The aim of Tourism Analysis is to promote a forum for practitioners and academicians in the fields of Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH). As a interdisciplinary journal, it is an appropriate outlet for articles, research notes, and computer software packages designed to be of interest, concern, and of applied value to its audience of professionals, scholars, and students of LRTH programs the world over. The scope of the articles will include behavioral models (quantitative-qualitative), decision-making techniques and procedures, estimation models, demand-supply analysis, monitoring systems, expert systems and performance evaluation, assessment of site and destination attractiveness, new analytical tools, research methods and related areas such as validity and reliability, scale development, development of data collection instruments, methodological issues in cross-national and cross-cultural studies, and computer technology and use.
Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management University of South Carolina Columbia, SC, USA Email: email@example.com REVIEWS EDITOR Keith Hollinshead,University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury Campus, Luton, UK
BOOK REVIEWS EDITOR Marcjanna M. Augustyn,Hull University Business School, Hull, UK
RESEARCH NOTES EDITOR Rich Harrill,International Tourism Research Institute, China Tourism Group, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
Kathleen L. Andereck,Arizona State University, USA Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA Guy Assaker,Lebanese American University, Lebanon Ernest Azzopardi, University of Malta, Malta Faruk Balli, Massey University, New Zealand Mark A. Bonn,Florida State University, USA Ilenia Bregoli,University of Lincoln, UK Juan Antonio Campos-Soria,University of Malaga, Spain Laurence Chalip,University of Illinois, USA Annie Chen,University of West London, UK Rachel J. C. Chen,University of Tennessee, USA Mingming Cheng,University of Otago, New Zealand Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada Germa Coenders,University of Girona, Spain Nuno Crespo, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal Jonathon Day,Purdue University, USA Giacomo Del Chiappa,University of Sassari, Italy Jinyang Deng,West Virginia University, USA Tarik Dogru,Boston University, USA Oleksandr Dorokhov, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine Yuksel Ekinci,University of Portsmouth, UK Erdogan H. Ekiz,King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia Matthias Fuchs,Mid Sweden University, Sweden Martina González-Gallarza Granizo,Universitat de Valéncia, Spain Ulrike Gretzel,University of Southern California, USA Huimin Gu,Beijing International Studies University, China Ulrich Gunter,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Rob Hallak,University of South Australia, Australia Tzung-Cheng Huan,National Chiayi University, Taiwan Tazim Jamal,Texas A&M University, USA SooCheong (Shawn) Jang,Purdue University, USA Pandora Kay,Deakin University, Australia Ksenia Kirillova,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Jennifer Laing,La Trobe University, Australia Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee,Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan Jun (Justin) Li,South China Normal University, China Vincent Magnini,Virginia Tech, USA Bruce Marti,University of Rhode Island, USA Xavier Matteucci,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Fang Meng,University of South Carolina, USA Yeganeh Morakabati, Bournemouth University, UK Ana María Munar,Copenhagen Business School, Denmark Jaume Rosselló Nadal, Universitat de Illes Balears, Spain Sarah Nicholls,Michigan State University, USA Harmen Oppewal,Monash University, Australia Ahmet Bulent Ozturk,University of Central Florida, USA Steven Pike,Queensland University of Technology, Australia Yaniv Poria,Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández,University of Jaén, Spain Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon,Curtin University, Australia Wiston Adrián Risso,University of the Republic, Uruguay José António C. Santos,Universidade do Algarve, Portugal Zvi Schwartz,University of Delaware, USA M. Joseph Sirgy,Virginia Tech, USA Vincent Wing Sun Tung,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Anja Tuohino,University of Eastern Finland, Finland Shui-Ki Wan,Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR Kyle M. Woosnam,University of Georgia, USA Hung Che Wu,Sun Yat-sen University, China Anita Zehrer,MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Austria
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Seyhmus Baloglu,University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts,College of Charleston, USA Geoffrey I. Crouch(former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia Larry Dwyer,Griffith University, Australia Daniel Fesenmaier(co-founding editor), University of Florida, USA Josef Mazanec,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada Harry Timmermans,Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands Muzaffer Uysal(co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscript and figure/table files via our ManuscriptCentral website at: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/cogcomm-ta. Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Maximum word count for full-length manuscripts, including references, is approximately 7,000 words. Short manuscripts (Research Notes) should not exceed approximately 2,000 words.
A statement identifying the gap in the literature and your manuscript’s theoretical contribution should be included, preferable within the first few paragraphs of the text (or at least in the first two pages). The manuscript needs to make an original contribution to the theory and practice of Tourism Management and Policy.
Tourism Analysis is an English language journal. Authors not fluent in English are expected to have their manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English before submitting.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters or less should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables and figures. Figures and tables can also be provided as separate files (see below).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London, UK: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Internet source: United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2015). Tourism driving trade, fostering development and connecting people. Retrieved from http://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284417247
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Include a figure legend for each figure at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate figure legends or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include tables in a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not embed tables within the text of the manuscript.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Analysis are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis Peer Review Policy (TA)
Tourism Analysis (TA) employs a double blind review process.
Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the editorial office for format, content requirements, and authors contact information. The editor-in-chief (EIC) then reviews the manuscript for its methodology, grammar, and language use and decides whether it deserves to move to the next level. If the manuscript is found to not meet minimum quality standards the EIC will desk-reject the manuscript.
If the manuscript is written following TA guidelines and meets minimum standards, the EIC invites four to five reviewers from a mixture of the review board members, past reviewers within the database, or new recruits depending upon the need of the expertise area. Typically, the reviewers are given four to nine weeks to review the manuscript and provide feedback.
The EIC needs at least two reports by the reviewers to make a preliminary judgement regarding the manuscript: accept, revise per review comments and resubmit, or reject. Manuscripts can go through several rounds of review based on needed revisions and report of the reviewers. The EIC can ask for additional work (e.g., language, cross-referencing of citations, adjustments to tables and figures) to be done before final acceptance.
If a manuscript is deemed to be a significant work but has not met the requirements to be published as a full article, the EIC can ask the authors to resubmit their work as a Research Note after revisions have been made per reviewer comments. The same reviewers may be recruited again to review the research note on a more lenient basis.
Invited manuscripts do not go through a rigorous peer review process but one or two reviewers are still recruited to help the submitting author make needed adjustments to enhance the manuscript.
As a reviewer for Tourism Analysis you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TA, please contact the Editor in Chief: Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA – Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Analysis have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Analysis is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH), and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-analysis under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Visitors’ Spatial Movement Patterns and Market Segmentation in Washington, DC – 1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241576 Jinyang Deng* and Rogelio Andrada II†
*Recreation, Parks, & Tourism Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA †Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines
Visitors’ movement patterns can provide important information on popular sites visited and the timing of visits. Such information can be used for transportation planning, appropriate use and management of tourism resources/facilities, and market segmentation. Traditional market segmentation methods typically use one or more nonspatial variables, which cannot reflect the spatial consumption of a destination if the spatial movement patterns are not considered. While studies on visitors’ spatial movements in an urban area have recently gained popularity, few, if any, have investigated visitors’ spatial movements in relation to urban forests (i.e., parks, gardens, and green spaces in an urban area). In view of this, this study segments visitor markets in Washington, DC based on dominant movement patterns of 1,090 visitors. General log-linear models are used to identify dominant movement patterns and poLCA in R Studio is used for segmentation analysis. Ten significant movement patterns are identified, including seven two-ward patterns and three three-ward patterns, with the National Mall as the most visited area in the city. Findings of this study are useful for the maintenance of urban forests, the design of visitor itineraries, and the effective marketing and management of attractions and facilities in the city.
Diversity, Tourism, and Economic Development: A Global Perspective – 21 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241602
National College of Business Administration, & Economics (NCBA&E), Punjab, Pakistan
International tourism enhances understanding and interaction between nations and people, or can generate conflicts due to cultural misunderstandings. In this globalized world, diversity on one side plays a vital and essential role in international tourism and economic development but on the other side ethnic, cultural, and religious polarization resulting in conflicts, difficulties that may frighten away tourists and lead to vulnerability of the tourism sector in very heterogeneous countries. This study investigates whether existing ethnic and religious diversity affects the international tourism and economic development. By using the dataset of 187 countries and panel data technique, this study indicates that diversity, either ethnic or religious or both, has a significant negative impact on international tourism and economic development. This study suggests that ethnic and religious diversity is an inherent part of most societies in a globalized world so in order to minimize its negative consequences there is emergent need to provide equal opportunity to all groups and to encourage cohesive culture. A cohesive and peaceful society can enhance tourism.
Key words: Ethnic diversity; Religious diversity; International tourism; Economic development
Sense of Community and Trust in the Sharing Economy – 43 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241639
Maarten ter Huurne,* Amber Ronteltap,* and Vincent Buskens†
*University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands †Department of Sociology/ICS, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Property sharing is one of the most prominent examples of the rapidly expanding sharing economy. Travelers around the world often opt to stay at a stranger’s apartment instead of any other tourism accommodation. Trust is essential in this choice, because staying with, or taking in, strangers can entail great risks. To create trust between users, sharing platforms often promote a sense of community. However, the relation between sense of community and trust in the sharing economy is still largely unknown. To investigate this relation, both hosts and guests of two sharing platforms, namely Airbnb and SabbaticalHomes, were surveyed. The findings indicate that sense of community indeed enhances trust between users. Moreover, the evidence suggests that hosts have a stronger sense of community than guests. Also, a significantly higher sense of community was found on the platform where identification between users is higher. This study shows that affect for the community contributes to the understanding of trust in the sharing economy.
Key words: Trust; Sense of community; Social identification; Sharing economy; Airbnb; Communities
Asymmetric Tourism Demand Responses to Exchange Rate Fluctuations in South Korea – 63 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241657
School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
Since perfectly reversible demand functions are generally used in tourism demand modeling, little attention has been given to the asymmetric tourist responses to exchange rate changes. This article attempts to fill this gap by examining two types of the asymmetric demand responses associated with exchange rate fluctuations: 1) currency appreciations and depreciations and 2) rises and falls in exchange rate volatility. Using the linear and nonlinear ARDL models, this study finds evidence of the asymmetrical pattern of long-run adjustment with respect to currency value and exchange rate volatility changes. In the majority of cases, tourists are sensitive to exchange rate changes when the Korean won appreciates, but they are insensitive when the Korean won depreciates, suggesting that foreign visitors in South Korea are loss averse. Furthermore, increases and decreases in exchange rate volatility tend to affect Korea’s inbound tourism demand in an asymmetric manner. These findings imply that the assumption of perfectly reversible tourism demand responses to exchange rate changes can be restrictive.
Key words: Asymmetric tourist responses; Exchange rate fluctuations; Inbound tourism in South Korea
Determinants of Tourism Demand in Indonesia: A Panel Data Analysis – 77 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241666
Muryani, Mia Fauzia Permatasari, and Miguel Angel Esquivias
Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
By 2014 Indonesia registered 11.6 million inbound foreign tourists, 135% higher than the year 2000. Since then, government policies to promote tourism flourished. This article investigates the determinants of inbound tourism from the top nine mayor tourist origin countries into Indonesia covering the period of 2000 to 2014. This research employs a dynamic panel dataset to estimate the impact of per capita real income, relative prices, accommodation capacity, distance, and public infrastructure investment on international tourism demand in Indonesia, capturing demand- and supply-side effects. The results show that per capita income of tourists, relative price, and available rooms have a positive effect on tourism expenditure in Indonesia, while distance has a negative effect. Dummy variables capture large negative shocks in tourism arising from two terrorist attacks in 2002 and 2005, as well as from the global financial crisis in 2008. Income plays a positive but low impact on tourism demand compared to other nations. The positive effect of prices suggests an advantage of Indonesia in competitive tourism prices. Nevertheless, low prices also denote low value in tourism services. The substantial impact of accommodation may indicate that significant effects of tourism are allocated in lodging, minimizing the impact on other sectors.
Key words: Tourism demand; Inbound tourism; Dynamic panel model; Indonesia
Understanding Tourism Information Sources: Textual Communication, Efficiency, and Information Gaps – 91 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241675
Aureli Lojo* and Dallen J. Timothy†‡§
*Department of Geography, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. Campus de Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain †School of Community Resources and Development. Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA ‡Senior Research Associate, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa §Visiting Professor, Guangxi University, Nanning, China
This study compares the contents of different online tourism information sources. In addition to developing a quantitative linguistic framework for comparing heterogeneous tourism information sources, a case study of the city of Barcelona in Chinese sources is presented. To understand the structural characteristics of textual communication, efficiency, and information gaps, this research examines texts not only from the websites of the Barcelona Tourism Office (local DMO) and a set of Mainland Chinese travel agencies, but also from Chinese online travel guidebooks and Chinese travel blogs. The findings reveal that the local DMO website texts are, overall, lower in lexical density and keyword density while higher in entropy. Chinese travel agency texts have lower entropy values while keyword and lexical densities are higher. Travel blogs are the most diverse and richest sources. The results explain the easiness of comprehension as well as the concentration, distribution, and repetition of information among the different sources. The findings also identify descriptive–subjective and procedural–propositional knowledge as the main semantic dimensions that affect the information gaps. Lastly, theoretical and practical contributions are discussed.
Key words: Information sources; Marketing; Diversity; Linguistic analysis; Chinese outbound tourism
Investigating the Tourism Experience of Thai Cooking Classes: An Application of Larsen’s Three-Stage Model – 107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241684
Wantanee Suntikul,* Elizabeth Agyeiwaah ,† Wei-Jue Huang,* and Stephen Pratt ‡
*School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong †Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau SAR ‡School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji
Cooking classes have emerged as popular activities for international tourists seeking to learn and participate in Thai culinary culture. Applying Larsen’s psychological three-stage model for understanding the tourism experience, this study identifies motivational and experiential factors of tourists’ participation in cooking classes, and their subsequent behavioral intentions. Drawing on functional motivational theory and Pine and Gilmore’s experience economy concept, a quantitative instrument is developed to survey 300 tourist participants in cooking classes in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Results suggest that the top-most motivational factor for participation in cooking classes is socioutilitarian needs—a combination of social and utilitarian items, whereas the top-most experiential factor is “Ent-escapist”—a combination of Pine and Gilmore’s entertainment and escapist realms. The results indicate that both the motivational and the experiential facets of cooking clases are influenced by a combination of factors. These findings offer implications for the marketing of cooking class products by destination management organizations.
Travel Posts on WeChat Moments: A Model for eWOM Effectiveness – 123 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241693
Yangyang Jiang,* Yong Rao,† M. S. Balaji,* and Dan Xian Xu†
*Nottingham University Business School China, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China †School of Tourism, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate factors and boundary conditions that may affect the effectiveness of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in influencing a consumer’s travel decision-making behavior. The conceptual model was tested using data collected from Chinese WeChat users. An online survey generated 550 valid responses. Results show that eWOM content richness and perceived ease of use of the eWOM platform positively influence eWOM effectiveness, while the eWOM receiver expertise is negatively associated with eWOM effectiveness. In addition, a consumer’s social interaction with others on the social media platform moderates the aforementioned relationships. Theoretical and managerial implications are elaborated.
Key words: Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) effectiveness; Content richness; Receiver expertise; Perceived ease of use; Online social interaction Organizational Ambidexterity in Tourism Research: A Systematic Review – 137 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241701
Tan Vo Thanh,* Hugues Seraphin,† Fevzi Okumus,‡ and Mehmet Ali Koseoglu§
*Marketing Department, La Rochelle Business School–Excelia Group, La Rochelle, France †Department of Applied Management Studies, University of Winchester, Winchester, UK ‡Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA §School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong
The ambidexterity concept is largely used in the strategic management field. However, little is known about its use in travel, tourism, hospitality, leisure, and event research. This study offers not only the first comprehensive analysis of the use of this concept but also a rationale for why it should be more widely used in travel, tourism, hospitality, leisure, and event research. The results show that (1) ambidexterity is scarcely used by researchers, (2) most papers are based on empirical data, and (3) all empirical studies were done either in Europe or in Asia. Moreover, scholars have focused on three main outcomes: sustainability, human resources performance, and market performance. This review allowed us to advance suggestions for practice and future research.
Compositional Data Analysis in Tourism: Review and Future Directions – 153 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241594
Germa Coenders* and Berta Ferrer-Rosell†
*Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management–Campus Montilivi, University of Girona, Girona, Spain †Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Law, Economics and Tourism–Campus Cappont, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Compositional data analysis (CoDa) is the standard statistical methodology when data contain information about the relative importance of parts of a whole. Many research questions in tourism are either related to distribution of a whole (e.g., distribution, share, allocation, etc.) or relative importance (e.g., dominance, concentration, profile, etc.). Example research questions might be: How does time allocated to different types of activities relate to tourist satisfaction? or Which origins and destinations concentrate the most tourist flows per tourist segment? The first aim of this article is to present the manner in which CoDa solves statistical problems that arise when treating compositional data with classical statistical methods (e.g., spurious correlations, meaningless distances, assumption violation). The second aim is to review all CoDa applications in tourism and hospitality to date. The third is to present CoDa applications in related fields (e.g., finance, sociology, geography, economics, management, ecology, education), which can be translated into future research in tourism. In order to show how to apply the most common CoDa tools (exploratory analysis of compositions, and use of compositions as variables in a model) an example of restaurant menu styles is used.
Key words: Compositional data analysis (CoDa); Restaurant menu style; Tourism; Hospitality; Log-ratio coordinates
The Nexus Between Seniors’ Tourism Expenditure and Well-Being in China – 169 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241620
Renuka Mahadevan* and Vanessa Sha Fan†
*School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia †China Institute of Innovation and Development, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
An examination of the two-way relationship between tourism expenditure and life satisfaction for seniors is undertaken in this article. This examination uses panel data on China’s seniors and tracks the same seniors over 3 years. Results show that there is bidirectional causality between tourism expenditure and life satisfaction, casting doubt on previous studies that do not consider this two-way relationship. This empirical relationship highlights the importance of a two-pronged policy strategy—a government policy committed to social tourism programs for seniors who may not be able to afford travel and those who reside in rural areas. Another government strategy is to address aged concerns related to mobility and health to improve well-being and the provision of appropriate facilities for leisure travel. Senior tourism demand was found to be income inelastic and this result means that senior tourism can buffer Chinese economic growth in times of economic crisis and uncertainty, making the twin policy strategy a worthwhile consideration.
Key words: Seniors; Well-being; Panel data; Tourism income elasticity
Comparing the Determinants of Tourism Demand in Singapore and French Polynesia: Applying the Tourism Demand Model to Panel Data Analysis – 175 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241585
Faculty of Tourism and Business Management, Shumei University, Chiba, Japan
This study explores the differences in tourism demand between French Polynesia and Singapore by applying the panel data technique. Although the tourism industry in these small states tends to be the main economic activity, they have a different economic structure: French Polynesia is highly dependent on the tourism industry, whereas Singapore has several service industries. This article applies the tourism demand model to panel data from 2008 to 2013. Different elasticities are observed in the model estimation between the two islands, such as income elasticity and transportation accessibility. Additionally, this article compares time dummies to estimate the impact of global bankruptcy in 2008. The results show that French Polynesia has slightly declined, while Singapore has gradually increased since 2008. An implication of this study is that the demand in a destination highly dependent on the tourism industry tends to result in a relatively high-income market, but the economy is affected by global phenomena. A destination that owns diversified industries is likely to have good accessibility, and the global economic impact is lower in the tourism market.
Key words: Tourism demand model; Panel data analysis; French Polynesia; Singapore
Communication, Trust, and Loyalty in the Hotel Sector: The Mediator Role of Consumer’s Complaints – 183 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241648
Beatriz Palacios Florencio,* Luna Santos Roldan,† and Juan Manuel Berbel Pineda*
*Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas y Marketing, Facultad de Empresariales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain †Departamento de Estadistica, Econometria, Investigacion Operativa, Organizacion de Empresas y Economia Aplicada, Facultad de Derecho y C.C. Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
The purpose of this study was to analyze how the relationship between communication with customers, loyalty, and trust are mediated by a correct handling of customers’ complaints. A survey of 629 customers of the hotel sector, and using structural equations modeling, was used. The results demonstrated that good customer communication and information when handling claims positively and significantly influences customer loyalty and trust. Loyal and trusting customers is one of the aims of companies. These are generally determined by the communication carried out by the firm. Nevertheless, it is understandable that there is a mediator variable: the firm’s handling of customers’ complaints.
Key words: Communication; Loyalty; Trust; Hotel sector; Tourism
REVIEWS SECTION – 189
Marketing for Tourism, Hospitality and Events: A Global and Digital Approach (Simon Hudson and Louise Hudson) – 191 Martin Gannon and Babak Taheri
Quantitative Methods in Tourism. A Handbook (2nd edition) [Rodolfo Baggio and Jane Klobas (Editors)] – 195 Sylvain Petit
Qualitative Methods in Tourism Research. Theory and Practice [Wendy Hillman and Kylie Radel (Editors)] – 197 Carmela Bosangit
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