Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. The editors adopt a purposefully broad scope that welcomes readers and contributors from diverse disciplines and who are receptive in a wide variety of research methods. While potential cultural issues and identities are unlimited, there is a requirement that their consideration should relate to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also particularly welcome. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the editors recognize the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment.
The journal publishes high-quality research and applies a double-blind refereeing process. Tourism, Culture & Communication consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
EDITORIALBOARD JeromeAgrusa, University of Hawaii at Manoa,USA ElizabethAgyeiwaah,MacauUniversityofScienceandTechnology,Macau TraceyBerno,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand WuBihu,PekingUniversity,China DavidBojanic,UniversityofTexasatSanAntonio,USA ErikCohen,HebrewUniversity,Israel ChrisCooper,OxfordBrooksUniversity,UK JenniferCraik,RMITUniversity,Australia GrahamDann,FinmarkUniversityCollege,Norway KadirDin,UniversityofUtara,Malaysia HillaryDuCros,UniversityofNewBrunswick,Canada David Harrison, Middlesex University, UK Anne-MarieHede,VictoriaUniversity,Australia WilliamG.Feighey,Tourism21,Switzerland ThorFlognfeldt,LillehammerCollege,Norway DavidHarrison,UniversityoftheSouthPacific,Fiji JafarJafari,UniversityofWisconsin-Stout,USA MyriamJansen-Verbeke,CatholicUniversityLeuven,Belgium AlanLew,NorthernArizonaUniversity,USA AlastairMorrison,PurdueUniversity,USA WienduNuryanti,InternationalCentreforCulture&Tourism(ICCT),Indonesia AbrahamPizam,UniversityofCentralFlorida,USA Stephen Pratt, University of the South Pacific, Fiji BrentRitchie,UniversityofCalgary,Canada GlennRoss,JamesCookUniversity,Australia ChrisRyan,UniversityofWaikato,NewZealand CarlaSantos,UniversityofIllinoisatUrbana-Champaign,USA TonySeaton,UniversityofBedfordshire,UK TomSelanniemi,UniversityofJyvaskyla,Finland MyraShackley,NottinghamTrentUniversity,UK DavidSimmons,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand TejVirSingh,CentreforTourismResearch&Development,India ValeneSmith,CaliforniaStateUniversity,USA PeterSpearritt,UniversityofQueensland,Australia
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically and in Word format by email to the joint editors-in-chief, Professor Brian King and Assistant Professor WantaneeSuntikul at firstname.lastname@example.org. The submission of manuscripts, figures, and tables should follow the guidelines noted below.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. Maximum word count for article submission is 7,500. Because manuscripts are sent out for blind review, submissions should include a cover page that includes only the title. Submissions should include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. It is important to note that figures and tables should not be incorporated within the text of the manuscript. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, and the names of all authors and corresponding affiliation(s) for each contributor, which should include Department/School/College, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete postal mailing address and email address must be included for the corresponding author (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Submissions should include an abstract of up to 300 words. This will represent the content of the manuscript in abbreviated form. It should include major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations, followed by supporting details of the research method, scope and purpose, as appropriate. Three to five key words that are suitable for indexing purposes should be supplied.
Text: All main and subheadings should be clearly indicated. The APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines should be followed for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends and figures (or provide figures in a separate file), and tables.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, following the examples that are set out below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text forquoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Please note that names within parentheses should appear in alphabetical order, NOT listed chronologically.
Journal Article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book:Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Materials: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be includedat the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism, Culture & Communication are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although the publisher and editorial board make every effort to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
PEER REVIEW POLICY
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
To maintain high peer reviewing standards, Tourism, Culture & Communication (TCC) uses a double-blind review process, whereby the identity of the reviewers is unknown to the authors and authors identities are unknown to the reviewers. Peer review is defined as the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure the publication of high-quality scientific research.
The TCC peer review process is as follows:
An article is first checked for formatting and required acknowledgments by the Journal Administrator, after which it is forwarded to the Joint-Editors-in-Chief (JEIC).
The JEIC select between 2 and 4 reviewers based on key words, article content and peer review track record. to provide a detailed assessment of the paper. The reviewers are always experts in their field and may be members of the TCC editorial board. Reviewers will have no history of conflict with the authors of the paper and should be in good standing, based on their scholarly track record.
The comments received from the reviewers (a minimum of 2) will be received within 4-6 weeks. They are delivered to the JEIC who draw upon these comments to assess the merit of the manuscript, along with their own assessment. Special attention is given to declarations of potential conflict of interest. Where applicable, the JEIC will verify statements about appropriate approvals received in the case of research using human subjects. Likewise, claims about the use of appropriate statistical testing are ensured.
On receipt of relevant and sufficient reviewer comments, the JEIC will reach a collective decision based on a close examination and a determination is then conveyed to the authors. The authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision: accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection. Authors may be invited to resubmit their work as a research note at the discretion of the JEIC. The comments to authors are blinded. The identity of the JEIC (and where appropriate the applicable editorial associate) is revealed in the decision letter.
Prospective TCC reviewers have the opportunity to read and evaluate current research in their area of expertise when it is at an early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. Anyone interested in becoming a reviewer for TCC is invited to contact the JEIC Brian King and Wantanee Suntikul, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China at email@example.com.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Culture & Communication have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Culture & Communication is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in interdisciplinary perspectives in areas of interest that may branch away from traditionally recognized national and indigenous cultures, for example, cultural attitudes toward the management of tourists with disabilities, gender aspects of tourism, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-culture-a-communication under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Tour Guide Perspectives on Representations of Slavery at a Heritage Museum – 1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15692567324895
Department of Geography and Geology, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA
In recent years, scholars have called for greater recognition and representation of the role of slavery and the contributions of the enslaved at a multitude of heritage sites in, and outside, of the US. The framework of difficult heritage, as grounded in difficult knowledge, draws attention to the problems associated with the processes of heritage-making, including the challenges faced by those tasked with representing traumatic pasts as well as by those who encounter the representations. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study was to obtain the perspectives of tour guides regarding a greater representation of slavery at one possible heritage museum, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum in Huntsville, Texas, USA. These guides are crucial actors because they are responsible for both representing the heritage of slavery and managing a potentially complex range of visitor responses to these representations. The study drew from participant observation of guided tours of the museum property and semistructured interviews with museum staff, including those individuals who are directly responsible for guiding tours or play a supporting role in tours. While the guides indicated that they felt slavery was, indeed, an appropriate topic at the site, they expressed concerns about expanding representation of the topic. These concerns included the logistical constraints faced on tours, their knowledge of and comfort with the topic, and their perceptions about visitor expectations for the museum.
Key words: Difficult knowledge; Difficult heritage; Heritage museum; Representations of slavery; Tour guides
Souvenirs in Ghana: Tourists’ Choices and Concerns – 15 DOI: http://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15554157596227
Mawufemor Abla Kugbonu, Christopher Mensah, and Gifty Nti
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ho Technical University, Ho, Ghana
Souvenirs represent a vast collection of items that are geographically embedded with variations across the regions of the world. The purpose of this study is to assess the choice of souvenirs by international tourists in Accra, Ghana. The research adopted the descriptive design and the data were sourced from 196 inbound international tourists who were systematically sampled in Accra between March and April 2016 using self-administered questionnaires. The result shows that souvenirs purchased by tourists were jewelry, cloth, clothing, wood carvings, and pictorial images. However, tourists were concerned about the aggressiveness of vendors, discriminatory pricing system, authenticity of souvenirs, and similarity in souvenirs with little differentiation.
Understanding the Role of Asian Food in Western Countries – 27 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15554157596218
Blanquerna School of Communication and International Relations, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Department of Communication and Media Studies, Fordham University, New York, NY, USA
For centuries the migration of Asians to Western countries has resulted in their acquisition of the Eastern culinary heritage. Consequently, Asian products and dishes now play a huge role in Western food habits. This is particularly applicable to street food culture, which is a pathway for culinary globalization. This article aims to explore how Asian produce is represented in Western urban food landscapes. To achieve this the study has been based on the observation of a street food event in the city of New York.
Negotiation Strategies and Constraints for Solo Female Travelers in Africa – 35 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15692567324895 1943-4146
Cecilia Ngwira, Serene Tse, and Thanakarn Vongvisitsin
School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
This article presents constraints of solo female travelers to Africa based on their blogs reflecting their pretravel and during-travel constraints and the negotiations they adopted to energize their desire to travel to and within African countries. The study employs netnographic research methodology to understand complex social phenomena and assist researchers in developing themes from female travel bloggers’ experiences of solo travels to Africa. Using content analysis, the findings show that the constraints were mainly interpersonal, external, as well as intrapersonal. Family, friends, and the media presented solo women travelers with these constraints about Africa, which is perceived as a socially constructed “men’s space.” The study finds that despite these constraints, the bloggers felt adventurous and were satisfied with their African experience.
Key words: Solo female travelers; Constraints; Negotiation strategies; Blogs; Africa
The Aboriginalization of Inquiry: Tourism Research by and for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People – 51 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15554157596236
Lecturer in Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
In this “hot issue” article, Jacobsen argues that even after decades of inquiry the level of Tourism Studies disconnect from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is troubling. He maintains that (relieved of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander voices for so long) the received literature on tourism is still dominated by non-indigenous academics who continue to forge a discourse based on “Othering.” The purpose of his critical review article is to substantively engage with the disconnect that seemingly plagues inquiry about tourism for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. This Jacobsen piece thereby exposes subtle, overarching misgivings observable in the literature underscored by the presupposed “Othering” of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as “inferior people.” This hot issue article therefore moves away from discourses of deficit, inertia, imposed Western-centric theorization, and superficial inquiry towards the Aboriginalization of research into tourism as inquiry that is emancipative and situated within and emanating from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews. In providing a number of outcomes from a 6-year national research program in remote Australia, Jacobson reflects on their value as the basis for “leadership” and for “future broad directions.” To Jacobsen, the Aboriginalization of tourism inquiry must be based on cultural integrity in order to drive the discourse of enabling, cultural ways of business, and appropriate leadership. This hot issue article thus draws attention to the urgent need for Tourism Studies practice to be genuinely committed to the well-being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, cultures, country, and knowledge. [Abstract by the Reviews Editor]
Key words: Aboriginalization; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander; Tourism studies; Emancipative inquiry; Decolonization CRITICAL BOOK REVIEW Contemporary Cases in Heritage(Brian Garrod and Alan Fyall) – 57
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