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Aims & Scope
Established in 1996, Tourism Analysis is an interdisciplinary journal that provides a platform for exchanging ideas and research in tourism and related fields. The journal aims to publish articles that explore a broad range of research subjects, including, but not limited to, the social, economic, cultural, environmental, and psychological aspects of tourism, consumer behavior in tourism, sustainable and responsible tourism, and effective operations, marketing, and management.
Tourism Analysis focuses on both theoretical and applied research and strives to promote innovative approaches to understanding the complex and dynamic nature of tourism, its stakeholders, businesses, and its effects on society. The journal welcomes articles on innovative research topics and methodologies beyond the traditional theory-testing sciences, such as robotics, computational sciences, and data analytics.
Our primary goal is to contribute to the development and advancement of new knowledge in tourism while fostering critical reflections and debates on the radical changes and evolution in tourism among scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and other stakeholders.
Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management
College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management
University of South Carolina
Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Professor, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management
School of Health and Human Development
Penn State University
University Park, PA 16802, USA
Omid Oshriyeh, University of South Carolina, USA
REGIONAL ASSOCIATE EDITORS
Neelu Seetaram, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Dan Wang, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Kathleen L. Andereck, Arizona State University, USA
Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA
Guy Assaker, University of Algarve, Portugal
Marcjanna Augustyn, Bournemouth University, UK
Laurent Botti, University of Perpignan, France
Ilenia Bregoli, University of Brescia, Italy
Juan Antonio Campos-Soria, University of Malaga, Spain
Mingming Cheng, Curtin University, Australia
Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada
Germa Coenders, University of Girona, Spain
Nuno Crespo, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Jonathon Day, Purdue University, USA
Giacomo Del Chiappa, University of Sassari, Italy
Jinyang Deng, West Virginia University, USA
Tarik Dogru, Florida State University, USA
Roman Egger, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria
Yuksel Ekinci, University of Portsmouth, UK
Sheereen Banon Fauzel, University of Mauritius, Mauritius
Rachel J. C. Fu, University of Florida, USA
Sauveur Giannoni, University of Corse, France
Kyriaki Glyptou, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Ulrich Gunter, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Rob Hallak, University of South Australia, Australia
Tazim Jamal, Texas A&M University, USA
WooMi Jo, University of Guelph, Canada
Stefan Kruger, North-West University, South Africa
Seoki Lee, Penn State University, USA
SoJung Lee, Iowa State University, USA
Xi Y. Leung, University of North Texas, USA
Hengyun (Neil) Li, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong
Jun (Justin) Li, South China Normal University, China
Xiangping Li, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao
Michael Lin, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong
Stephen Litvin, College of Charleston, USA
Bing Liu, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
David Ma, Zhejiang University, China
Jintao (Emily) Ma, University of Surrey, UK
Vincent Magnini, Longwood University, USA
Marie-Louise Mangion, University of Malta, Malta
Carla Massidda, University of Cagliari, Italy
Xavier Matteucci, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Lynn Minnaert, New York University, USA
Ana María Munar, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Jaume Rosselló Nadal, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain
Harmen Oppewal, Monash University, Australia
Ahmet Bulent Ozturk, University of Central Florida, USA
Soyoung Park, Florida Atlantic University, USA
Sylvain Petit, Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France, France
Steven Pike, Queensland University of Technology Australia
Yaniv Poria, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon, University of Derby, UK
Tareq Rasul, Australia Institute of Business, Australia
Wiston Adrián Risso, University of the Republic, Uruguay
Edwin Sabuhoro, Penn State University, USA
Shrabani Saha, University of Lincoln, UK
José António C. Santos, University of Algarve, Portugal
Zvi Schwartz, University of Delaware, USA
Courtney Suess-Raeisinafchi, Texas A&M University, USA
Vincent Wing Sun Tung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Laura Vici, University of Bologna, Italy
Shai-Ki Wan, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Kyle M. Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Feifei Xu, Southeast University, China
Fiona Yang, University of Macau, China
Yang Yang, Temple University, USA
Pei Zhang, University of Kentucky, USA
Chen Zheng, Leeds Beckett University, UK
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Seyhmus Baloglu, University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Geoffrey I. Crouch (former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia
Larry Dwyer, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Daniel Fesenmaier (co-founding editor), MODUL University of Vienna, Austria
Josef Mazanec, MODUL University Vienna, Austria
Ercan Sirakaya-Türk (former editor), University of South Carolina, USA
Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada
Harry Timmermans, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Muzaffer Uysal (co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscript and figure/table files via this link:
Full article example:
Gladiis ET Clypeis: Travel Motives Towards an Improvement of Quality of Life When Visiting a Military Expo.
Authors: Venter, Dewald; Kruger, Stefan; Uysal, Muzzo
Research note example:
Game of Thrones and Tourism Impacts on Croatian Housing Prices.
Author: Brotman, Bille Ann
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Two files are to be submitted. The first file is the title page. All authors’ names and affiliations (department, institution, city, and country) and emails should be provided. One corresponding author should be clearly indicated, along with the mailing address. This is the only file that contains author and affiliation information. All other file(s) should not contain any information that might reveal the identity of the authors. The second file is the main document (the body of the manuscript), including the article title, abstract, keywords, text body, and references. Tables and figures can be included in this file on separate pages at the end of the manuscript (NOT embedded in the manuscript), or they can be submitted as a separate file.
Maximum word count for full-length manuscripts, including references, is approximately 9,000 words. Short manuscripts (Research Notes) should not exceed approximately 3,000 words.
All content in the main document should be double spaced except tables and figures. Use Times New Roman font, 12 point size (except in tables and figures). Use one-inch margins on all sides of the page, left justified, with a ragged right-hand margin (no full justification). Indent ALL paragraphs to start at 5 spaces, including the first paragraph below headings or subheadings. There should be no footnotes at the bottom of pages and no endnotes at the end of the manuscript. All material must be included in the text. Round numbers (e.g., correlations, significance level, standard deviations, etc.) to two decimal places in the text, tables, and figure legends. Use a period (American system) not a comma when reporting decimals.
American English spelling should be used in all content except in quoted material and references that use British spelling originally. References in other languages should provide an English translation shown in brackets.
A statement identifying the gap in the literature and your manuscript’s theoretical contribution should be included, preferably within the first few paragraphs of the text (or at least in the first two pages). The manuscript needs to make an original contribution to the theory and practice of Tourism Management and Policy.
Tourism Analysis is an English language journal. Authors not fluent in English are expected to have their manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English before submitting.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). The article title should be short, impressive, and attractive. A short title (for the running head) of approximately 40 characters or less should also be included. Provide any acknowledgment(s) on the title page.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of 150 to 200 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing. Do not include reference citations in the abstract.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. The main body text (except for Reviews) should be structured using the following headings: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The location of the tables and figures should be indicated by an insert tag: Insert Table 1 about here. The file (main document without any author information) should be arranged as: title, abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables and figures. Figures and tables can also be provided as separate files (see below).
The Introduction section should include the specified research gap(s) in the literature, the study’s exact research objectives, the importance/significance of the study, originality, and theoretical contributions (preferably within the first few paragraphs or first two pages). The paper should make original, value-added contributions to the theory and practice of tourism management and policy.
The Literature Review section should include both seminal and updated literature. Previous literature should not only be summarized but also critically synthesized, and research gaps should be discussed clearly. The hypotheses should be proposed in a logically way out of the literature.
The Methodology section should include detailed information regarding the research design and approach, survey instruments or interview protocol, data collection procedures, and outcome.
The Results section should include detailed report of the analyses and findings. Narratives and tables/figures should complement each other.
The Conclusion section should include the following subsections: a conclusive summary of the research findings and how the findings, theoretical contributions, managerial/practical implications, limitations, and future research.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult the 7th edition for additional examples for reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gladney, 2004) or (Boes et al., 2015; Clabaugh, 2018; McKercher et al., 2015) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: McKercher, B., Shoval, N., Park, E., & Kahani, A. (2015). The [limited] impact of weather on tourist behavior in an urban destination. Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 442–455.
Book: Gladney, D. C. (2004). Dislocating China: Muslims, minorities, and other subaltern subjects. University of Chicago Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Boes, K., Buhalis, D., & Inversini, A. (2015). Conceptualising smart tourism destination dimensions In I. Tussyadiah & A. Inversini (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015 (pp. 391–403). Springer.
Internet source: Clabaugh, J. (2018). Another record year for DC tourism: 22.8 million visitors. https://wtop.com/business-finance/2018/08/another-record-year-for-dc-tourism-22-8m-visitors/
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication. The written permission should be provided when the manuscript is accepted for publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Include a figure legend for each figure at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate figure legends or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include tables in a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not embed tables within the text of the manuscript.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Published Articles: The final article will be provided to authors with no charge for publication.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Analysis are available to be open access and may also contain color figures (not a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
A Voluntary Submission Fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $50.00 per color page). (Not a condition for publication).
Open Access is available for a fee of $200.00. Color would be discounted to $50.00 per color page. (Not a condition for publication).
The use of Color Figures in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. Color figures are available for a cost of $100.00 per color page. This amount would be discounted to $50.00 per color page if choosing to pay the voluntary submission fee or the open access option as indicated above. (Not a condition for publication).
If you choose any of the above options, a form will be sent with the amount due based on your selection, at proof stage. This form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof, prior to publication.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Articles appearing in publications are available to be published as Open Access and/or with color figures. A voluntary submission fee is also an option if you choose to support this publication. These options are NOT required for publication of your article.
You may complete the Author Option Payment Form here.
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Tourism Analysis (TA) Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) employs a double blind review process.
Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the editorial office for format, content requirements, and authors contact information. The editor-in-chief (EIC) then reviews the manuscript for its methodology, grammar, and language use and decides whether it deserves to move to the next level. If the manuscript is found to not meet minimum quality standards the EIC will desk-reject the manuscript.
If the manuscript is written following TA guidelines and meets minimum standards, the EIC invites four to five reviewers from a mixture of the review board members, past reviewers within the database, or new recruits depending upon the need of the expertise area. Typically, the reviewers are given four to nine weeks to review the manuscript and provide feedback.
The EIC needs at least two reports by the reviewers to make a preliminary judgement regarding the manuscript: accept, revise per review comments and resubmit, or reject. Manuscripts can go through several rounds of review based on needed revisions and report of the reviewers. The EIC can ask for additional work (e.g., language, cross-referencing of citations, adjustments to tables and figures) to be done before final acceptance.
If a manuscript is deemed to be a significant work but has not met the requirements to be published as a full article, the EIC can ask the authors to resubmit their work as a Research Note after revisions have been made per reviewer comments. The same reviewers may be recruited again to review the research note on a more lenient basis.
Invited manuscripts do not go through a rigorous peer review process but one or two reviewers are still recruited to help the submitting author make needed adjustments to enhance the manuscript.
As a reviewer for Tourism Analysis you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TA, please contact the Editor in Chief: Ercan Sirakaya-Türk, Professor, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA – Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Analysis have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Analysis is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH), and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-analysis under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Volume 28, Number 3
Effect of Tourism and Air Travel Restrictions on the Initial International Spread of the COVID-19 Pandemic – 357
Gajanand Sharma, Sowjanya Dhulipala, and Gopal R. Patil
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India
The study aims to model the initial international spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and analyze the risk of early initial spread using data from 105 countries. A generalized linear model (GLM) is developed to analyze the relationship between the initial international spread and its factors. Findings showed that the countries with high tourism activity are affected early by COVID-19, and countries with a better quality healthcare system can adequately detect the spread. Countries that promptly restricted air passengers have experienced a delay in the initial international spread. A regression analysis of fatalities during the initial stage suggested that the countries with an early initial spread of COVID-19 coupled with a high proportion of the elderly population possess a relatively high risk of fatalities. The study provides insights into the factors influencing the initial international spread of contagious diseases and the effect of air travel restrictions on the spread. This study can aid in contingency planning during the initial spread of pandemics, especially for countries with high tourism activity.
Key words: COVID-19; Initial international spread; Tourism; Air travel restrictions; Pandemic
Humor on Destination Websites: Effects of Humor on Attitudes and Visit Intentions – 371
Maksim Godovykh,* Xiaoxiao Fu,* and Xi Yu Leung†
*Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
Humor is an important technique that can be applied in destination marketing to attract potential travelers. This study used a scenario-based experimental design to explore the effects of humor on destination websites. The results demonstrate that both the content of humor and the temporal distance of the visit significantly influence tourists’ attitudes and travel intentions, which are mediated by website trust. The relationships between humor content and visit intentions are stronger when travelers are promotion focused rather than prevention focused, and when they are more familiar with destination websites. This study contributes to knowledge and practice by highlighting humor as an essential component of destination website design and providing practical recommendations for destination marketing and management.
Key words: Humor; Destination marketing; Website design; Attitudes; Visit intentions
Local Officials and Regional Tourism Economies – 387
Bo Zhou, Shijun Liu, and Lizhen Liu
Tourism and Hotel Management Department, School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
This study adopts the paradigm of upper echelons theory (UET) and establishes a novel dataset covering the main characteristics of prefecture-level party secretaries in southwest China to investigate the association between local top officials’ traits and regional tourism economies. Empirical results show that a party secretary’s education and work experience significantly influence the development of regional tourism economies, and in most cases these influences are positive. These effects vary as the level of regional economic development and the quality of tourism resources change. These effects may be different for autonomous regions (for ethnic minorities) and nonautonomous regions. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between the age of party secretaries and the performance of tourism economies. As an initial effort to identify the impact of regional officials, this study contributes to tourism economics and provides valuable implications for regional tourism development.
Key words: Upper echelons theory; Education; Work experience; Regional party secretary; Regional tourism economy
Does Social Media Moderate the Link Between Tourism and Economic Well-Being? Evidence From the Iterated GMM Approach – 403
Ogechi Adeola,*† Olaniyi Evans,‡ and Luke Emeka Okafor§
*Lagos Business School, Pan-Atlantic University, Lagos, Nigeria
†University of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda
‡School of Management & Social Sciences, Pan-Atlantic University, Lagos, Nigeria
§School of Economics, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
The relevance of social media to tourism and, subsequently, economic well-being is demonstrable in the target marketing of tourism products and services to potential customers at tourist destinations. Using a dataset from the 40 most visited countries across different continents over the period 2009 to 2020, this study investigates the effect of tourism and social media on economic well-being. It also examines the role of social media as a moderating factor in this relationship. The study adopts the tourism-led growth hypothesis as the main theoretical rationale to explain the underlying relationship between tourism, social media, and economic well-being. The empirical analysis is conducted using the iterated generalized method of moments (GMM). The results show that tourism development helps to promote economic well-being, while social media has a dampening effect. Additionally, the findings indicate that a high level of social media penetration has a significant and positive moderating effect on the nexus between tourism and economic well-being. This suggests that social media-driven tourism can significantly improve the economic well-being of destination countries. Conducive macroeconomic conditions and political stability are also concurrent with the contributory effects of tourism on the economic well-being of destination countries.
Key words: Tourism; Social media; Iterated generalized method of moments (GMM); Economic well-being
The Cultural Determinants of FDI Inflows in Tourism: Global Evidence – 421
Nadia Doytch*†‡ and Canh Phuc Nguyen§¶
*CUNY-Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center, New York, NY, USA
†Ateneo de Manila University School of Government, Manila, The Philippines
‡University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City (UEH), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
§School of Public Finance, College of Economics, Law and Government, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City (UEH), Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
¶Health and Agricultural Policy Research Institute, College of Economics Law and Government, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City (UEH), Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
This study analyses the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI inflows in tourism with an emphasis on the cultural determinants for a global sample of countries. More specifically, we examine the role of the presence of UNESCO heritage sites as a factor of tourism FDI. The results show that the recognition of UNESCO heritage sites, along with domestic tourism demand are leading factors of tourism FDI. In addition, we document some interesting findings regarding the traditional determinants of tourism FDI. Economic growth, trade openness, and depreciation of the domestic currency are found to have a positive impact, while labor force participation rate, and agricultural share in total output have a negative impact. The study also documents detailed effects of various aspects of institutional quality on tourism FDI. We find a rich set of results, including a positive impact by better government stability, voice, and accountability, and low risk of external conflict, and mixed effects by the other aspects of institutional quality. The results imply that FDI inflows in tourism reflect both common FDI features and tourism-specific FDI motivations.
Key words: Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows; Tourism; Institutions; UNESCO; Tourism demand
Staging Personalization: A Service Design Perspective – 439
Soey Sut Ieng Lei* and Dan Wang†
*Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau SAR China
†School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
The importance of personalization has been widely recognized in hospitality industry for its impact on customer satisfaction and product differentiation. Studies have been conducted to understand the practice of personalization and the consequences such as customer acceptance, satisfaction, and loyalty. However, little is known about the design process of personalization in hotels while service providers are recognized as a key stakeholder in customer personalization. This study approached hoteliers to explore how a service environment is staged for customers to experience personalized service in hotels. Our findings reveal that personalization practices in hotels are staged based on senior management’s understanding of customer segments, and implementation difficulties at frontlines, and corporate culture, while on-site improvisation by frontline staff determine the effectiveness of the staging efforts. The originality of this study rests on the perspective it takes to understand personalization and developing insights that are grounded in the hospitality context. Studying personalization from a service design perspective (rather than a customer’s or employee’s perspective as most previous studies did) enables us to unearth new aspects of personalization.
Key words: Hotel; Hospitality; Personalization; Personalized customer service; Service design
Hotel Guests’ Revisit Intentions Post-COVID-19: Reexamining The Role of Service Quality, CSR, and Reputation While Accounting for Guests’ Trepidation – 455
Guy Assaker*† and Peter O’connor‡
*Adnan Kassar School of Business, Lebanese American University (LAU), Byblos, Lebanon
†Research Centre for Tourism, Sustainability and Well-Being (CinTurs), University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal
‡University of South Australia Business School, City West Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia
This study reexamines the relationships between service quality (SQ), CSR, and hotel reputation and their effects on hotel guests’ revisit intentions (RIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also assesses the moderating role of fear of visit caused by COVID-19 on the paths between established variables and guests’ future (post-COVID-19) RIs. Data were collected during May 2021 from 195 French respondents who stayed at mid- to upscale hotels during the previous 2 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), results revealed that, while SQ directly and indirectly (through reputation) positively influences guests’ post-COVID-19 RIs, CSR only exerts an indirect positive influence on RIs through reputation. Moreover, findings indicated that a hotel reputation can ease guests’ fear, thereby driving future post-COVID-19 revisits. These results add to the few studies in hospitality and tourism on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic (through fear of visit) on travelers’ future revisit intent.
Key words: Fear of visit; COVID-19; Revisit intentions; Hotel reputation; PLS-SEM
Understanding Backpacker Behavior Through Market Basket Analysis – 469
Stephen Pratt,* Denis Tolkach,† and Dawn Gibson‡
*Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†College of Business, Law & Governance, James Cook University, Smithfield, Queensland, Australia
‡School of Business and Management, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji
The backpacker market is important and diverse for many destinations. Understanding what backpackers do on their trip is important for tourism businesses so they can cater to their needs and wants. Market basket analysis uncovers associations between products by looking for combinations of products that frequently co-occur in transactions. We apply this technique to activities that backpackers do while on vacation in Fiji. This study demonstrates the utility of market basket analysis to better understand backpackers’ experiences participating in different activities. Combined with factor analysis and cluster analysis, segmentation based on activities backpackers participate in is more significant than demographic segmentation. In the current study, backpackers can be segmented into active visitors seeking diverse experiences, cultural adventurers, and passive fly and flop tourists. Considering the “fly & flop” segment is the second most common segment, the results suggest backpackers are drifting further away from the original counterculture and towards mass tourism.
Key words: Backpackers; Fiji; Market basket analysis; Cluster analysis; A priori association; Segmentation
Optimizing Tour Route Planning for Old Streets: The Case of Taichung Nantun Old Street in Taiwan – 487
Department of Industrial Design, Tunghai University, Taiwan
It is very important for tourists to optimize the tour route planning in advance. This article presents a quantifying and planning method for the optimal tour route of an old street based on an algebraic matrix technique. A quantified structure matrix (QISM) that combines the quantifying evaluation method and the interpretive structural model (ISM) is established. The proposed QISM is a Boolean matrix that can quantify the dependency and interaction strength between two tour spots and optimize tour route planning. Clustering and tearing algorithms are utilized to restructure a QISM, allowing the interdependent relationships within tour spots in the route planning process to be obtained. A systematic clustering method that is efficient and yet flexible is developed for tour route planning based on the transitive rule. The proposed QISM can enhance the performance of tour route planning management by reducing visit time, offering tour route variety, and raising tour satisfaction. A case study of Taichung Nantun Old Street is employed to illustrate the proposed method. We hope the results of this study can satisfy the needs of tourists and promote the development of old street sightseeing.
Key words: Tour route planning; Old street; Quantified interpretive structural model (QISM); Transitive rule; Tour satisfaction
Digital-Free Tourism Intention: The Effects of Message Concreteness and Intervention – 505
Han-Fen Hu* and Yi Liu†
*Department of Management, Entrepreneurship, and Technology, Lee Business School, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA
†Department of Supply Chain Management and Information Systems, Rennes School of Business, Rennes, France
Digital-free tourism is an emerging trend that limits tourists’ access to information and communication technologies during vacations. However, how to motivate tourists to engage in digital-free tourism is not yet understood. Anchoring on Construal Level Theory and educational intervention, this study examines the effects of message concreteness and intervention type on tourists’ intention to take digital-free tourism. Experimental data from 249 respondents showed that when factual intervention was provided, tourists were more likely to engage in digital-free tourism when they received abstract messages instead of concrete messages. Our findings can contribute to the design of promotional messages for digital-free tourism.
Key words: Digital-free tourism; Factual intervention; Message concreteness; Experiment; Digital detox holiday
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