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Aims & Scope
Established in 1996, Tourism Analysis is an interdisciplinary journal that provides a platform for exchanging ideas and research in tourism and related fields. The journal aims to publish articles that explore a broad range of research subjects, including, but not limited to, the social, economic, cultural, environmental, and psychological aspects of tourism, consumer behavior in tourism, sustainable and responsible tourism, and effective operations, marketing, and management.
Tourism Analysis focuses on both theoretical and applied research and strives to promote innovative approaches to understanding the complex and dynamic nature of tourism, its stakeholders, businesses, and its effects on society. The journal welcomes articles on innovative research topics and methodologies beyond the traditional theory-testing sciences, such as robotics, computational sciences, and data analytics.
Our primary goal is to contribute to the development and advancement of new knowledge in tourism while fostering critical reflections and debates on the radical changes and evolution in tourism among scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and other stakeholders.
Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management
College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management
University of South Carolina
Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Professor, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management
School of Health and Human Development
Penn State University
University Park, PA 16802, USA
Editorial Managing Editor:
Xiangping Li, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, China
Hui Jiang, University of South Carolina, USA
Omid Oshriyeh, University of South Carolina, USA
REGIONAL ASSOCIATE EDITORS
Neelu Seetaram, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Dan Wang, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
SOCIAL MEDIA EDITOR
Haiyan Wang, Penn State University, USA
Kathleen L. Andereck, Arizona State University, USA
Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA
Guy Assaker, University of Algarve, Portugal
Marcjanna Augustyn, Bournemouth University, UK
Laurent Botti, University of Perpignan, France
Ilenia Bregoli, University of Brescia, Italy
Juan Antonio Campos-Soria, University of Malaga, Spain
Mingming Cheng, Curtin University, Australia
Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada
Germa Coenders, University of Girona, Spain
Nuno Crespo, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Jonathon Day, Purdue University, USA
Giacomo Del Chiappa, University of Sassari, Italy
Zhiming Deng, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Tarik Dogru, Florida State University, USA
Roman Egger, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria
Yuksel Ekinci, University of Portsmouth, UK
Sheereen Banon Fauzel, University of Mauritius, Mauritius
Rachel J. C. Fu, University of Florida, USA
Sauveur Giannoni, University of Corse, France
Kyriaki Glyptou, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Ulrich Gunter, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Rob Hallak, University of South Australia, Australia
Tazim Jamal, Texas A&M University, USA
WooMi Jo, University of Guelph, Canada
Stefan Kruger, North-West University, South Africa
Seoki Lee, Penn State University, USA
SoJung Lee, Iowa State University, USA
Xi Y. Leung, University of North Texas, USA
Hengyun (Neil) Li, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong
Jun (Justin) Li, South China Normal University, China
Xiangping Li, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao
Michael Lin, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong
Stephen Litvin, College of Charleston, USA
Bing Liu, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
David Ma, Zhejiang University, China
Jintao (Emily) Ma, University of Surrey, UK
Vincent Magnini, Longwood University, USA
Marie-Louise Mangion, University of Malta, Malta
Carla Massidda, University of Cagliari, Italy
Xavier Matteucci, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Lynn Minnaert, New York University, USA
Ana María Munar, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Jaume Rosselló Nadal, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain
Harmen Oppewal, Monash University, Australia
Ahmet Bulent Ozturk, University of Central Florida, USA
Soyoung Park, Florida Atlantic University, USA
Sylvain Petit, Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France, France
Yaniv Poria, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon, University of Derby, UK
Tareq Rasul, Australia Institute of Business, Australia
Wiston Adrián Risso, University of the Republic, Uruguay
Edwin Sabuhoro, Penn State University, USA
Shrabani Saha, University of Lincoln, UK
José António C. Santos, University of Algarve, Portugal
Zvi Schwartz, University of Delaware, USA
Courtney Suess-Raeisinafchi, Texas A&M University, USA
Vincent Wing Sun Tung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Laura Vici, University of Bologna, Italy
Shai-Ki Wan, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Feifei Xu, Southeast University, China
Fiona Yang, University of Macau, China
Yang Yang, Temple University, USA
Pei Zhang, University of Kentucky, USA
Chen Zheng, Leeds Beckett University, UK
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Seyhmus Baloglu, University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Geoffrey I. Crouch (former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia
Larry Dwyer, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Daniel Fesenmaier (co-founding editor), MODUL University of Vienna, Austria
Josef Mazanec, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Ercan Sirakaya-Türk (former editor), University of South Carolina, USA
Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada
Harry Timmermans, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Muzaffer Uysal (co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscript and figure/table files via this link:
Full article example:
Gladiis ET Clypeis: Travel Motives Towards an Improvement of Quality of Life When Visiting a Military Expo.
Authors: Venter, Dewald; Kruger, Stefan; Uysal, Muzzo
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Game of Thrones and Tourism Impacts on Croatian Housing Prices.
Author: Brotman, Bille Ann
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Two files are to be submitted. The first file is the title page. All authors’ names and affiliations (department, institution, city, and country) and emails should be provided. One corresponding author should be clearly indicated, along with the mailing address. This is the only file that contains author and affiliation information. All other file(s) should not contain any information that might reveal the identity of the authors. The second file is the main document (the body of the manuscript), including the article title, abstract, keywords, text body, and references. Tables and figures can be included in this file on separate pages at the end of the manuscript (NOT embedded in the manuscript), or they can be submitted as a separate file.
Maximum word count for full-length manuscripts, including references, is approximately 9,000 words. Short manuscripts (Research Notes) should not exceed approximately 3,000 words.
All content in the main document should be double spaced except tables and figures. Use Times New Roman font, 12 point size (except in tables and figures). Use one-inch margins on all sides of the page, left justified, with a ragged right-hand margin (no full justification). Indent ALL paragraphs to start at 5 spaces, including the first paragraph below headings or subheadings. There should be no footnotes at the bottom of pages and no endnotes at the end of the manuscript. All material must be included in the text. Round numbers (e.g., correlations, significance level, standard deviations, etc.) to two decimal places in the text, tables, and figure legends. Use a period (American system) not a comma when reporting decimals.
American English spelling should be used in all content except in quoted material and references that use British spelling originally. References in other languages should provide an English translation shown in brackets.
A statement identifying the gap in the literature and your manuscript’s theoretical contribution should be included, preferably within the first few paragraphs of the text (or at least in the first two pages). The manuscript needs to make an original contribution to the theory and practice of Tourism Management and Policy.
Tourism Analysis is an English language journal. Authors not fluent in English are expected to have their manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English before submitting.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). The article title should be short, impressive, and attractive. A short title (for the running head) of approximately 40 characters or less should also be included. Provide any acknowledgment(s) on the title page.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of 150 to 200 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing. Do not include reference citations in the abstract.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. The main body text (except for Reviews) should be structured using the following headings: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The location of the tables and figures should be indicated by an insert tag: Insert Table 1 about here. The file (main document without any author information) should be arranged as: title, abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables and figures. Figures and tables can also be provided as separate files (see below).
The Introduction section should include the specified research gap(s) in the literature, the study’s exact research objectives, the importance/significance of the study, originality, and theoretical contributions (preferably within the first few paragraphs or first two pages). The paper should make original, value-added contributions to the theory and practice of tourism management and policy.
The Literature Review section should include both seminal and updated literature. Previous literature should not only be summarized but also critically synthesized, and research gaps should be discussed clearly. The hypotheses should be proposed in a logically way out of the literature.
The Methodology section should include detailed information regarding the research design and approach, survey instruments or interview protocol, data collection procedures, and outcome.
The Results section should include detailed report of the analyses and findings. Narratives and tables/figures should complement each other.
The Conclusion section should include the following subsections: a conclusive summary of the research findings and how the findings, theoretical contributions, managerial/practical implications, limitations, and future research.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult the 7th edition for additional examples for reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gladney, 2004) or (Boes et al., 2015; Clabaugh, 2018; McKercher et al., 2015) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: McKercher, B., Shoval, N., Park, E., & Kahani, A. (2015). The [limited] impact of weather on tourist behavior in an urban destination. Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 442–455.
Book: Gladney, D. C. (2004). Dislocating China: Muslims, minorities, and other subaltern subjects. University of Chicago Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Boes, K., Buhalis, D., & Inversini, A. (2015). Conceptualising smart tourism destination dimensions In I. Tussyadiah & A. Inversini (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015 (pp. 391–403). Springer.
Internet source: Clabaugh, J. (2018). Another record year for DC tourism: 22.8 million visitors. https://wtop.com/business-finance/2018/08/another-record-year-for-dc-tourism-22-8m-visitors/
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication. The written permission should be provided when the manuscript is accepted for publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Include a figure legend for each figure at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate figure legends or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include tables in a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not embed tables within the text of the manuscript.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Published Articles: The final article will be provided to authors with no charge for publication.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Analysis are available to be open access and may also contain color figures (not a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
A Voluntary Submission Fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $50.00 per color page). (Not a condition for publication).
Open Access is available for a fee of $200.00. Color would be discounted to $50.00 per color page. (Not a condition for publication).
The use of Color Figures in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. Color figures are available for a cost of $100.00 per color page. This amount would be discounted to $50.00 per color page if choosing to pay the voluntary submission fee or the open access option as indicated above. (Not a condition for publication).
If you choose any of the above options, a form will be sent with the amount due based on your selection, at proof stage. This form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof, prior to publication.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Articles appearing in publications are available to be published as Open Access and/or with color figures. A voluntary submission fee is also an option if you choose to support this publication. These options are NOT required for publication of your article.
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Tourism Analysis (TA) Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) employs a double blind review process.
Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the editorial office for format, content requirements, and authors contact information. The editor-in-chief (EIC) then reviews the manuscript for its methodology, grammar, and language use and decides whether it deserves to move to the next level. If the manuscript is found to not meet minimum quality standards the EIC will desk-reject the manuscript.
If the manuscript is written following TA guidelines and meets minimum standards, the EIC invites four to five reviewers from a mixture of the review board members, past reviewers within the database, or new recruits depending upon the need of the expertise area. Typically, the reviewers are given four to nine weeks to review the manuscript and provide feedback.
The EIC needs at least two reports by the reviewers to make a preliminary judgement regarding the manuscript: accept, revise per review comments and resubmit, or reject. Manuscripts can go through several rounds of review based on needed revisions and report of the reviewers. The EIC can ask for additional work (e.g., language, cross-referencing of citations, adjustments to tables and figures) to be done before final acceptance.
If a manuscript is deemed to be a significant work but has not met the requirements to be published as a full article, the EIC can ask the authors to resubmit their work as a Research Note after revisions have been made per reviewer comments. The same reviewers may be recruited again to review the research note on a more lenient basis.
Invited manuscripts do not go through a rigorous peer review process but one or two reviewers are still recruited to help the submitting author make needed adjustments to enhance the manuscript.
As a reviewer for Tourism Analysis you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TA, please contact the Editor in Chief: Ercan Sirakaya-Türk, Professor, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA – Email: email@example.com
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Analysis have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices and the COPE position statement regarding Authorship and AI Tools https://publicationethics.org/cope-position-statements/ai-author. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Analysis is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH), and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-analysis under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Volume 28, Number 4
Impacts of COVID-19 on Preferences for Airbnb and Car-Sharing Services and Marketing Implications – 511
Jungkeun Kim,* Seongseop (Sam) Kim,† Marilyn Giroux,‡ Jooyoung Park,§ Sheau Fen Yap,* Jae-Eun Kim,‡ and Frank Badu-Baiden¶
*Department of Marketing, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
†School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
‡Department of Marketing, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
§Peking University HSBC Business School, Shenzhen, China
¶Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated the ecosystem of tourism businesses. This study aimed to assess the effect of the pandemic on consumers’ intentions to choose sharing economy products and services. A series of five experimental designs was conducted using online panel data. Consumers were found to be less likely to choose sharing economy products under pandemic conditions. During the pandemic, cleanliness is considered more important than location when people choose Airbnb accommodation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the underlying psychological mechanisms that are driving consumers’ decisions in the current environment of market uncertainty and offer evidence of the effects of the global health crisis on people’s decisions to use sharing economy products in the tourism industry.
Key words: COVID-19; Risk; Communication; Cleanness; Sharing economy
An Integrated Model of Customers’ Intention to Reuse Information Service: What’s New for Conversational Agents? – 527
Sut Ieng Lei,* Guanrong Liu,† Haili Shen,‡ Shun Ye,‡ and Chi Fai Sitou§
*Department of Integrated Resort and Tourism Management, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau SAR, China
†UQ Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
‡School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
§Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau SAR, China
The application of conversational agents empowered by artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more common among tourism and hospitality businesses. Past research on AI has mostly investigated embodied robots rather than disembodied conversational agents. This study investigates the determinants of customers’ intention to reuse chatbots through integrating three different perspectives: technology acceptance model, computer-mediated communication theories, and interpersonal communication theories. Using online self-reported data analyzed by hierarchical regression and multigroup structural equation modeling, the efficacy of different theoretical models in predicting chatbot adoption were compared. A separate data set was collected from instant messaging (IM) users to provide implications that further explain the distinction between disembodied conversational agents and human conversational partners. Results suggest that variables associated with TAM and interpersonal attraction exert greatest influence on customers’ trust and reuse intention toward conversational agents. Managerial implications are suggested for practitioners to improve chatbot and IM design.
Key words: Chatbots; Instant messaging; Technology acceptance; Interpersonal attraction; Computer-mediated communication
Buffering Job Demands and Burnout During a Crisis: The Interplay Between Personal and Job Resources – 545
Xiangping Li,* Virginia Meng-Chan Lau,* and Fiona X. Yang†
*School of Tourism Management, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China
†Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau, China
The mental wellness of hospitality workers has been alarming since the onset of the pandemic. Underpinned by the Job Demand–Resource (JD–R) model and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this research examines the interactive effect of personal and job resources on burnout with job complexity exacerbated by the pandemic. Specifically, the research examines the relationships between job complexity, employee burnout, and organizational commitment. The research also scrutinizes the moderating effect of proactive personality on the job complexity–burnout nexus; and three-way interactions between job complexity, proactive personality, and two types of workplace support, namely organizational and supervisor support. A valid sample of 610 employees working in five-star and four-star hotels in Macao was analyzed with PLS-SEM and PROCESS. The results reveal that job complexity triggers employee burnout, which adversely influences organizational commitment. Surprisingly, a proactive personality does not mitigate the positive job complexity–burnout nexus. Instead, it aggravates the detrimental effect of job complexity. Fortunately, such detrimental impacts can be alleviated by organizational and supervisor support. The findings also offer practical insights for hotel practitioners to safeguard their employees’ well-being during an uncertain era.
Key words: Job complexity; Burnout; Proactive personality; Organizational support; Supervisor support
Impacts of the Pandemic on Hospitality Operations: The Managerial Perspective – 565
Yusuf Günaydin,* Metin Kozak,† and Kevser Çinar‡
*School of Tourism and Culinary Arts, International Final University, North Cyprus, Turkey
†School of Communication, Kadir Has University, Istanbul, Turkey
‡School of Tourism, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
Despite the fact that there has been much research in the field of COVID-19 and its impacts, the existing literature has been extensively dominated by a limited time scale and departments in the hospitality industry. Therefore, this study investigates the potential short-term impacts of a pandemic on hospitality operations, specifically relating to the revision of annual budgets and the provision of regular services and how these operations progressed in 2 years. The study aims to fill the literature gap and convey the mission to guide entrepreneurs and managers from an industrial perspective. Data were collected twice: the first was in the early weeks of 2021while the second corresponds to the early weeks of 2022 through personal interviews with 13 general managers of hospitality businesses operating in Turkey. Findings indicate that the pandemic has substantially changed the proposed annual budgets and hospitality operations. However, such changes have yet to be fully stable later.
Key words: Hospitality operations; Change management; Pandemic; Managerial perspective; Turkey
Why (Not) Participate in an Adventure Motorcycle Tourism Event? – 587
Debora Casoli,* Noemi Corsini,† Manuela Presutti,* and Vincent Magnini‡
*Department of Management, University of Bologna, Italy
†Department of Statistics, University of Padova, Italy
‡Department Management and Marketing, Longwood University, USA
Individuals’ participation in tourism recreation events can be constrained by a number of situational factors and can also be bolstered by key influences such as a desire for a particular social identity. This study extends the current body of research by investigating the effects of social identity, motivation, and perceived constraints on desire, and thus on the intent to participate in organized motorcycle tourism events. This research was carried out on a sample of participants at an internationally acclaimed motorbike event: the Transitalia Marathon. The results of the structural model indicate that social identity has a positive influence on motivation, the desire to participate, and the intent to participate. In addition, social identity has a negative, direct effect on perceived constraints, which in turn have a negative effect on motivation. This motivation has a positive, direct influence on the desire to participate. The practical and research implications of this study are presented herein.
Key words: Motorcycle tourism; Social identity; Events; Event management; Destination management
Friends With Money? A Political–Economic Analysis of Chinese Foreign Aid-Induced Tourism Demand – 603
Fiona X. Yang,* Gongyan Yang,† Ying Li,‡ and Yize Liu*
*Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China
†School of International Studies, Liaoning University, Shenyang, China
‡Business School, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao SAR, China
From a political–economic perspective, this research examines the nexus between Chinese foreign aid and tourism demand in 138 recipient countries. Specifically, it investigates two mechanisms and their interplay: (1) an economic channel that entices an influx of international tourists through infrastructure development; and (2) a political channel that attracts Chinese tourists by diminishing political distance. A cross-country panel dataset on Chinese aid projects is analyzed. The results suggest that Chinese aid has a significant impact on Chinese tourists after a 1-year lag through the political channel, while the economic channel’s effect on Chinese/other international tourists is not salient within 5 years. Significant long-run equilibrium relationships are found between aid and both tourist segments. The economic effect emerges in the long term, while the political effect fades out. This study provides a novel political–economic perspective for tourism research and presents new insights into China’s soft power in global tourism.
Key words: Foreign aid; China; Tourism demand; Political distance; Political economy; Infrastructure development
Clustering of Tourism Patterns With Self-Organizing Maps: The Case of Sicily – 625
Davide Provenzano* and Rosalia Giambrone†
*Department of Economics, Business and Statistics (SEAS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
†Dipartimento Regionale del Turismo, dello Sport e dello Spettacolo – Servizio 3 – Osservatorio Turistico e dello Sport, Regione Siciliana, Palermo, Italy
In this article the self-organizing map algorithm is used for studying whether and which tourism flows in Sicily are synchronized (i.e., which flows show similar patterns in time and space), if any. Synchrony hunting was performed for domestic and international tourists both on a yearly and monthly basis. Local tourism, meaning the holidays spent in Sicily by residents on the island, is also considered but on a yearly basis only. The analysis makes use of time series representing the number of overnight stays in Sicily over the period 2013–2019. Results provide evidence for a domestic market overall more synchronized than the international one, both in time and space. Spatiotemporal patterns for local tourism seem strongly influenced by the landscape. Some policy implications are drawn.
Key words: Self-organizing map; Synchrony analysis; Clustering; Tourism demand; Sicily
Economic Policy Responses to COVID-19 and Expenditures on Domestic Travel: International Evidence – 643
Amir Arjomandi,* Hassan F. Gholipour,† Hassan Eshaghi Kenari,‡ C. Michael Hall,§ and Siamak Seyfi¶#
*School of Business, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
†School of Business, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia
‡Islamic Azad University, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Amol, Iran
§University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
¶Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
#Centre for Research and Innovation in Tourism (CRiT), Taylor’s University, Malaysia
In response to the unprecedented circumstances resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, various national government policies were implemented to reduce the serious economic damage caused by the pandemic and attempts to control it. These policies generally aimed to kick-start domestic-led recoveries in many sectors. This study examines how different types of fiscal measures adopted by governments in response to this pandemic are associated with the growth of expenditure on domestic travel in 2020. Utilizing data from 76 countries and applying OLS estimator and 2SLS regression (which mitigates the potential endogeneity problem), the study shows that governments’ additional spending and tax reductions (especially in non-health sectors) positively contributed to rising expenditure in domestic travel destinations. Similar results are found for countries that are very reliant on tourism. Our findings lend empirical support for Keynesian theory’s prediction concerning the effect of government spending and tax reduction on household consumption behavior in the short run, particularly during periods of economic stress and uncertainty.
Key words: Consumption expenditure; COVID-19 pandemic; Domestic travel; Economic policies; Keynesian theory; Tourism
Beer Traveler, Wine Traveler, or Both? Comparing Beer Tourist and Wine Tourist Segments – 657
Matthew J. Stone
Department of Marketing, California State University, Chico, Chico, CA, USA
Consumer behavior of wine tourists and beer tourists has typically been researched separately. This study considers the overlap in wine and beer travelers, investigating attitudinal and behavioral differences between the three groups of beverage travelers (beer-only, wine-only, beer + wine) and neither beer nor wine travelers. This study finds a large overlap between beer travelers and wine travelers (also called beer tourists and wine tourists). In most attitudinal and behavioral measures, there were no significant differences between the three types of beverage travelers, and all were higher than the “neither” group. Both wine and beer travelers travel to enjoy memorable eating and drinking experiences, influence others, and like to explore new foods—especially more than other travelers. They also use food and drink to differentiate between destinations to visit. Beverage travelers participate in more activities at the destination than other travelers and tend to spend more as well; 42.5% of American leisure travelers can be considered beer or wine travelers. These travelers can be divided into subsegments, revealing that 16.6% of American leisure travelers are beer-only travelers, 13.7% are wine-only travelers, and 12.2% are beer + wine travelers.
Key words: Wine tourism; Beer tourism; Beverage tourism; Consumer behavior; Tourist segmentation
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