The aim of Tourism Analysis is to promote a forum for practitioners and academicians in the fields of Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH). As a interdisciplinary journal, it is an appropriate outlet for articles, research notes, and computer software packages designed to be of interest, concern, and of applied value to its audience of professionals, scholars, and students of LRTH programs the world over. The scope of the articles will include behavioral models (quantitative-qualitative), decision-making techniques and procedures, estimation models, demand-supply analysis, monitoring systems, expert systems and performance evaluation, assessment of site and destination attractiveness, new analytical tools, research methods and related areas such as validity and reliability, scale development, development of data collection instruments, methodological issues in cross-national and cross-cultural studies, and computer technology and use.
Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management University of South Carolina Columbia, SC, USA Email: email@example.com REVIEWS EDITOR Keith Hollinshead,University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury Campus, Luton, UK
BOOK REVIEWS EDITOR Marcjanna M. Augustyn,Hull University Business School, Hull, UK
RESEARCH NOTES EDITOR Rich Harrill,International Tourism Research Institute, China Tourism Group, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
Kathleen L. Andereck,Arizona State University, USA Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA Guy Assaker,Lebanese American University, Lebanon Ernest Azzopardi, University of Malta, Malta Faruk Balli, Massey University, New Zealand Mark A. Bonn,Florida State University, USA Ilenia Bregoli,University of Lincoln, UK Juan Antonio Campos-Soria,University of Malaga, Spain Laurence Chalip,University of Illinois, USA Annie Chen,University of West London, UK Rachel J. C. Chen,University of Tennessee, USA Mingming Cheng,University of Otago, New Zealand Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada Germa Coenders,University of Girona, Spain Nuno Crespo, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal Jonathon Day,Purdue University, USA Giacomo Del Chiappa,University of Sassari, Italy Jinyang Deng,West Virginia University, USA Tarik Dogru,Boston University, USA Oleksandr Dorokhov, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine Yuksel Ekinci,University of Portsmouth, UK Erdogan H. Ekiz,King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia Matthias Fuchs,Mid Sweden University, Sweden Martina González-Gallarza Granizo,Universitat de Valéncia, Spain Ulrike Gretzel,University of Southern California, USA Huimin Gu,Beijing International Studies University, China Ulrich Gunter,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Rob Hallak,University of South Australia, Australia Tzung-Cheng Huan,National Chiayi University, Taiwan Tazim Jamal,Texas A&M University, USA SooCheong (Shawn) Jang,Purdue University, USA Pandora Kay,Deakin University, Australia Ksenia Kirillova,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Jennifer Laing,La Trobe University, Australia Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee,Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan Jun (Justin) Li,South China Normal University, China Vincent Magnini,Virginia Tech, USA Bruce Marti,University of Rhode Island, USA Xavier Matteucci,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Fang Meng,University of South Carolina, USA Yeganeh Morakabati, Bournemouth University, UK Ana María Munar,Copenhagen Business School, Denmark Jaume Rosselló Nadal, Universitat de Illes Balears, Spain Sarah Nicholls,Michigan State University, USA Harmen Oppewal,Monash University, Australia Ahmet Bulent Ozturk,University of Central Florida, USA Steven Pike,Queensland University of Technology, Australia Yaniv Poria,Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández,University of Jaén, Spain Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon,Curtin University, Australia Wiston Adrián Risso,University of the Republic, Uruguay José António C. Santos,Universidade do Algarve, Portugal Zvi Schwartz,University of Delaware, USA M. Joseph Sirgy,Virginia Tech, USA Vincent Wing Sun Tung,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Anja Tuohino,University of Eastern Finland, Finland Shui-Ki Wan,Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR Kyle M. Woosnam,University of Georgia, USA Hung Che Wu,Sun Yat-sen University, China Anita Zehrer,MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Austria
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Seyhmus Baloglu,University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts,College of Charleston, USA Geoffrey I. Crouch(former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia Larry Dwyer,Griffith University, Australia Daniel Fesenmaier(co-founding editor), University of Florida, USA Josef Mazanec,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada Harry Timmermans,Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands Muzaffer Uysal(co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscript and figure/table files via this link:
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Maximum word count for full-length manuscripts, including references, is approximately 7,000 to 7,500 words. Short manuscripts (Research Notes) should not exceed approximately 2,000 words.
A statement identifying the gap in the literature and your manuscript’s theoretical contribution should be included, preferable within the first few paragraphs of the text (or at least in the first two pages). The manuscript needs to make an original contribution to the theory and practice of Tourism Management and Policy.
Tourism Analysis is an English language journal. Authors not fluent in English are expected to have their manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English before submitting.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters or less should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables and figures. Figures and tables can also be provided as separate files (see below).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London, UK: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Internet source: United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2015). Tourism driving trade, fostering development and connecting people. Retrieved from http://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284417247
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Include a figure legend for each figure at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate figure legends or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include tables in a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not embed tables within the text of the manuscript.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Analysis are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) employs a double blind review process.
Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the editorial office for format, content requirements, and authors contact information. The editor-in-chief (EIC) then reviews the manuscript for its methodology, grammar, and language use and decides whether it deserves to move to the next level. If the manuscript is found to not meet minimum quality standards the EIC will desk-reject the manuscript.
If the manuscript is written following TA guidelines and meets minimum standards, the EIC invites four to five reviewers from a mixture of the review board members, past reviewers within the database, or new recruits depending upon the need of the expertise area. Typically, the reviewers are given four to nine weeks to review the manuscript and provide feedback.
The EIC needs at least two reports by the reviewers to make a preliminary judgement regarding the manuscript: accept, revise per review comments and resubmit, or reject. Manuscripts can go through several rounds of review based on needed revisions and report of the reviewers. The EIC can ask for additional work (e.g., language, cross-referencing of citations, adjustments to tables and figures) to be done before final acceptance.
If a manuscript is deemed to be a significant work but has not met the requirements to be published as a full article, the EIC can ask the authors to resubmit their work as a Research Note after revisions have been made per reviewer comments. The same reviewers may be recruited again to review the research note on a more lenient basis.
Invited manuscripts do not go through a rigorous peer review process but one or two reviewers are still recruited to help the submitting author make needed adjustments to enhance the manuscript.
As a reviewer for Tourism Analysis you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TA, please contact the Editor in Chief: Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA – Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Analysis have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Analysis is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH), and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-analysis under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
*CEFAGE, Universidade do Algarve & Universidade Europeia, Portugal
†Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Exploring Visual Methods in Teaching Tourism – 203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241710
Ana Isabel Rodrigues
Higher School of Technology and Management, Management Department, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja, Portugal
Humankind is becoming increasingly image based. Visual culture is everywhere: it surrounds us all with still and moving images. Based on this pictorial change, working with the visual in education has the potential for engaging students in a process of self-reflection in an effort to change ways of thinking and behavior, aiming to consolidate concepts taught in classes. Nevertheless, there are key elements to consider as a set of methodologies and practices. The aim of this study is to explore multiple ways of working with the visual, within educational environments, specifically in classes taught in the second and third year of a degree in Tourism. Two examples of visual methodologies were considered for this study. An image-based exercise through the use of tourism cartoons as visual stimuli to evoke opinions and incite thoughts was fully implemented. Analysis was undertaken and the results are presented. A reflexive photography method is also proposed as another example for a visual-based exercise. The results from the cartoons exercise demonstrate that knowledge is continuously derived from the experience of the learner. The student’s impressions and full comprehension of the concepts taught in a particular subject were achieved with this exercise.
Exploring the Potential of Nightscape Photography for Tourism: Preliminary Insights – 215 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241738
Áurea Rodrigues,*† Rosária Pereira,‡§ and Ana Isabel Rodrigues¶
*CIDEHUS, School of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, University of Évora, Évora, Portugal †GOVCOPP–University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal ‡School of Management, Hospitality and Tourism, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal §CinTurs -The Research Centre for Tourism, Sustainability and Well-Being, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal ¶Higher School of Technology and Management, Management Department, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja, Portugal
The analysis of photo imagery has all been done based on daytime images, not photographs taken by night. In this sense, it is relevant to study tourists’ perceptions of dark night pictures to understand how they can be used by DMOs and advertising agencies to promote the nightscape of a destination. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to explore the perceptions and the emotions evoked by the nightscape pictures based on the principles of environmental psychology, compared to daytime landscape preferences. It also aims to understand if the elements presented in daytime pictures, which turn a certain landscape appreciated, apply to nightscape pictures and, consequently, how they can be used in tourism promotion and branding. An exploratory study was carried out based on the photo-elicitation method, demonstrating the benefits of the combined use of textual and pictorial data. Results show that elements that are key during the day are not the same at night, such as complexity and points of reference. On the contrary, the preferred nightscape is based on simple open spaces, where the human eye could prospect security.
Projected Versus Perceived Destination Image – 227 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241747
Berta Ferrer-Rosell And Estela Marine-Roig
University of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain
Due to the spectacular growth of traveler-generated content (TGC), researchers are using TGC as a source of data to analyze the image of destinations as perceived by tourists. In order to analyze a destination’s projected image, researchers typically look to websites from destination marketing or management organizations (DMOs). The objective of this study is to calculate the gap between the projected and perceived images of Barcelona, Catalonia, in 2017, using Gartner’s classification and applying compositional analysis. The official online press dossier is used as an induced source, the Lonely Planet guidebook as an autonomous source, and a collection of more than 70,000 online travel reviews hosted on TripAdvisor as an organic source. In addition to quantitative content analysis, this study undertakes two thematic analyses: the masterworks of architect Gaudi recognized as UNESCO WHS as part of the cognitive image component and feeling-related keywords as part of the affective image component. The results reveal strong differences between the induced and organic sources, but much smaller differences between the autonomous and organic sources. These results can be useful for DMOs to optimize promotion and supply.
Key words: Destination image gap; Compositional analysis; Traveler-generated content (TGC); Big data analytics; Barcelona; Catalonia Testing Destination Image Scale Invariance for Intergroup Comparison – 239 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241756
Demet Ceylan,* Beykan Cizel,† and Hatice Karakaş†
*School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Antalya Bilim University, Antalya, Turkey †Faculty of Tourism, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
In destination image studies, researchers often compare individuals and groups with measurement scales. Classical Test Theory (CTT) assumes, when comparing groups, that the scale measures the same social psychological construct in all groups. The assurance of measurement invariance is a prerequisite for meaningful comparisons across groups. This article reviews theoretical and methodological issues regarding measurement invariance within the framework of confirmatory factor analysis, and aims to test the measurement invariance of the destination image scale by nationality and gender. Confirmatory factor analysis assures that scores obtained from a destination image measurement model can be generalized for three nationalities and gender groups. In this respect, the results of the survey provide evidence that the scale can deliver valid and reliable measurements in determining the characteristics of British, German, and Russian tourists without gender bias. Invariance test assures the measurement model to be invariant for both females and males and therefore it is appropriate to compare the results across genders. The findings of this research and analysis methods used provide valuable insights to destination image literature and cast light on the path for future researchers.
Country Animosity and the Role of Media – 253 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241765
Maria D. Alvarez* and Sara Campo†
*Department of Tourism Administration, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey †Dpto. de Financiación e Investigación Comercial, Facultad de Ciencias Ecónomicas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Wars, conflicts, and other incidents between countries may give rise to feelings of animosity towards a given country that affect consumption choices. These negative feelings may also have roots on more general concerns regarding ideological differences, government policies, or human rights violations, and they may be supported by the broadcast of news by the media. Therefore, this study is aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the causes that may lead individuals to harbor feelings of animosity towards a particular country, with important potential consequences for tourism. In addition, the portrayal of the most disliked countries in the mainstream media is analyzed to better comprehend the influence that the media has on the formation of these negative feelings. According to the findings, the most important reasons why individuals dislike certain countries include the perception of the place as having a high degree of criminality or terrorism, the negative opinion concerning violation of human rights, and the dislike of the political system and the country’s leader. These are also the topics that are mostly mentioned in the news concerning the specific countries analyzed.
Key words: Consumer animosity; Media; Sources of information; Political issues
Perceptions of Stopover Destinations During Long Haul Air Travel: A Mixed Methods Research Approach in Four Countries – 261 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241774
Steven Pike* and Filareti Kotsi†
*School of Advertising, Marketing & Public Relations, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia †College of Communication and Media Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai, UAE
Research into the phenomenon of stopovers during long haul air travel emerged only recently in the tourism literature. In this article a contribution to this new field is made by reporting perceptions of Dubai, in the context of an international stopover destination, during long haul air travel between UK/Europe and Australasia/South Pacific, relative to three competing places (Singapore, Hong Kong, Abu Dhabi). A mixed methods research approach was used. The first stage involved personal interviews with 66 consumers in the UK, France, Australia, and New Zealand to identify salient attributes of stopover destinations, and a pilot survey involving 777 consumers in Australia and France. A refined online survey was then used with a combined sample of 2,000 consumers in the same four markets, to identify determinant attributes of stopover destination attractiveness, as well as Dubai’s perceived strengths and weaknesses. The study identified determinant attributes of stopover destination attractiveness that have not featured in destination image research. The results support the propositions that 1) destination image might vary across travel contexts, and 2) there is a positive effect of previous visitation on destination image and attitudinal loyalty. Methodologically the study demonstrates the efficacy of combining the repertory test with importance–performance analysis, in destination image research.
To Theme or Not to Theme: The Lisboa Pessoa, a Literary Hotel? – 273 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241783
Marcelo G. Oliveira
CLEPUL, Universidade Europeia, Lisboa, Portugal
Although theming has become an important differentiation strategy in the hotel industry and, accompanying the growth of cultural and literary tourism in recent decades, literature has been adopted as a central theme by numerous hotels worldwide, little to no research has been conducted on literary hotels. The inauguration of the Lisboa Pessoa, in Lisbon, in September 2016, dedicated to one of Portugal’s most celebrated poets, offered an ideal opportunity to study the impact of literary theming in a new unit. A qualitative study, considering external online communications and guests’ commentaries in social networking sites, was carried out to determine the thematic strategies implemented and the impact of these strategies on the perceived image of the hotel, in order to assess the influence of the theme on the experience of guests and the extent to which the Pessoa can be considered, from the guests’ perspective, a literary hotel. Results showed that the impact of the literary theme on guests’ perception was low, especially considering the clear theming efforts evinced in external communications, indicating that meanings must be more adequately conveyed if motifs are to truly inspire differentiated experiences.
Small-Scale Cultural Tourism Events: Residents’ Perceptions on Their Quality and Impacts – 283 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241800
Maria Doumi,* Anna Kyriakaki,* and Theodoros Stavrinoudis†
*Business School, University of the Aegean, Chios, Greece †Department of Business Administration, University of the Aegean, Chios, Greece
In the present article researchers feature the examination of the opinions and attitudes of the residents of Chios island in Greece. It is based on the investigation of both the characteristics (quality, potential, organization) of the island’s main annual cultural events (Rocket War, Agas, and Mostra) and their possible impact on the local society, economy, tourism, and natural environment. Cluster analysis was used to classify the residents under three groups: Embracers, Realists, Neutrals. Each group has particular characteristics and a clearly defined opinion about local cultural tourism events and their impact on a local level. According to the main findings of the primary research some particularly interesting aspects of the effects of local cultural tourism events both on the local level and on the island’s tourism development emerge. The conclusions drawn from the elaboration of such findings afford an opportunity to understand better the general impact of cultural events and by the same token to assist government bodies, residents, and other stakeholders in maximizing benefits, whenever possible.
Residents’ Support for Tourism Development in a Portuguese Historic Town – 295 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241792
Ana Paula Rodrigues,* Isabel Vieira,† Didiana Fernandes,† and Carlos Pires*
*Centre for Transdisciplinary Development Studies, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal †School of Technology and Management of Lamego, Center for Studies in Education, Technologies and Health, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Lamego, Portugal
This study depicts some antecedents of residents’ support for tourism development (STD) underlying the importance of residents’ trust in government actors involved in tourism planning and development in the context of historic towns. The study proposes a conceptual framework that explores the relationships between community attachment, local government management of tourism, perceived tourism impacts, trust in government actors, and STD. Data collection was carried out by personal survey applied to 150 residents of the small historic town of Lamego, located within the Portuguese Douro Valley World Heritage Site. Structural equation modeling method was employed to analyze the proposed model. Results suggest that residents’ trust in government actors had a significant effect on STD. Residents’ perceptions of the tourism benefits positively influenced their STD, and residents’ perceptions of the tourism costs negatively affected their STD. The results support the relationship between community attachment and trust in government actors. Also, community attachment significantly and positively influenced tourism benefits. Perceived effective local government management of tourism had a strong significant effect on the residents’ trust in government actors. Moreover, residents’ perceived effective local government management of tourism was a significant determinant of perceived tourism benefits, but did not significantly predict perceived tourism costs.
Key words: Tourism development; Trust; Tourism impacts; Community attachment; Local government
Why Do the Young Generations Not Play Golf? – 309 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241819
Miguel Nuno Portugal,* Manuel Do Carmo,*† and Antonia Correia*‡
*FTH, Universidade Europeia, Lisbon, Portugal †CIMA-UE, Universidade de Evora, Evora, Portugal ‡CEFAGE, Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal
Golf is one of the most competitive sports for tourists in Portugal but not among the young generation. The young population often neglected this sport and categorized it as an elite sport for seniors. This situation may compromise the position Portugal has of the best golf destination in the world. To keep this position it is time to promote and attract young people starting with the residents. This research, exploratory in its essence, used a convenience sample to test why young people do not feel attracted to practice golf. The results suggest that there are very few teenagers willing to practice golf. The arguments are mostly this sport is not affordable, it is more tourist oriented, and is connoted as an eclectic social activity more than as a sport. These results, with evident implications on the attractiveness of golf, suggest that to overcome this situation the promotion should be oriented to attract young people.
Key words: Golf; Young generations; Cluster; Perceptions, Portugal
Deconstructing Persuasiveness of Online Hotel Review Platforms – 319 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241828
Edina Ajanovic and Beykan Çizel
Faculty of Tourism, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
Considering the significant influence of online hotel reviews on both tourism demand and supply side, these may be considered as a successful persuasive tool. Accordingly, it is necessary to investigate the broader context in which reviews are generated and what are the components that contribute to their effectiveness. The main goal of this study was to analyze the communication occurring on hotel review platforms from a social psychological perspective through understanding structure, characteristics, and functions of attitudes expressed in guests’ reviews. In addition, it aims to identify how persuasive cues in review responses should be defined. Following this aim, the authors applied multiple case study design and collected data in several stages through document analysis, participant observation, netnography, and interviews with different stakeholders involved in online review management process. Results of the qualitative content analysis showed that, in order to use the full persuasive potential of review platforms, it is necessary for hotel management to define its presence and visibility on these platforms, to conduct in-depth analysis of structure, characteristics, and functions of attitudes expressed in reviews, and to establish a systematic approach towards use of central and peripheral cues in review responses to induce desired cognitive processing of these messages.
Virtual Reality in Tourism: Centennials Acceptance – 335 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241837
Francisco Rejón-Guardia, María Antonia García-Sastre, Francina Orfila-Sintes, and Joan B. Garau-Vadell
Department of Business Economics, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Widespread access to and heavy investment in the development of virtual reality underline the importance of understanding its acceptance by consumers and its possible implications in the promotion of tourist destinations. This study was carried out to evaluate the acceptance of virtual reality applied to tourism, and its capacity to change attitudes towards the viewed destination among 889 centennial virtual reality users. The results serve to highlight the validity of the proposed model, where personal innovation, the attitude towards virtual reality, and performance expectations are the main antecedents of intention to use. Furthermore, the influence of performance expectations as the main antecedent of the change in attitude towards the tourism destination is evident. The practical implications and future lines of research are discussed in detail.
Iranian Heritage Sites on Social Media – 345 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241855
Zohreh (Zara) Zarezadeh* and Ulrike Gretzel†
*School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia †University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
International heritage tourism is the backbone of Iranian tourism. To positively influence the country’s destination image and attract more international tourists, World Heritage sites (WHSs) need to be present on social media. This article investigates the representation of Iranian WHSs on social media based on a content analysis of WHS-related Facebook, Instagram, and TripAdvisor pages. The findings of the study indicate that social media marketing by Iranian WHSs is in its infancy. Iranian WHS information currently available on the three social media platforms is incomplete, confusing, and mostly provided by other stakeholders, leading to weak and diffused WHS brands that contribute little to a positive destination image. The article thus argues that WHSs in Iran need to urgently recognize the importance of social media for reaching international tourists and need to overcome their organizational limitations.
Key words: Heritage tourism; Social media; UNESCO World Heritage sites; Social media marketing; Iran
REVIEWS SECTION PAGE – 359
Indigenous Tourism: Cases From Australia & New Zealand (Michelle Whitford, Lisa Ruhanen, and Anna Carr, Editors) – 361 Johan R. Edelheim
Event Evaluation. Theory and Methods for Event Management and Tourism (Donald Getz) – 363 W. Gerard Ryan
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