The aim of Tourism Analysis is to promote a forum for practitioners and academicians in the fields of Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH). As a interdisciplinary journal, it is an appropriate outlet for articles, research notes, and computer software packages designed to be of interest, concern, and of applied value to its audience of professionals, scholars, and students of LRTH programs the world over. The scope of the articles will include behavioral models (quantitative-qualitative), decision-making techniques and procedures, estimation models, demand-supply analysis, monitoring systems, expert systems and performance evaluation, assessment of site and destination attractiveness, new analytical tools, research methods and related areas such as validity and reliability, scale development, development of data collection instruments, methodological issues in cross-national and cross-cultural studies, and computer technology and use.
Ercan Sirakaya-Türk,Professor College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management University of South Carolina Columbia, SC, USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org REVIEWS EDITOR Keith Hollinshead,University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury Campus, Luton, UK
BOOK REVIEWS EDITOR Marcjanna M. Augustyn,Hull University Business School, Hull, UK
RESEARCH NOTES EDITOR Rich Harrill,International Tourism Research Institute, China Tourism Group, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
Kathleen L. Andereck,Arizona State University, USA Albert Assaf, University of Massachusetts, USA Guy Assaker,Lebanese American University, Lebanon Ernest Azzopardi, University of Malta, Malta Faruk Balli, Massey University, New Zealand Mark A. Bonn,Florida State University, USA Ilenia Bregoli,University of Lincoln, UK Juan Antonio Campos-Soria,University of Malaga, Spain Laurence Chalip,University of Illinois, USA Annie Chen,University of West London, UK Rachel J. C. Chen,University of Tennessee, USA Mingming Cheng,University of Otago, New Zealand Hwan-Suk Chris Choi, University of Guelph, Canada Germa Coenders,University of Girona, Spain Nuno Crespo, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal Jonathon Day,Purdue University, USA Giacomo Del Chiappa,University of Sassari, Italy Jinyang Deng,West Virginia University, USA Tarik Dogru,Boston University, USA Oleksandr Dorokhov, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Ukraine Yuksel Ekinci,University of Portsmouth, UK Erdogan H. Ekiz,King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia Matthias Fuchs,Mid Sweden University, Sweden Martina González-Gallarza Granizo,Universitat de Valéncia, Spain Ulrike Gretzel,University of Southern California, USA Huimin Gu,Beijing International Studies University, China Ulrich Gunter,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Rob Hallak,University of South Australia, Australia Tzung-Cheng Huan,National Chiayi University, Taiwan Tazim Jamal,Texas A&M University, USA SooCheong (Shawn) Jang,Purdue University, USA Pandora Kay,Deakin University, Australia Ksenia Kirillova,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Jennifer Laing,La Trobe University, Australia Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee,Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan Jun (Justin) Li,South China Normal University, China Vincent Magnini,Virginia Tech, USA Bruce Marti,University of Rhode Island, USA Xavier Matteucci,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Fang Meng,University of South Carolina, USA Yeganeh Morakabati, Bournemouth University, UK Ana María Munar,Copenhagen Business School, Denmark Jaume Rosselló Nadal, Universitat de Illes Balears, Spain Sarah Nicholls,Michigan State University, USA Harmen Oppewal,Monash University, Australia Ahmet Bulent Ozturk,University of Central Florida, USA Steven Pike,Queensland University of Technology, Australia Yaniv Poria,Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández,University of Jaén, Spain Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon,Curtin University, Australia Wiston Adrián Risso,University of the Republic, Uruguay José António C. Santos,Universidade do Algarve, Portugal Zvi Schwartz,University of Delaware, USA M. Joseph Sirgy,Virginia Tech, USA Vincent Wing Sun Tung,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR Anja Tuohino,University of Eastern Finland, Finland Shui-Ki Wan,Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR Kyle M. Woosnam,University of Georgia, USA Hung Che Wu,Sun Yat-sen University, China Anita Zehrer,MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Austria
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Seyhmus Baloglu,University of Nevada, USA
John C. Crotts,College of Charleston, USA Geoffrey I. Crouch(former co-editor), La Trobe University, Australia Larry Dwyer,Griffith University, Australia Daniel Fesenmaier(co-founding editor), University of Florida, USA Josef Mazanec,MODUL University Vienna, Austria Stephen L. J. Smith, University of Waterloo, Canada Harry Timmermans,Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands Muzaffer Uysal(co-founding editor), University of Massachusetts, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscript and figure/table files via our ManuscriptCentral website at: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/cogcomm-ta. Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Maximum word count for full-length manuscripts, including references, is approximately 7,000 words. Short manuscripts (Research Notes) should not exceed approximately 2,000 words.
A statement identifying the gap in the literature and your manuscript’s theoretical contribution should be included, preferable within the first few paragraphs of the text (or at least in the first two pages). The manuscript needs to make an original contribution to the theory and practice of Tourism Management and Policy.
Tourism Analysis is an English language journal. Authors not fluent in English are expected to have their manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English before submitting.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters or less should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Provide an abstract 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables and figures. Figures and tables can also be provided as separate files (see below).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London, UK: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book: Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Internet source: United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2015). Tourism driving trade, fostering development and connecting people. Retrieved from http://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284417247
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color. [Note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Include a figure legend for each figure at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate figure legends or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include tables in a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not embed tables within the text of the manuscript.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Analysis are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Analysis have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Analysis is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH), and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-analysis under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
SPECIAL ISSUE SMART TOURISM BUSINESSES (SUSTAINABILITY, MEASURABILITY, AWARENESS, RECOGNITION, & TECHNOLOGY) Guest Editors: Valter Cantino, Elisa Giacosa, Simona Alfiero, S. M. Riad Shams, and Alberto Ferraris
Introduction: Smart Tourism Businesses (Sustainability, Measurability, Awareness, Recognition, & Technology) – 261 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843786 Valter Cantino,* Elisa Giacosa,* Simona Alfiero,* S. M. Riad Shams,† and Alberto Ferraris*†
*Department of Management, University of Torino, Torino, Italy †Department of International Economics and Management, Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg, Russia Is Tourism Going Green? A Literature Review on Green Innovation for Sustainable Tourism – 265 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843803 Giovanni Satta, Riccardo Spinelli, and Francesco Parola
Department of Economics and Business Studies, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
Adopting a sustainability perspective is of growing importance in developing tourism, as this can help drive value creation. Implementing “greener” and more sustainable strategies by tourism-based companies and destinations helps reflect the increasing environmental concerns influencing tourist behavior and consumption patterns. In this vein, ecofriendly initiatives represent a major focus of innovation for tourist companies and destinations in reshaping their strategies to reduce the environmental impact and manage relationships with key stakeholders. This article explores how academic research has addressed the role of green innovation in fostering the value creation activities of tourist companies and destinations. To do so, a systematic literature review was performed on 61 journal articles addressing green and sustainable innovation in the tourism industry. Findings support the academic debate on the role of green innovation for sustainable tourism by identifying the main streams and gaps in this research domain. The results return a picture of a fragmented research field—in terms of both theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches—that requires further investigation.
Key words: Green innovation; Sustainability; Sustainable tourism; Literature review
From Triple Bottom Line to Circular Monitoring in Evaluation of Food Tourism Events – 281 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843812 Damiano Cortese,* Valter Cantino,* Gianluca Solazzo,† and Franco Fassio‡
*Department of Management, University of Torino, Torino, Italy †Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy ‡Eco Design and Systemic Design, University of Gastronomic Sciences, Bra (CN), Italy
This article proposes a first step in analyzing the integration of the triple bottom line approach to event evaluation and the Big Data produced by event participants to create a circular and participatory monitoring process that utilizes technology to engage all stakeholders (citizens; visitors; producers; tourism organizations; policymakers; associations; and economic, social, and environmental scientists). Using a case study of Slow Food’s Terra Madre Salone del Gusto (TMSG) 2016 event, this article examines systemization of a control panel for local decision makers that encourages knowledge management and sharing for learning and sustainable entrepreneurship to create virtuous cycles and solve—through a democratic process—the typical risk of political (mis)interpretation of socioeconomic event impact measurement.
Wine and the “Spirit” of the Territory: The Langhe Case as a Successful Wine Tourism Destination “System” – 291 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843821 Elisa Giacosa,* Matteo Rossi,† Giuseppe Festa,‡ and Alberto Ferraris*§
*Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy †Department of Law, Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods, University of Sannio, Benevento, Italy ‡Department of Scienze Economiche e Statistiche, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy §Ural Federal University, Russia
The emerging importance of wine tourism clearly affects not only wineries but also, and above all, wine territories. When this happens, the territory can become not only a wine tourism destination but also a wine tourism destination “system.” Thus, the article’s focus is to deeply analyze the successful and internationally famous Italian case of Piedmont (Italy) as a wine tourism destination and more specifically the area of Langhe as a wine tourism destination “system.” There are two main findings of this research. First, we have verified why the Langhe is more than an emerging wine tourism destination through a theoretical/empirical framework and the natural systemic functioning for the normal essence of this territory. In addition, we have also verified how the “business model” of this wine tourism destination system is sustainable, considering that this area has been able to reengineer its way of surviving and growing, putting wine at the center of this restructuring. This research has several theoretical and practical implications. First, it emphasizes the role of different common goods in the creation of a successful wine tourism destination system. Practical implications may involve various types of stakeholders, and the main implications concern both private and public operators.
Key words: Wine and food tourism; Territory; Commons; Wine businesses; Food businesses; Langhe, Alba Street Food: A Tool for Promoting Tradition, Territory, and Tourism – 305 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843858 Simona Alfiero,* Alessandro Bonadonna,* Massimo Cane,* and Agata Lo Giudice†
*Department of Management, University of Torino, Torino, Italy †Department of Quality and Operations Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Around 2.5 billion people worldwide consume street food every day, thanks to it being low cost, easily available, and convenient. Street food also has high socioeconomic value, as it fosters preservation of the local cultural and food heritage, resulting in increased benefits from tourism and strengthened links with the territory. Two street food operators were reviewed, using the Business Model Canvas (BMC), to investigate street food in Italy and draw public attention to the current situation, highlighting what is needed to counteract flattening of flavors, to promote tourism and safeguard local identity. This initial study aims to identify the unique aspects of the street food business and to describe its close links to its surroundings.
Key words: Street food; Outdoor market; Tradition; Territory; Tourism Logics Hindering Digital Transformation in Cultural Heritage Strategic Management: An Exploratory Case Study – 315 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843876 Paola De Bernardi,* Alberto Bertello,* and S. M. Riad Shams†
*Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italia †Department of International Economics and Management, Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Museums play an important role in tourist flows, especially in cities that are famous for their cultural heritage. To valorize their role, these cultural institutions should open themselves to visitors as vectors of social, educational, and entertainment values. In particular, museums need to reinvent how they transmit information about their collections and how they engage visitors, keeping in mind the opportunities triggered by digitalization. Digital technologies could in fact be a powerful tool to assist in adopting a visitor-oriented approach and to stimulate a two-way communication. This article aims to analyze the extent of digitalization that should be integrated in museums’ communication strategies, and to recognize the logics hindering digital transformation in cultural heritage strategic management. We developed an exploratory case study, focused on museums in Turin, Italy, gathering online data through institutional reports, museum websites, and social media, as well as onsite data mainly from semistructured interviews with museum managers. The research shows that most of the interviewees understand the strategic role of digitalization for museum development; however, the level of digital readiness remains low. Alongside the well-known systemic financial deficit of cultural institutions, there are other critical factors that hinder the integration of digitalization processes in the cultural heritage management. Common barriers include the presence of institutional pressures, and the lack of organizational and managerial coordination between different departments and functions that should be involved in the development of digital strategies and their integration in the strategic planning systems of museums. This research offers insights to tackle these challenges, allowing museums to compete in the international context of the cultural and heritage tourism.
Key words: Museum digitalization; Organizational transformation; Cultural strategic management; Cultural tourism; Digital strategy A Ticket to Coffee: Stakeholder View and Theoretical Framework of Coffee Tourism Benefits – 329 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843830 Elena Candelo, Cecilia Casalegno, Chiara Civera, and Giacomo Büchi
Department of Management, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
This study is focused on the issue of agritourism in developing countries, which is a growing phenomenon and an understudied topic by the academic literature. By developing an investigation on coffee tourism based on multiple stakeholder perspectives around the subject, we contribute to further the debate over potentialities and benefits of coffee tourism development. We applied grounded theory methodology and through an iterated process involving literature review, a case study on Costa Rica, interviews with coffee experts, and a survey with European tourists, we designed a theoretical framework of the benefits that coffee tourism can have on both local farmers, who are vulnerable and low-power stakeholders within the coffee supply chain, and on actual and potential coffee tourists. Our research pointed out that empowerment and cooperation, business diversification, sustainability, and creation of a destination image are the four main benefits for the local communities of farmers and their families and are also perceived to be creating favorable and attracting conditions for tourists.
Key words: Agritourism; Coffee tourism; Vulnerable stakeholders; Developing countries; Grounded theory New Technologies in Smart Tourism Development: The #iziTRAVELSicilia Experience – 341 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843867 Sonia C. Giaccone* and Elisa Bonacini†
*Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania, Catania, Italy †History Department, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
This article deals with the topic of SMART tourism and focuses on the role of digital storytelling platforms in cultural heritage promotion and content cocreation. It examines izi.TRAVEL web-based platform and its app, exploring the case of a participatory bottom-up project in Sicily. Launched as #iziTRAVELSicilia, the project aimed at bridging the gap in digital communication and promoting Sicilian cultural heritage and tourist attractions. It involved thousands of local people as “digital Ciceroni,” representing the “heritage communities” cited by the Faro Convention, and could be recognized as good practice of cultural content and value cocreation. The article also investigates how a digital participatory platform can develop sustainability and awareness in SMART tourism, by stimulating people’s involvement in cultural heritage promotion and participation in cultural content cocreation. This research offers both theoretical and empirical contributions. It contributes to the debate on tourism management strategies by enhancing knowledge about innovative and participatory marketing tools. Furthermore, the article offers insights for policy makers on the possibility for defining territorial promotion strategies through the active involvement of both local people and tourists.
Key words: izi.TRAVEL; Digital participatory platform; Storytelling; Cultural heritage; Digital tourism
Corporate Governance Mechanisms and Performance in Air Management Companies: A fsQCA Approach – 355 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843885 Giovanni Ossola, Guido Giovando, and Chiara Crovini
Department of Management, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
This article examines the role of governance mechanisms and economic variables in financial performance of air management companies in Italy. The research draws on corporate governance theory, stakeholder theory, and performance analysis in the airport industry. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to analyze a sample of Italian air management companies. Data were extracted from AIDA database, public reports, and corporate governance documents. Results confirm that different combinations of governance mechanisms, number of passengers, and number of employees can yield similar financial performance. This research also identifies the most significant items that can impact the financial performance, and the relationships among governance mechanisms, and financial performance of those companies.
Customer Perceptions of the Albergo Diffuso Concept: What Makes the Difference in Terms of Service Excellence? – 367 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511864843902 Cinzia Vallone* and Valerio Veglio†
*Department of Business and Law, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy †Faculty of Economics and Management, Free University of Bozen, Bozen, Italy
This research introduces an innovative model of sustainable tourism called “Albergo Diffuso,” a “made in Italy” concept of hospitality that exploits tangible and intangible local resources and is oriented toward the revitalization and recovery of the country’s existing heritage. In the study, 130 customer reviews were analyzed to understand the sentiments and perceptions of customers regarding the Albergo Diffuso principle and its services in practice. Specific attention was paid to evaluating services that had garnered negative customer reviews to identify potential new strengths and aspects of the approach that could be implemented in the future. The main findings confirm that, overall, customers who particularly appreciate this alternative model of hospitality value authenticity over comfort. Additionally, the fact that the Albergo Diffuso scheme is introducing new business models that are completely different from the traditional ones is very much appreciated from a managerial perspective.
Key words: Albergo Diffuso; Sustainability; Customer perception; Customer satisfaction; Sentiment analysis Managing Smart Service Ecosystems Through Technology: How ICTs Enable Value Cocreation – 377 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511865533103 Orlando Troisi, Mara Grimaldi, and Antonella Monda
Department of Business Sciences, Management & Innovation Systems/DISA-MIS, University of Salerno, Fisciano (SA), Italy
Due to the recognized influence of technology on value cocreation (S-D logic), the work aims at applying service ecosystems view to the analysis of the tourism sector (redefined as smart tourism). The main goals of the study are: 1) to detect ICTs’ active role in combining with the other ecosystems’ elements (actors, resource integration, and institutions); 2) to investigate ICTs’ integration in overall corporate and value cocreation strategies. The empirical research adopts a case study methodology and is based on interviews administered to 10 managers from the bed and breakfast (B&B) sector in Salerno. The results show that ICTs (in our sample) act as: 1) key levers to foster the dynamic integration of resources among actors based on the active reshaping of institutions, and 2) strategic tools to enhance value cocreation from predelivery to postdelivery. The findings reveal ICTs’ influence on the main ecosystems’ elements and on the dynamic integration among actors, knowledge exchange, and institutions. Therefore, the impact of technology on value cocreation practices, until now relatively unexplored from a practical point of view, is shown. Moreover, observing how managers in the sample employ ICTs in the different phases of delivery the work can provide significant insights on how the emergence of value cocreation can be fostered and monitored constantly. The work entails both theoretical and managerial implications. In the first place, it offers insights on the different kind of value cocreation practices fostered and generated using ICTs in business processes. In the second place, it sheds light on how managers can: optimize knowledge exchange to enable cocreation; monitor the emersion of cocreation in real time; and foster service improvement and innovation.
Key words: Service ecosystems; Smart tourism; Smart tourism ecosystems; Information and communication technologies (ITCs); Value cocreation Halal Tourism: An Opportunity for the Global Tourism Industry – 395 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511865533112 Paolo Pietro Biancone, Silvana Secinaro, Maha Radwan, and Mohamad Kamal
Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Halal tourism (tourism that respects the principles of Muslims) has become the focus of attention worldwide. In recent years, Halal tourism has been widely seen as one of the strongest export markets for this type of tourism. This new tourist style is meant for hotels and resorts that are keen to not offer any programs, meals, food, or activities that are contrary to Islamic law. This study focuses on constructing a framework for best practices in the Halal tourism industry through a qualitative approach by comparing six developed Halal tourism countries, three Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and three non-OIC (Malaysia, UAE, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and the UK). The study contributes by proposing an index for the best practices in order to access tourism Halal market by countries that are not developed yet in this industry.
Key words: Halal tourism; Halal; Muslims; Shariah; Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and non-OIC countries Health Tourism and Thermal Heritage: Assessing Italian Spas With Innovative Multidisciplinary Tools – 405 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511865533121 Emilio Faroldi, Viola Fabi, Maria Pilar Vettori, Marco Gola, Andrea Brambilla, and Stefano Capolongo
Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Milan, Italy
The recent evolution of European health policies and tourism market trends highlights the increasing attention to health promotion strategies along with healthcare tourism innovation. Thermal industry, considered as a set of places of care, represents a possible field for the integration of territorial health tourism services, thanks to its border-crossing connotation and its recognition by the European Commission as main subsector of health tourism. Although Italy represents one of the most attractive European health tourism destination, the thermal sector is still underdeveloped, in extremely heterogeneous and fragmented conditions, unable to catalyze socioeconomic potentialities as well as optimize the use of relevant built heritage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable tools and decision-making models for improving the sector in terms of health, tourism and territorial qualities. Starting from previous studies, the aim of the article is to present the development of archiTHERMability tool and discuss the results of the application on different typologies of thermal facilities. The methodological path followed three steps: (a) a review was conducted among different assessment tools to understand the state of the art; (b) the existing Italian thermal heritage was mapped, and appropriate criteria and macroareas were selected and weighted based on interviews structured with multidisciplinary experts in architecture/territory/management areas; (c) the tool was tested on two different categories of thermal facilities. The tool application on four different thermal facilities highlighted, as expected, the relevance of the managerial field. Nevertheless, the importance of the territorial context and its levels of accessibility plays a fundamental role in the structure’s characterization. ArchiTHERMability hence represents an innovative tool for analyzing and understanding the Italian thermal heritage potentialities. Further investigation is necessary to test the tool on a wider sample and with different weights of criteria.
Key words: Health tourism; Health promotion; Italian spas; Territorial offer; Evaluation tool The Importance of Changing Perspectives: Non-EU Ecolabel-Certified Establishments in the Hospitality Industry – 421 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354219X15511865533130 Enrica Vesce, Chiara Giachino, Riccardo Beltramo, and Piergiorgio Re
Department of Management, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
This study investigates how non-Ecolabel-certified establishments in the EU view the role of certification in the hospitality industry. The authors identified the strengths and weaknesses of the EU Ecolabel through structured questionnaires sent to both Ecolabel-certified and noncertified establishments in Piedmont, Italy. The originality of the study lies in the fact that the analysis was carried out mainly on establishments that have chosen not to adopt the certification. Their point of view is the most useful for gaining an understanding of the phenomenon, identifying effective initiatives, and investigating customers’ perceptions. The findings contribute to the literature by providing a new perspective on non-Ecolabel establishments. From a managerial perspective, the study provides interesting insights for institutions and policymakers regarding the management and potential impacts of ecolabeling in the tourism sector, as well as the important factors to be considered by establishments in their marketing strategies.
Key words: European ecolabel; Tourism; Hospitality; Consumer awareness
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