The aim of Tourism Analysis is to promote a forum for practitioners and academicians in the fields of Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH). As a interdisciplinary journal, it is an appropriate outlet for articles, research notes, and computer software packages designed to be of interest, concern, and of applied value to its audience of professionals, scholars, and students of LRTH programs the world over. The scope of the articles will include behavioral models (quantitative-qualitative), decision-making techniques and procedures, estimation models, demand-supply analysis, monitoring systems, expert systems and performance evaluation, assessment of site and destination attractiveness, new analytical tools, research methods and related areas such as validity and reliability, scale development, development of data collection instruments, methodological issues in cross-national and cross-cultural studies, and computer technology and use.
Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management University of South Carolina Columbia, SC, USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ASSOCIATE EDITOR FOR ASIA AND PACIFIC REGIONS Fang Meng, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
REVIEWS EDITOR Keith Hollinshead,University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury Campus, Luton, UK
BOOK REVIEWS EDITOR Marcjanna M. Augustyn,Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK
RESEARCH NOTES EDITOR Rich Harrill,International Tourism Research Institute, China Tourism Group, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
Kathleen L. Andereck,Arizona State University, USA Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA Guy Assaker,Lebanese American University, Lebanon Ernest Azzopardi, University of Malta, Malta Faruk Balli, Massey University, New Zealand Mark A. Bonn,Florida State University, USA Ilenia Bregoli,University of Lincoln, UK Juan Antonio Campos-Soria,University of Malaga, Spain Laurence Chalip,University of Illinois, USA Annie Chen,University of West London, UK Rachel J. C. Chen,University of Tennessee, USA Mingming Cheng,University of Otago, New Zealand Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada Germa Coenders,University of Girona, Spain Nuno Crespo, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal Jonathon Day,Purdue University, USA Giacomo Del Chiappa,University of Sassari, Italy Jinyang Deng,West Virginia University, USA Tarik Dogru,Boston University, USA Oleksandr Dorokhov, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine Yuksel Ekinci,University of Portsmouth, UK Erdogan H. Ekiz,King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia Matthias Fuchs,Mid Sweden University, Sweden Martina González-Gallarza Granizo,Universitat de Valéncia, Spain Ulrike Gretzel,University of Southern California, USA Huimin Gu,Beijing International Studies University, China Ulrich Gunter,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Rob Hallak,University of South Australia, Australia Tzung-Cheng Huan,National Chiayi University, Taiwan Tazim Jamal,Texas A&M University, USA SooCheong (Shawn) Jang,Purdue University, USA Pandora Kay,Deakin University, Australia Ksenia Kirillova,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Jennifer Laing,La Trobe University, Australia Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee,Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan Jun (Justin) Li,South China Normal University, China Vincent Magnini,Virginia Tech, USA Bruce Marti,University of Rhode Island, USA Xavier Matteucci,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Yeganeh Morakabati, Bournemouth University, UK Ana María Munar,Copenhagen Business School, Denmark Jaume Rosselló Nadal, Universitat de Illes Balears, Spain Sarah Nicholls,Michigan State University, USA Harmen Oppewal,Monash University, Australia Ahmet Bulent Ozturk,University of Central Florida, USA Steven Pike,Queensland University of Technology, Australia Yaniv Poria,Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández,University of Jaén, Spain Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon,Curtin University, Australia Wiston Adrián Risso,University of the Republic, Uruguay José António C. Santos,Universidade do Algarve, Portugal Zvi Schwartz,University of Delaware, USA M. Joseph Sirgy,Virginia Tech, USA Vincent Wing Sun Tung,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Anja Tuohino,University of Eastern Finland, Finland Shui-Ki Wan,Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR Kyle M. Woosnam,University of Georgia, USA Hung Che Wu,Sun Yat-sen University, China Anita Zehrer,MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Austria
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Seyhmus Baloglu,University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts,College of Charleston, USA Geoffrey I. Crouch(former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia Larry Dwyer,Griffith University, Australia Daniel Fesenmaier(co-founding editor), University of Florida, USA Josef Mazanec,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada Harry Timmermans,Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands Muzaffer Uysal(co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscript and figure/table files via this link:
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Two files are to be submitted. The first file is the title page. This is the only file that contains author and affiliation information. All other file(s) should not contain any information that might reveal the identity of the authors. The second file is the main document (the body of the manuscript), including the article title, abstract, keywords, text body, and references. Tables and figures can be included in this file on separate pages at the end of the manuscript (NOT embedded in the manuscript), or they can be submitted as a separate file.
Maximum word count for full-length manuscripts, including references, is approximately 7,700 words. Short manuscripts (Research Notes) should not exceed approximately 2,500 words.
All content in the main document should be double spaced except tables and figures. Use Times New Roman font, 12 point size (except in tables and figures). Use one-inch margins on all sides of the page, left justified, with a ragged right-hand margin (no full justification). Indent ALL paragraphs to start at 5 spaces, including the first paragraph below headings or subheadings. There should be no footnotes at the bottom of pages and no endnotes at the end of the manuscript. All material must be included in the text. Round numbers (e.g., correlations, significance level, standard deviations, etc.) to two decimal places in the text, tables, and figure legends. Use a period (American system) not a comma when reporting decimals.
American English spelling should be used in all content except in quoted material and references that use British spelling originally. References in other languages should provide an English translation shown in brackets.
A statement identifying the gap in the literature and your manuscript’s theoretical contribution should be included, preferably within the first few paragraphs of the text (or at least in the first two pages). The manuscript needs to make an original contribution to the theory and practice of Tourism Management and Policy.
Tourism Analysis is an English language journal. Authors not fluent in English are expected to have their manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English before submitting.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). The article title should be short, impressive, and attractive. A short title (for the running head) of approximately 40 characters or less should also be included. Provide any acknowledgment(s) on the title page.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of 150 to 200 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing. Do not include reference citations in the abstract.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. The main body text (except for Reviews) should be structured using the following headings: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The location of the tables and figures should be indicated by an insert tag: Insert Table 1 about here. The file (main document without any author information) should be arranged as: title, abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables and figures. Figures and tables can also be provided as separate files (see below).
The Introduction section should include the specified research gap(s) in the literature, the study’s exact research objectives, the importance/significance of the study, originality, and theoretical contributions (preferably within the first few paragraphs or first two pages). The paper should make original, value-added contributions to the theory and practice of tourism management and policy.
The LiteratureReview section should include both seminal and updated literature. Previous literature should not only be summarized but also critically synthesized, and research gaps should be discussed clearly. The hypotheses should be proposed in a logically way out of the literature.
The Methodology section should include detailed information regarding the research design and approach, survey instruments or interview protocol, data collection procedures, and outcome.
The Results section should include detailed report of the analyses and findings. Narratives and tables/figures should complement each other.
The Conclusion section should include the following subsections: a conclusive summary of the research findings and how the findings, theoretical contributions, managerial/practical implications, limitations, and future research.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult the 7th edition for additional examples for reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gladney, 2004) or (Boes et al., 2015; Clabaugh, 2018; McKercher et al., 2015) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: McKercher, B., Shoval, N., Park, E., & Kahani, A. (2015). The [limited] impact of weather on tourist behavior in an urban destination. Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 442–455.
Book: Gladney, D. C. (2004). Dislocating China: Muslims, minorities, and other subaltern subjects. University of Chicago Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Boes, K., Buhalis, D., & Inversini, A. (2015). Conceptualising smart tourism destination dimensions In I. Tussyadiah & A. Inversini (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015 (pp. 391–403). Springer.
Internet source: Clabaugh, J. (2018). Another record year for DC tourism: 22.8 million visitors. https://wtop.com/business-finance/2018/08/another-record-year-for-dc-tourism-22-8m-visitors/
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication. The written permission should be provided when the manuscript is accepted for publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Include a figure legend for each figure at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate figure legends or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include tables in a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not embed tables within the text of the manuscript.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Analysis are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) employs a double blind review process.
Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the editorial office for format, content requirements, and authors contact information. The editor-in-chief (EIC) then reviews the manuscript for its methodology, grammar, and language use and decides whether it deserves to move to the next level. If the manuscript is found to not meet minimum quality standards the EIC will desk-reject the manuscript.
If the manuscript is written following TA guidelines and meets minimum standards, the EIC invites four to five reviewers from a mixture of the review board members, past reviewers within the database, or new recruits depending upon the need of the expertise area. Typically, the reviewers are given four to nine weeks to review the manuscript and provide feedback.
The EIC needs at least two reports by the reviewers to make a preliminary judgement regarding the manuscript: accept, revise per review comments and resubmit, or reject. Manuscripts can go through several rounds of review based on needed revisions and report of the reviewers. The EIC can ask for additional work (e.g., language, cross-referencing of citations, adjustments to tables and figures) to be done before final acceptance.
If a manuscript is deemed to be a significant work but has not met the requirements to be published as a full article, the EIC can ask the authors to resubmit their work as a Research Note after revisions have been made per reviewer comments. The same reviewers may be recruited again to review the research note on a more lenient basis.
Invited manuscripts do not go through a rigorous peer review process but one or two reviewers are still recruited to help the submitting author make needed adjustments to enhance the manuscript.
As a reviewer for Tourism Analysis you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TA, please contact the Editor in Chief: Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA – Email: email@example.com
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Analysis have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Analysis is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH), and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-analysis under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Volume 25, Number 4 Causality Between Tourism and Economic Development: The Case of China – 365 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241864
Tsung-Pao Wu* and Hung-Che Wu†
*School of Accounting and Finance, Beijing Institute of Technology–Zhuhai, Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province, China †Business School, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China
This study applies a bootstrap panel Granger causality test to examine the causal relationship between international tourism receipts and economic growth in 20 regions of China for the period from 1995 to 2015, accounting for both dependency and heterogeneity across regions. The empirical results support evidence for the growth hypothesis in the regions, such as Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Ningxia, and Shannxi. A reverse relationship supports evidence on the conservation hypothesis for the regions, such as Hunan and Inner Mongolia. A reciprocal causal relationship was found in Qinghai and Tibet, while the result of a neutrality hypothesis supported 11 of these 20 major regions (i.e., Chognqing, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Jilin, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang and Yunnan).
Key words: China’s regions; Economic growth; International tourism receipts; Dependency and heterogeneity; Panel Granger causality test
The Impacts of Oil Price Shocks on Tourism Receipts for Selected Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Countries: Do Structural Breaks Matter? – 383 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241891
Khalid M. Kisswani,* Amjad M. Kisswani,† and Arezou Harraf‡
*Department of Economics and Finance, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait †Department of Workforce Development and Organizational Leadership, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA ‡Department of Business Administration, Box Hill College, Kuwait
One of the short comings in the tourism literature is that research on the oil price–tourism receipts nexus is limited. However, the available studies, to the best of our knowledge, provide limited evidence on the negative effect of oil prices on tourism receipts. Nevertheless, the related literature did not consider the structural breaks in the analysis, which has proven to be important in the empirical work. As such, in this article we study the oil price–tourism receipts nexus for selected MENA countries in the presence of structural breaks. This is done by adopting the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test and incorporating the structural breaks. The findings show that the bounds test provides evidence of a long-run relationship between tourism receipts and oil prices after integrating structural breaks into the ARDL model for most countries.
Foreign Direct Investment and Tourism Development in Africa – 395 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15957702910144
Ogechi Adeola,* Nathaniel Boso,† Ellis L. C. Osabutey,‡ and Olaniyi Evans§
*Lagos Business School, Pan-Atlantic University, Ajah, Lagos, Nigeria †KNUST School of Business, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana ‡Roehampton Business School, University of Roehampton, London, UK §School of Management & Social Sciences, Pan-Atlantic University, Lagos, Nigeria
This study examines the nexus between foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow and tourism development. Using annual data for 44 countries in Africa from 1995 to 2014, and three different specifications of panel autoregressive distributed lag model, the study investigates short-run and long-run dynamics between FDI and tourism development. The study finds a significant positive relationship and a bidirectional long-run causality between FDI inflows and tourism development. In addition, the results show a negative short-run relationship between exchange rate and tourism development. Furthermore, there is evidence that economic growth and political stability are important determinants of tourism development. A major policy implication for African countries is that creating a politically stable environment and sustaining a growing economy help attract FDI inflows to boost tourism development.
Key words: Foreign direct investment; Tourism development; Exchange rates; Africa
Tourism Resilience Patterns in Southern Europe – 409 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X16010020096118
University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
This article studies the patterns of tourism resilience, understood as the capacity to recover tourism demand, which has characterized Spain, Greece, Italy, and Portugal after the impact of the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009. A shift-share analysis will allow us to decompose the growth of nonresident tourist arrivals to hotels and similar establishments originating from markets outside these four countries in 2009−2016. The technique used allows us to classify the markets according to the competitive advantage or specialization demonstrated by each country. The results reveal some similarity in resilience patterns in tourism between Portugal and Spain, whereas Italy and Greece maintain their own singularities. In this context, some ideas are suggested for the design of a tourism policy that makes the most of the potential of each country.
Understanding Who Is Having a Taste(Off) Nigeria – 425 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15951005099173
Martinette Kruger, Adam Viljoen, and Oghenetejiri Digun-Aweto
Tourism Research in Economics, Environs and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom, North West Province, South Africa
Events and festivals, especially those focused on food, showcase the many nuances within a culture and can be seen to be an effective medium to transfer cultural identity or tradition. Cultural phenomena such as food festivals are integral to cultural immersion, especially in multicultural/multiethnic societies such as Nigeria. Emphasizing the importance of investigating the culinary festival market in Nigeria, TasteOff is an example in a developing country that identifies the market segments based on a multisegmentation approach that includes (i) travel motives, (ii) the important “festivalscape” factors, and (iii) future culinary event preferences. This research contributes dually to (i) a better understanding of culinary tourism in Africa, especially since much attention is placed on the South African scenario, and (ii) the needs and preferences of Africa’s largest economy, Nigeria. Key words: Culinary tourism; Festivals; Nigeria; Market segmentation; Multisegmentation; Travel motives; Festivalscapes
Are World Heritage Sites Always Driving Tourism Demand? – 441 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X16025330917891
Yu-Xia Lin,* Bi Yang,† Bi-Shu Lin,* and Bing Pan‡
*School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China †School of Hospitality Management, College of Health and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA ‡Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, College of Health and Human Development, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
Whether World Heritage sites (WHS) drive tourism demand is an ongoing debate. This study analyzes tourist arrival data at a provincial level in China from 1999 to 2014, and employs linear and nonlinear models to reexamine the relationship between tourism demand and the numbers of WHS. The results show that there is a significantly positive linear effect of WHS on both international and domestic tourist arrivals, and international tourism demand benefits more from WHS than domestic tourism. In addition, the effect of WHS on tourism exhibits an inverse U-shaped pattern where an optimal number of WHS exists. Finally, tourism specialization levels positively moderate the effect of WHS on tourism demand, and the relationship between WHS and tourism is not always positive.
Negative Effect of Innovation on Organizational Competitiveness on Tourism Companies – 455 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758301241873
Alexander Zuniga-Collazos,* Rich Harrill,† Marysol Castillo-Palacio,‡ and Lina Marcela Padilla-Delgado*
*Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Cali, Colombia †School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA ‡Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Departamento de Gestion de Organizaciones, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali, Colombia
The present study allows researchers to examine the influence of innovation on organizational competitiveness of 430 small hospitality and tourism companies in a country emerging from a turbulent past, Colombia, and in particular analyzes companies from the cities of Cali and Popayan. Data were collected through face-to-face survey research. First, the researchers performed a confirmatory factor analysis for validating the scale. Second, for the examination of the hypotheses, structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed. The findings show a significant, direct, and negative relationship between innovation and competitiveness, presenting the discussion of possible negative impacts for small hospitality and tourism companies in emerging contexts. Empirical evidence found allows to fulfill the gap between this relationship in terms of the different and possible effects of innovation in an emerging context and considering this type of companies on the hospitality and tourism industry.
Time Series Features and Machine Learning Forecasts – 463 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X16002732379690
Oscar Claveria,* Enric Monte,† and Salvador Torra‡
*AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain †Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Polytechnic University of Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain ‡Riskcenter-IREA, Department of Econometrics, Statistics and Applied Economics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
In this study we combine the results of two independent analyses to position Spanish regions according to both the characteristics of the time series of international tourist arrivals and the accuracy of predictions of arrivals at the regional level. We apply a seasonal trend decomposition procedure based on nonparametric regression to isolate the different components of the series and calculate the main time series features. Predictions are generated with several machine learning models in a recursive multistep-ahead forecasting experiment. Finally, we summarize all the information from the two previous experiments using categorical principal component analysis. By overlapping the distribution of the regions and the component loadings of each variable along both dimensions, we observe that entropy and dispersion show an inverse relation with forecast accuracy, but the interactions between the rest of the features and accuracy are heavily dependent on the forecast horizon. On this evidence, we conclude that in order to increase forecast accuracy of tourist arrivals at the regional level, model selection should be region specific and based on the forecast horizon.
Key words: Tourist arrivals; Time series features; Machine learning; Forecast accuracy; Categorical principal components analysis
Does Formula-1 Grand Prix Attract Tourists? – 473 https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X16020580167829
Bala Ramasamy* and Matthew C. H. Yeung†
*China Europe International Business School, Shanghai, China †The Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
Why would a country like Malaysia relinquish a glamorous spot in the Formula-1 Grand Prix calendar? Doesn’t this popular sport attract tourists? Previous research has examined the impact of large sporting events like the Olympics and the football World Cup on tourism inflows, but research on whether international sporting events held annually in the same city/country also attract significant number of tourists is limited. In this article we examine the above questions empirically and find that the hosting of a Formula-1 event indeed attracts tourists, an increase of about 6%, on average. We also find that street races, on the margin, attract more tourists. Our findings call policy makers to be absolutely certain before they give up their spot in the F1 calendar.
Key words: Sports event tourism; Formula-1; Malaysia
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