The aim of Tourism Analysis is to promote a forum for practitioners and academicians in the fields of Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH). As a interdisciplinary journal, it is an appropriate outlet for articles, research notes, and computer software packages designed to be of interest, concern, and of applied value to its audience of professionals, scholars, and students of LRTH programs the world over. The scope of the articles will include behavioral models (quantitative-qualitative), decision-making techniques and procedures, estimation models, demand-supply analysis, monitoring systems, expert systems and performance evaluation, assessment of site and destination attractiveness, new analytical tools, research methods and related areas such as validity and reliability, scale development, development of data collection instruments, methodological issues in cross-national and cross-cultural studies, and computer technology and use.
Fang Meng Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208
Bing Pan Associate Professor, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management School of Health and Human Development Penn State University 704M Ford Building University Park, PA 16802
ASSOCIATE EDITOR FOR ASIA AND PACIFIC REGIONS Fang Meng, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
REVIEWS EDITOR Keith Hollinshead,University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury Campus, Luton, UK
BOOK REVIEWS EDITOR Marcjanna M. Augustyn,Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK
RESEARCH NOTES EDITOR Rich Harrill,International Tourism Research Institute, China Tourism Group, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
Kathleen L. Andereck,Arizona State University, USA Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA Guy Assaker,Lebanese American University, Lebanon Ernest Azzopardi, University of Malta, Malta Faruk Balli, Massey University, New Zealand Mark A. Bonn,Florida State University, USA Ilenia Bregoli,University of Lincoln, UK Juan Antonio Campos-Soria,University of Malaga, Spain Laurence Chalip,University of Illinois, USA Annie Chen,University of West London, UK Rachel J. C. Chen,University of Tennessee, USA Mingming Cheng,University of Otago, New Zealand Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada Germa Coenders,University of Girona, Spain Nuno Crespo, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal Jonathon Day,Purdue University, USA Giacomo Del Chiappa,University of Sassari, Italy Jinyang Deng,West Virginia University, USA Tarik Dogru,Boston University, USA Oleksandr Dorokhov, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine Yuksel Ekinci,University of Portsmouth, UK Erdogan H. Ekiz,King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia Matthias Fuchs,Mid Sweden University, Sweden Martina González-Gallarza Granizo,Universitat de Valéncia, Spain Ulrike Gretzel,University of Southern California, USA Huimin Gu,Beijing International Studies University, China Ulrich Gunter,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Rob Hallak,University of South Australia, Australia Tzung-Cheng Huan,National Chiayi University, Taiwan Tazim Jamal,Texas A&M University, USA SooCheong (Shawn) Jang,Purdue University, USA Pandora Kay,Deakin University, Australia Ksenia Kirillova,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Jennifer Laing,La Trobe University, Australia Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee,Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan Jun (Justin) Li,South China Normal University, China Vincent Magnini,Virginia Tech, USA Bruce Marti,University of Rhode Island, USA Xavier Matteucci,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Yeganeh Morakabati, Bournemouth University, UK Ana María Munar,Copenhagen Business School, Denmark Jaume Rosselló Nadal, Universitat de Illes Balears, Spain Sarah Nicholls,Michigan State University, USA Harmen Oppewal,Monash University, Australia Ahmet Bulent Ozturk,University of Central Florida, USA Steven Pike,Queensland University of Technology, Australia Yaniv Poria,Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández,University of Jaén, Spain Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon,Curtin University, Australia Wiston Adrián Risso,University of the Republic, Uruguay José António C. Santos,Universidade do Algarve, Portugal Zvi Schwartz,University of Delaware, USA Ercan Sirakaya-Türk, University of South Carolina, USA M. Joseph Sirgy,Virginia Tech, USA Vincent Wing Sun Tung,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Anja Tuohino,University of Eastern Finland, Finland Shui-Ki Wan,Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR Kyle M. Woosnam,University of Georgia, USA Hung Che Wu,Sun Yat-sen University, China Anita Zehrer,MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Austria
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Seyhmus Baloglu,University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts,College of Charleston, USA Geoffrey I. Crouch(former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia Larry Dwyer,Griffith University, Australia Daniel Fesenmaier(co-founding editor), University of Florida, USA Josef Mazanec,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada Harry Timmermans,Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands Muzaffer Uysal(co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscript and figure/table files via this link:
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Two files are to be submitted. The first file is the title page. This is the only file that contains author and affiliation information. All other file(s) should not contain any information that might reveal the identity of the authors. The second file is the main document (the body of the manuscript), including the article title, abstract, keywords, text body, and references. Tables and figures can be included in this file on separate pages at the end of the manuscript (NOT embedded in the manuscript), or they can be submitted as a separate file.
Maximum word count for full-length manuscripts, including references, is approximately 7,700 words. Short manuscripts (Research Notes) should not exceed approximately 2,500 words.
All content in the main document should be double spaced except tables and figures. Use Times New Roman font, 12 point size (except in tables and figures). Use one-inch margins on all sides of the page, left justified, with a ragged right-hand margin (no full justification). Indent ALL paragraphs to start at 5 spaces, including the first paragraph below headings or subheadings. There should be no footnotes at the bottom of pages and no endnotes at the end of the manuscript. All material must be included in the text. Round numbers (e.g., correlations, significance level, standard deviations, etc.) to two decimal places in the text, tables, and figure legends. Use a period (American system) not a comma when reporting decimals.
American English spelling should be used in all content except in quoted material and references that use British spelling originally. References in other languages should provide an English translation shown in brackets.
A statement identifying the gap in the literature and your manuscript’s theoretical contribution should be included, preferably within the first few paragraphs of the text (or at least in the first two pages). The manuscript needs to make an original contribution to the theory and practice of Tourism Management and Policy.
Tourism Analysis is an English language journal. Authors not fluent in English are expected to have their manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English before submitting.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). The article title should be short, impressive, and attractive. A short title (for the running head) of approximately 40 characters or less should also be included. Provide any acknowledgment(s) on the title page.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract of 150 to 200 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing. Do not include reference citations in the abstract.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. The main body text (except for Reviews) should be structured using the following headings: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The location of the tables and figures should be indicated by an insert tag: Insert Table 1 about here. The file (main document without any author information) should be arranged as: title, abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables and figures. Figures and tables can also be provided as separate files (see below).
The Introduction section should include the specified research gap(s) in the literature, the study’s exact research objectives, the importance/significance of the study, originality, and theoretical contributions (preferably within the first few paragraphs or first two pages). The paper should make original, value-added contributions to the theory and practice of tourism management and policy.
The LiteratureReview section should include both seminal and updated literature. Previous literature should not only be summarized but also critically synthesized, and research gaps should be discussed clearly. The hypotheses should be proposed in a logically way out of the literature.
The Methodology section should include detailed information regarding the research design and approach, survey instruments or interview protocol, data collection procedures, and outcome.
The Results section should include detailed report of the analyses and findings. Narratives and tables/figures should complement each other.
The Conclusion section should include the following subsections: a conclusive summary of the research findings and how the findings, theoretical contributions, managerial/practical implications, limitations, and future research.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult the 7th edition for additional examples for reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gladney, 2004) or (Boes et al., 2015; Clabaugh, 2018; McKercher et al., 2015) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: McKercher, B., Shoval, N., Park, E., & Kahani, A. (2015). The [limited] impact of weather on tourist behavior in an urban destination. Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 442–455.
Book: Gladney, D. C. (2004). Dislocating China: Muslims, minorities, and other subaltern subjects. University of Chicago Press.
Book chapter in edited book: Boes, K., Buhalis, D., & Inversini, A. (2015). Conceptualising smart tourism destination dimensions In I. Tussyadiah & A. Inversini (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015 (pp. 391–403). Springer.
Internet source: Clabaugh, J. (2018). Another record year for DC tourism: 22.8 million visitors. https://wtop.com/business-finance/2018/08/another-record-year-for-dc-tourism-22-8m-visitors/
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication. The written permission should be provided when the manuscript is accepted for publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Include a figure legend for each figure at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate figure legends or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include tables in a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not embed tables within the text of the manuscript.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Analysis are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) Peer Review Policy
Tourism Analysis (TA) employs a double blind review process.
Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the editorial office for format, content requirements, and authors contact information. The editor-in-chief (EIC) then reviews the manuscript for its methodology, grammar, and language use and decides whether it deserves to move to the next level. If the manuscript is found to not meet minimum quality standards the EIC will desk-reject the manuscript.
If the manuscript is written following TA guidelines and meets minimum standards, the EIC invites four to five reviewers from a mixture of the review board members, past reviewers within the database, or new recruits depending upon the need of the expertise area. Typically, the reviewers are given four to nine weeks to review the manuscript and provide feedback.
The EIC needs at least two reports by the reviewers to make a preliminary judgement regarding the manuscript: accept, revise per review comments and resubmit, or reject. Manuscripts can go through several rounds of review based on needed revisions and report of the reviewers. The EIC can ask for additional work (e.g., language, cross-referencing of citations, adjustments to tables and figures) to be done before final acceptance.
If a manuscript is deemed to be a significant work but has not met the requirements to be published as a full article, the EIC can ask the authors to resubmit their work as a Research Note after revisions have been made per reviewer comments. The same reviewers may be recruited again to review the research note on a more lenient basis.
Invited manuscripts do not go through a rigorous peer review process but one or two reviewers are still recruited to help the submitting author make needed adjustments to enhance the manuscript.
As a reviewer for Tourism Analysis you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TA, please contact the Editor in Chief: Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA – Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Analysis have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Analysis is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH), and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-analysis under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Volume 26, Numbers 2–3 SPECIAL ISSUE WINE AND CULINARY TOURISM FUTURES Guest Editors: Donna Senese, John S. Hull, and Kellee Caton Wine and Culinary Tourism Futures: Introduction to the Special Issue – 105 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16078229958151
Donna Senese,* John S. Hull,† and Kellee Caton†
*University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, Canada †Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, Canada
Terroir and Tourism in the Age of Mass Production – 109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079789765298
Robert C. Ulin
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA
The concept of terroir has an extensive history in France linking a multitude of agricultural products to climate, soil, and local knowledge. More recently, terroir is used in viticulture to emphasize the distinctiveness of wine with respect to regional natural and cultural resources and in so doing has become important to tourism. This article addresses terroir by pointing to its substantial virtues while unveiling its potential for mystification. In the age of mass production, terroir offers distinction, an essential attribute for touristic appeal. However, in its emphasis on climate and soil in the viticultural domain, terroir conceals important historical processes that in the end speak as much, if not more, to how we rank and regard wine. Moreover, the focus on natural conditions rather than those that are social also masks social relations that are embedded in class privilege and thus give the impression that wine has a life of its own independent of its historical and social contexts.
Key words: Terroir; History; Class; Distinction
Rural Wine and Food Tourism for Cultural Sustainability – 121 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951385
*Okanagan College, Kelowna, Canada †University of British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada
This conceptual article explores the relationships between culture, sustainability, and rural tourism. The development of food and wine tourism and its role in cultural sustainability is given special consideration. Soini and Dessein’s three-part, interdisciplinary conceptual framework for culture in, for, and as sustainability is presented as a means to understand the relationships between culture and sustainability. When applied to rural tourism, the framework reveals that rural tourism can support cultural sustainability in all three ways described: culture in sustainability, where tourism is a means to conserve tangible and intangible cultural capital and the diversity of cultural expressions; culture for sustainability, where tourism is a resource for rural development and a way to shape development processes; and ultimately, culture as sustainability, where tourism is a vehicle to facilitate a fundamental paradigm shift towards a shared “culture of sustainability.” Illustrative case examples are discussed. Culture in, for, and as sustainability offers a framework for researchers and developers to critically analyze what is being sustained through tourism and why. Further research considering the transformative potential of rural wine and food tourism to support cultural sustainability is suggested.
Key words: Cultural sustainability; Rural tourism; Wine and food tourism; Transformational tourism
Agrifood Tourism, Rural Resilience, and Recovery in a Postdisaster Context: Insights and Evidence From Kaikōura-Hurunui, New Zealand – 135 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951420
Joanna Fountain,* Nicholas Cradock-Henry,† Franca Buelow,† and Hamish Rennie*
On November 14, 2016 an earthquake struck the rural districts of Kaikōura and Hurunui on New Zealand’s South Island. The region—characterized by small dispersed communities, a local economy based on tourism and agriculture, and limited transportation connections—was severely impacted. Following the quake, road and rail networks essential to maintaining steady flows of goods, visitors, and services were extensively damaged, leaving agrifood producers with significant logistical challenges, resulting in reduced productivity and problematic market access. Regional tourism destinations also suffered with changes to the number, characteristics, and travel patterns of visitors. As the region recovers, there is renewed interest in the development and promotion of agrifood tourism and trails as a pathway for enhancing rural resilience, and a growing awareness of the importance of local networks. Drawing on empirical evidence and insights from a range of affected stakeholders, including food producers, tourism operators, and local government, we explore the significance of emerging agrifood tourism initiatives for fostering diversity, enhancing connectivity, and building resilience in the context of rural recovery. We highlight the motivation to diversify distribution channels for agrifood producers, and strengthen the region’s tourism place identity. Enhancing product offerings and establishing better links between different destinations within the region are seen as essential. While such trends are common in rural regions globally, we suggest that stakeholders’ shared experience with the earthquake and its aftermath has opened up new opportunities for regeneration and reimagination, and has influenced current agrifood tourism trajectories. In particular, additional funding for tourism recovery marketing and product development after the earthquake, and an emphasis on greater connectivity between the residents and communities through strengthening rural networks and building social capital within and between regions, is enabling more resilient and sustainable futures.
Key words: Agrifood tourism; Rural resilience; Postdisaster recovery; New Zealand
Non-Economic Impact of Craft Brewery Visitors in British Columbia: A Quantitative Analysis – 151 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951439
Jarrett R. Bachman,* John S. Hull,† and Byron Marlowe‡
*International School of Hospitality, Sports, & Tourism Management, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada †School of Adventure, Culinary, & Tourism, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada ‡Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Richland, WA, USA
The number of craft breweries in British Columbia has grown significantly in recent years, numbering over 140 in 2017. Very little is known about the effects of the craft brewery industry in British Columbia, specifically as it relates to impacts not related to brewery revenue and job creation. Beyond British Columbia, the craft beer industry has not empirically examined nonrevenue impacts in a manner that reflects the global growth of the sector. Tourism experiences, such as those offered by craft breweries, are becoming increasingly important for resilience and sustainable growth and success of destinations. The goal of this research was to determine who visitors to craft breweries are, how tourist and resident patrons differ, and what effects craft breweries have on tourists who visit breweries. A 55-item survey was distributed at 11 craft breweries in three regions in British Columbia during the summer of 2017. Results found differences between tourist and resident patrons in self-image congruency, age, and travel party size, but no difference in gender, education, or household income. From a tourism standpoint, it was found that memories have a significant, positive impact on loyalty regarding the brewery and the destination. For tourists, strong connections were found between social involvement and both authenticity and place attachment for those who were more socially involved in craft beer. Comparisons to previous research in the wine industry provide additional commentary. Implications for craft breweries, destinations, and future research in this area are discussed.
Key words: Craft beer tourism; Tourism experience; Resilience; Non-economic impacts; BC Ale Trail Future Proofing the Success of Food Festivals Through Determining the Drivers of Change: A Case Study of Wellington on a Plate – 167 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951457
Ian Yeoman,* Una McMahon-Beattie,† Katherine Findlay,‡ Sandra Goh,§ Sophea Tieng,¶ and Sochea Nhem#
*School of Management, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand †Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ulster University, Belfast, UK ‡Penrose, Auckland, New Zealand §School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, NZ ¶Tourism Department, Saint Paul Institute, Sangkat Dangkor, Khan Dangkor, Cambodia #Department of Tourism, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
In parallel with the growth and popularity of food tourism, the increase in food-specific events and festivals has been significant. Events have become an important element of the experience economy; often their economic and social benefits have been related to improvements in the quality of life for communities and regions. Food festivals provide an opportunity for event goers to socialize, as by their nature they bring people together. However, how do we future proof the success of such events? Adopting a practice theory position and a pragmatism paradigm, this article investigates the future of food festivals using a case study of Wellington on a Plate (WOAP), which is New Zealand’s most successful food festival, operated by the Wellington Culinary Events Trust (WCET). In line with scenario planning research methods, 12 “remarkable persons” were interviewed to identify 22 megadrivers of change, including mobility, redefining luxury, technological immersion, social capital, social demography changes, and accessibility. Adapting Yeoman’s conceptual framework of food tourism drivers for food festivals and linking to these megadrivers of change, a conceptual framework was derived that considers five factors of success: Food festivals as political capital; Food festivals as a visionary state; Sense of community; The drive for affluence and exclusivity; and Fluid identity and foodies. The development of this conceptual framework, which links success to the external environment, contributes to the future proofing of food festivals.
Do High-Quality Restaurants Act as Pull Factors to a Tourist Destination? – 195 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951466
Natalia Daries, Estela Marine-Roig, Berta Ferrer-Rosell, and Eduard Cristobal-Fransi
Department of Business Management, Faculty of Law, Economics and Tourism, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Tourists travel because they are pushed by their internal motivations and attracted or pulled by certain elements and features of destinations. However, a growing number of destinations have similar tourist attractions and need to differentiate themselves. The aim of this study is to unveil the power of high-level culinary tourism, focusing on Michelin-starred restaurants, as a pull factor and generator of tourism flows, as well as to create a model to quantify the level of importance of these high-quality restaurants as nuclei of a destination. The gastronomic and culinary industry is one of the most traditional sectors in most economies and is now becoming a fundamental element in attracting tourism and promotion. In this study, we argue that certain types of business, such as high-quality restaurants, can generate tourism flows in their own right within a context where the role of tourists and enterprises has shifted from a passive to an active one, in which companies actively seek to become destination pull factors. A quantitative survey questionnaire with structured questions was applied to customers of high-quality Spanish restaurants, specifically Michelin starred, with 432 valid responses. The results show distinctive motivations of customers who travel mainly for the restaurant and those who do so for the destination. They also show the importance of the nucleus (restaurant) as a factor of attraction to the destination, but also the importance of the destination/surroundings to the nucleus. These findings provide valuable information and insights for culinary tourism in the future, both for culinary companies and for destination managers, who can then adjust their marketing and management strategies, emphasizing the need for mutual collaboration. The findings may also be helpful to institutions and to communication managers of the destinations to improve their promotion and communication strategies, to diversify supply in mature destinations, and to deseasonalized demand.
Do Satisfied Cellar Door Visitors Want to Revisit? Linking Past Knowledge and Consumption Behaviors to Satisfaction and Intention to Return – 211 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951475
Girish Prayag,* Marta Disegna,† and Johan Bruwer‡
*Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand †Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK ‡Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science, UniSA Business School, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
This study evaluates the main determinants of wine tourists’ intention to revisit the winery cellar door. The proposed tourist behavior model suggests that past wine-related knowledge and behaviors as well as motivation affect satisfaction with the cellar door visit. The model suggests that actual behavior at the cellar door (number of bottles bought and amount of money spent) is dependent on the previously mentioned factors. A survey of wine tourists in the Barossa Valley, Australia, led to 676 useable questionnaires. The results of a binary logistic model show that only monthly household expenditure on wine consumption and the motive of tasting wine predict satisfaction with the cellar door visit. A negative binomial model shows that the probability to buy more bottles at the winery increases if the visitor is from Australia, satisfied with the visit, has tasted wine at the cellar door, is younger, spends more on monthly household consumption of wine, and was primarily visiting to buy wine. However, intention to revisit is predicted only by satisfaction, awareness of the winery before the visit, motives of buying and tasting wine, and some sociodemographic characteristics. Implications for the management of visitor behavior and the cellar door experience are also discussed.
Key words: Wine tourism; Motivation; Satisfaction; Knowledge; Past behavior
Drive by my Cellar Door: Rethinking the Benefits of Wine Tourism in Niagara – 225 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951484
Bruce McAdams,* Statia Elliot,* and Joshua E. LeBlanc†
*School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada †Department of Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of various marketing activities on retail winery spending in a wine tourism region. Data from a survey of 282 visitors to three Niagara boutique wineries are analyzed using principal component analysis to identify marketing drivers of winery sales, and regression analysis to measure the influence of marketing activities, demographics, and personal experience. The results illustrate the relative influence of in-region, web-based, and indirect marketing, suggesting that web-based marketing is most effective in driving sales, whereas visitors influenced by in-region tourism marketing spend less. This finding suggests that while wine tourism may drive traffic, it may not drive sales. The results provide direction for boutique winery operators and regional associations to plan marketing activities more effectively. Exploring the relationships between marketing and visitor spending by using multiple drivers in one study sheds new light on the benefits of wine tourism for boutique operators.
Craft Beer Tourism in Thailand – 237 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951493
Rangson Chirakranont* and Sirijit Sunanta†
*Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand †Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand
The craft beer movement and craft beer tourism are a new global phenomenon that has reached various parts of the world. However, the literature on craft beer tourism mostly focuses on traditional origins of craft beer in Western countries—the US, Australia, and European countries. This research note illustrates how a study of the Thai craft beer movement and craft beer tourism could contribute to the existing body of knowledge. The consumption of non-Western people in non-Western places has been underrepresented in the literature of food and beverage tourism. The craft beer movement has spread to Thailand via urban middle-class Thais who brought the passion for and knowledge of home brewing from the West to Thailand. Brewing lessons, brewery visits, and craft beer events/festivals have functioned as community building activities for Thai craft beer enthusiasts as well as the main craft beer distribution channel. Craft beer consumption continues to grow despite the Thai alcoholic production law that prohibits home brewing. For future studies, different craft beer tourism activities in Thailand should be analyzed for 1) the adoption of the experience economy framework, 2) the formation of the consumption community, 3) the roles of various stakeholders who differentially contribute to and benefit from craft beer tourism activities, and 4) the role of foreign tourists in the development of craft beer tourism in Thailand.
Insights on Wine Connoisseurs for the Wine Tourism Industry – 241 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951510
Department of Social and Public Communications, Faculty of Communication, University of Quebec at Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
This article suggests that studying wine culture may help to further understand wine tourism. The broader culture of wine consumption has an influence on the motivation and interest that people have for visiting a wine region or a winery. This study takes an anthropological approach to wine consumption culture and identifies specific topics of interest that connoisseurs find in wine and that may be relevant to wine tourism. The study is based on fieldwork and interviews with wine connoisseurs from Montreal (Canada). It identifies four main dimensions through which people engage with wine. The first factor concerns the formal discoveries offered by wine, the second, its social and cultural significance, the third, its producers and their values, and the fourth, the experimentation of theoretical knowledge in the context of wine regions. Each of these four dimensions offers a means for better understanding the visitor experience at wineries.
Wine Tourism: From Winescape to Cellardoorscape – 245 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354221X16079839951529
Kim M. Williams
Faculty of Higher Education, William Angliss Institute, Melbourne, Australia
The intention of this research note is to explore two essential elements of a winery’s cellar door tasting room environment: first, the skills, knowledge, and personal attributes required by tasting room representatives, and second, how to develop meaningful social experiences for the wine tourist within the service environment of the cellar door tasting room. This note offers a discourse concerning the blend of these two elements, which proposes a new “-scape,” the cellardoorscape, a microfocus on a particular service environment within a specific winery’s winescape. To acknowledge an additional distinguishable “-scape” within the winescape provides some advantages. An analysis of what composes a beneficial and operational cellardoorscape could assist in developing a framework to provide management direction to winery owners and companies on the vital infrastructure and human resource practices to improve circumstances for success.
Key words: Winescape; Human resources; Cellar door; Servicescape; Customer service
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