between social involvement and both authenticity and place attachment for those who were more socially involved in craft beer. Comparisons to previous research in the wine industry provide additional commentary. Implications for craft breweries, destinations, and future research in this area are discussed.
Key words: Craft beer tourism; Tourism experience; Resilience; Non-economic impacts; BC Ale Trail
Future Proofing the Success of Food Festivals Through Determining the Drivers of Change: A Case Study of Wellington on a Plate – 167
Ian Yeoman,* Una McMahon-Beattie,† Katherine Findlay,‡ Sandra Goh,§ Sophea Tieng,¶ and Sochea Nhem#
*School of Management, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ulster University, Belfast, UK
‡Penrose, Auckland, New Zealand
§School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, NZ
¶Tourism Department, Saint Paul Institute, Sangkat Dangkor, Khan Dangkor, Cambodia
#Department of Tourism, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
In parallel with the growth and popularity of food tourism, the increase in food-specific events and festivals has been significant. Events have become an important element of the experience economy; often their economic and social benefits have been related to improvements in the quality of life for communities and regions. Food festivals provide an opportunity for event goers to socialize, as by their nature they bring people together. However, how do we future proof the success of such events? Adopting a practice theory position and a pragmatism paradigm, this article investigates the future of food festivals using a case study of Wellington on a Plate (WOAP), which is New Zealand’s most successful food festival, operated by the Wellington Culinary Events Trust (WCET). In line with scenario planning research methods, 12 “remarkable persons” were interviewed to identify 22 megadrivers of change, including mobility, redefining luxury, technological immersion, social capital, social demography changes, and accessibility. Adapting Yeoman’s conceptual framework of food tourism drivers for food festivals and linking to these megadrivers of change, a conceptual framework was derived that considers five factors of success: Food festivals as political capital; Food festivals as a visionary state; Sense of community; The drive for affluence and exclusivity; and Fluid identity and foodies. The development of this conceptual framework, which links success to the external environment, contributes to the future proofing of food festivals.
Key words: Food tourism; Futures studies; Festival; Pragmatism; Future proofing
Do High-Quality Restaurants Act as Pull Factors to a Tourist Destination? – 195
Natalia Daries, Estela Marine-Roig, Berta Ferrer-Rosell, and Eduard Cristobal-Fransi
Department of Business Management, Faculty of Law, Economics and Tourism, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Tourists travel because they are pushed by their internal motivations and attracted or pulled by certain elements and features of destinations. However, a growing number of destinations have similar tourist attractions and need to differentiate themselves. The aim of this study is to unveil the power of high-level culinary tourism, focusing on Michelin-starred restaurants, as a pull factor and generator of tourism flows, as well as to create a model to quantify the level of importance of these high-quality restaurants as nuclei of a destination. The gastronomic and culinary industry is one of the most traditional sectors in most economies and is now becoming a fundamental element in attracting tourism and promotion. In this study, we argue that certain types of business, such as high-quality restaurants, can generate tourism flows in their own right within a context where the role of tourists and enterprises has shifted from a passive to an active one, in which companies actively seek to become destination pull factors. A quantitative survey questionnaire with structured questions was applied to customers of high-quality Spanish restaurants, specifically Michelin starred, with 432 valid responses. The results show distinctive motivations of customers who travel mainly for the restaurant and those who do so for the destination. They also show the importance of the nucleus (restaurant) as a factor of attraction to the destination, but also the importance of the destination/surroundings to the nucleus. These findings provide valuable information and insights for culinary tourism in the future, both for culinary companies and for destination managers, who can then adjust their marketing and management strategies, emphasizing the need for mutual collaboration. The findings may also be helpful to institutions and to communication managers of the destinations to improve their promotion and communication strategies, to diversify supply in mature destinations, and to deseasonalized demand.
Key words: Push factors; Single attractions; Nucleus; Destination attractors; Culinary tourism
Do Satisfied Cellar Door Visitors Want to Revisit? Linking Past Knowledge and Consumption Behaviors to Satisfaction and Intention to Return – 211
Girish Prayag,* Marta Disegna,† and Johan Bruwer‡
*Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
†Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK
‡Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science, UniSA Business School, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
This study evaluates the main determinants of wine tourists’ intention to revisit the winery cellar door. The proposed tourist behavior model suggests that past wine-related knowledge and behaviors as well as motivation affect satisfaction with the cellar door visit. The model suggests that actual behavior at the cellar door (number of bottles bought and amount of money spent) is dependent on the previously mentioned factors. A survey of wine tourists in the Barossa Valley, Australia, led to 676 useable questionnaires. The results of a binary logistic model show that only monthly household expenditure on wine consumption and the motive of tasting wine predict satisfaction with the cellar door visit. A negative binomial model shows that the probability to buy more bottles at the winery increases if the visitor is from Australia, satisfied with the visit, has tasted wine at the cellar door, is younger, spends more on monthly household consumption of wine, and was primarily visiting to buy wine. However, intention to revisit is predicted only by satisfaction, awareness of the winery before the visit, motives of buying and tasting wine, and some sociodemographic characteristics. Implications for the management of visitor behavior and the cellar door experience are also discussed.
Key words: Wine tourism; Motivation; Satisfaction; Knowledge; Past behavior
Drive by my Cellar Door: Rethinking the Benefits of Wine Tourism in Niagara – 225
Bruce McAdams,* Statia Elliot,* and Joshua E. LeBlanc†
*School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
†Department of Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of various marketing activities on retail winery spending in a wine tourism region. Data from a survey of 282 visitors to three Niagara boutique wineries are analyzed using principal component analysis to identify marketing drivers of winery sales, and regression analysis to measure the influence of marketing activities, demographics, and personal experience. The results illustrate the relative influence of in-region, web-based, and indirect marketing, suggesting that web-based marketing is most effective in driving sales, whereas visitors influenced by in-region tourism marketing spend less. This finding suggests that while wine tourism may drive traffic, it may not drive sales. The results provide direction for boutique winery operators and regional associations to plan marketing activities more effectively. Exploring the relationships between marketing and visitor spending by using multiple drivers in one study sheds new light on the benefits of wine tourism for boutique operators.
Key words: Boutique winery; Retail wine sales; Wine tourism
Craft Beer Tourism in Thailand – 237
Rangson Chirakranont* and Sirijit Sunanta†
*Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand
†Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand
The craft beer movement and craft beer tourism are a new global phenomenon that has reached various parts of the world. However, the literature on craft beer tourism mostly focuses on traditional origins of craft beer in Western countries—the US, Australia, and European countries. This research note illustrates how a study of the Thai craft beer movement and craft beer tourism could contribute to the existing body of knowledge. The consumption of non-Western people in non-Western places has been underrepresented in the literature of food and beverage tourism. The craft beer movement has spread to Thailand via urban middle-class Thais who brought the passion for and knowledge of home brewing from the West to Thailand. Brewing lessons, brewery visits, and craft beer events/festivals have functioned as community building activities for Thai craft beer enthusiasts as well as the main craft beer distribution channel. Craft beer consumption continues to grow despite the Thai alcoholic production law that prohibits home brewing. For future studies, different craft beer tourism activities in Thailand should be analyzed for 1) the adoption of the experience economy framework, 2) the formation of the consumption community, 3) the roles of various stakeholders who differentially contribute to and benefit from craft beer tourism activities, and 4) the role of foreign tourists in the development of craft beer tourism in Thailand.
Key words: Craft beer tourism; Thailand; Experience economy; Consumption community; Craft beer movement
Insights on Wine Connoisseurs for the Wine Tourism Industry – 241
Department of Social and Public Communications, Faculty of Communication, University of Quebec at Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
This article suggests that studying wine culture may help to further understand wine tourism. The broader culture of wine consumption has an influence on the motivation and interest that people have for visiting a wine region or a winery. This study takes an anthropological approach to wine consumption culture and identifies specific topics of interest that connoisseurs find in wine and that may be relevant to wine tourism. The study is based on fieldwork and interviews with wine connoisseurs from Montreal (Canada). It identifies four main dimensions through which people engage with wine. The first factor concerns the formal discoveries offered by wine, the second, its social and cultural significance, the third, its producers and their values, and the fourth, the experimentation of theoretical knowledge in the context of wine regions. Each of these four dimensions offers a means for better understanding the visitor experience at wineries.
Key words: Wine tourism; Anthropology; Motivations; Consumption
Wine Tourism: From Winescape to Cellardoorscape – 245
Kim M. Williams
Faculty of Higher Education, William Angliss Institute, Melbourne, Australia
The intention of this research note is to explore two essential elements of a winery’s cellar door tasting room environment: first, the skills, knowledge, and personal attributes required by tasting room representatives, and second, how to develop meaningful social experiences for the wine tourist within the service environment of the cellar door tasting room. This note offers a discourse concerning the blend of these two elements, which proposes a new “-scape,” the cellardoorscape, a microfocus on a particular service environment within a specific winery’s winescape. To acknowledge an additional distinguishable “-scape” within the winescape provides some advantages. An analysis of what composes a beneficial and operational cellardoorscape could assist in developing a framework to provide management direction to winery owners and companies on the vital infrastructure and human resource practices to improve circumstances for success.
Key words: Winescape; Human resources; Cellar door; Servicescape; Customer service
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