Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. The editors adopt a purposefully broad scope that welcomes readers and contributors from diverse disciplines and who are receptive in a wide variety of research methods. While potential cultural issues and identities are unlimited, there is a requirement that their consideration should relate to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also particularly welcome. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the editors recognize the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment.
The journal publishes high-quality research and applies a double-blind refereeing process. Tourism, Culture & Communication consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
EDITORIALBOARD JeromeAgrusa, University of Hawaii at Manoa,USA ElizabethAgyeiwaah,MacauUniversityofScienceandTechnology,Macau TraceyBerno,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand WuBihu,PekingUniversity,China DavidBojanic,UniversityofTexasatSanAntonio,USA ErikCohen,HebrewUniversity,Israel ChrisCooper,OxfordBrooksUniversity,UK JenniferCraik,RMITUniversity,Australia GrahamDann,FinmarkUniversityCollege,Norway KadirDin,UniversityofUtara,Malaysia HillaryDuCros,UniversityofNewBrunswick,Canada David Harrison, Middlesex University, UK Anne-MarieHede,VictoriaUniversity,Australia WilliamG.Feighey,Tourism21,Switzerland ThorFlognfeldt,LillehammerCollege,Norway DavidHarrison,UniversityoftheSouthPacific,Fiji JafarJafari,UniversityofWisconsin-Stout,USA MyriamJansen-Verbeke,CatholicUniversityLeuven,Belgium AlanLew,NorthernArizonaUniversity,USA AlastairMorrison,PurdueUniversity,USA WienduNuryanti,InternationalCentreforCulture&Tourism(ICCT),Indonesia AbrahamPizam,UniversityofCentralFlorida,USA Stephen Pratt, University of the South Pacific, Fiji BrentRitchie,UniversityofCalgary,Canada GlennRoss,JamesCookUniversity,Australia ChrisRyan,UniversityofWaikato,NewZealand CarlaSantos,UniversityofIllinoisatUrbana-Champaign,USA TonySeaton,UniversityofBedfordshire,UK TomSelanniemi,UniversityofJyvaskyla,Finland MyraShackley,NottinghamTrentUniversity,UK DavidSimmons,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand TejVirSingh,CentreforTourismResearch&Development,India ValeneSmith,CaliforniaStateUniversity,USA PeterSpearritt,UniversityofQueensland,Australia
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically and in Word format by email to the joint editors-in-chief, Professor Brian King and Assistant Professor WantaneeSuntikul at firstname.lastname@example.org. The submission of manuscripts, figures, and tables should follow the guidelines noted below.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. Because manuscripts are sent out for blind review, submissions should include a cover page that includes only the title. Submissions should include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. It is important to note that figures and tables should not be incorporated within the text of the manuscript. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, and the names of all authors and corresponding affiliation(s) for each contributor, which should include Department/School/College, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete postal mailing address and email address must be included for the corresponding author (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Submissions should an abstract of up to 300 words. This will represent the content of the manuscript in abbreviated form. It should include major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations, followed by supporting details of the research method, scope and purpose, as appropriate. Three to five key words that are suitable for indexing purposes should be supplied.
Text: All main and subheadings should be clearly indicated. The APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines should be followed for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends and figures (or provide figures in a separate file), and tables.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, following the examples that are set out below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text forquoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Please note that names within parentheses should appear in alphabetical order, NOT listed chronologically.
Journal Article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book:Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Materials: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be includedat the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism, Culture & Communication are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although the publisher and editorial board make every effort to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Culture & Communication have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Culture & Communication is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in interdisciplinary perspectives in areas of interest that may branch away from traditionally recognized national and indigenous cultures, for example, cultural attitudes toward the management of tourists with disabilities, gender aspects of tourism, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-culture-a-communication under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Tourism and Cultural Dynamics: An Introduction – 227 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15542075992960
Rami K. Isaac* and Vincent Platenkamp†
*Centre for Sustainability, Tourism and Transport, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands †Cross-Cultural Understanding, Academy for Tourism, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands
The Changing Role of Tourism Policy in Singapore’s Cultural Development: From Explicit to Insidious – 231 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15542140077648
School of Social Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
In the last three decades, Singapore has transformed from a cultural desert to a global arts city, thanks significantly to tourism. The Singapore Tourism Board was proactively shaping the cultural dynamics and policy of Singapore until 2012. But since then its official role in the country’s arts and cultural development almost disappeared. The disappearance of tourism interests in cultural development stems apparently from years of resistance, dialogues, and negotiation. This study argues that the tourism authorities are still maintaining influence in the cultural dynamics and development of Singapore by reframing its involvement. It insidiously asserts its influence by enticing members of the arts community with resources, opportunities, and economic support to participate in the tourism industry. This article provides a dialogical understanding of how tourism has shaped Singapore’s cultural dynamics. Cultural dynamics and tourism development in Singapore must be understood within economic and social engineering perimeters defined by the government. The tourism authorities do not only work with other government authorities, they use similar techniques in managing and controlling cultural development in the city-state. The Bakhtinian Dialogic Imagination is the heuristic that organizes and structures the complex and dynamic tourism–culture relations in this study. Three dialogical concepts—carnivalesque, heteroglossia, and polyphony—are used. Besides documenting the ongoing evolution of tourism in the cultural development of Singapore, this study questions the effectiveness of the arm’s length approach to managing cultural development. The Singapore case shows that there are subtle economic and political ways to go round that principle.
Key words: Cultural policy; Carnivalesque; Dialogic imagination; Heteroglossia; Polyphony; Touristification
Boundaries Versus Borders: Transforming Ethnic Cultural Representation Into Place Identity Through Tourism – 243 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15542140077666
Min (Lucy) Zhang
Department of Tourism and Geography, University Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
This article addresses the complexity and dynamics of maintaining, representing, and differentiating identities in border territories, which are subject to multiple and heterogeneous mobility flows. Although there have been many studies of host–guest relationships in tourism, the field of intergroup relations within a heterogeneous host community remain hardly investigated. The Jing ethnic group is involved in the tourism industry of Dongxing, a border city between Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regions of China and Vietnam, a multiethnic area where Han people have intermarried extensively with other ethnic groups and migrants from surrounding regions. Barth’s ethnic boundary theory is employed in this research to unravel how tourism plays a significant role in maintaining Jing cultural boundaries, based on broader social interactions. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and participant observations. Observation notes and interview transcripts are analyzed using content analysis. The main findings indicate that: 1) tourism provides an important channel for Jing people to interact within the social structure; 2) tourism amplifies ethnic identities and reinforces the boundaries of ethnic culture; 3) tourism creates a “time–space compression” for ethnic groups to reflect on their own culture; 4) as a minor alternative source of income, tourism facilitates the negotiation of identity. It is found that when the representative community has intrinsic strength in terms of economic condition and cultural confidence, the challenge for tourist destinations is how to construct a collective identity (or even brand) to maximize the benefits created by the common activities that all host communities engaged in.
Key words: Mobility; Host community; Heritage; Social boundaries; Identity; Representation
“Teasing Out” What Cultural Heritage Landscapes and Historic Sites Have “to Say”: A Probe Using Opportunities From Epistemological Pluralism – 253 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15554157596182
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia
The principal purpose of this article is speculative in that it experiments with an approach to “teasing out” what cultural heritage landscapes and historic sites have “to say” and to overcome what has been described as a circumstance in which landscapes and sites do not tell their stories clearly. An approach to “teasing out” has been fashioned to examine how the cultural dynamic of a previous historical period has come to be “a” cultural dynamic of the present as it is presented through history-linked and heritage-based tourism and as it becomes a constituent of “consuming history” through popular culture. Fashioning the “teasing out” process has drawn on the opportunities and skill sets from geography and semiotics as they have been reconfigured as a combined investigative and interpretive entity and as a form of epistemological pluralism. The special aptitudes of these disciplinary areas have been twinned to expose many of the important symbols of the story of the Australian bushranger-cum-outlaw Ned Kelly, matching the original disposition of them to the modern telling of the story through tourism, and in so doing achieving enhanced levels of perception, comprehension, depth, richness, and utility, and inclusive of both principal issues and subtle nuances. A concluding assessment of the opportunities that can be attributed to epistemological pluralism is accompanied by caveats; the purpose of these is to promote awareness about the need for due diligence in forging suitable disciplinary combinations.
Battir: Creative Resistance in a Front Line—Opportunities and Dilemmas of Tourism Development in a Conflict Zone – 265 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15554157596164
Andreas F. Kuntz
Free Lance Researcher, Trainer and Lecturer, Herford, Germany
Tourism development in a conflict zone poses challenges. The structural violence of occupation poses real threats to the existence of the village. Battir’s inhabitants can build on a tradition of nonviolent, creative resistance. Hasan Mustafa initiated creative resistance in 1948 and saved the village from destruction. In retelling the motivations, facts, and events in Battir 1948 a tour guide speaks also about creativity, community, and opportunities for change. In terms of economic dynamics of Holy Land tourism Battir’s inhabitants are excluded by Israeli marketing, while Palestinian marketing still needs profiling and fresh ideas. But meanwhile other dynamics appear in Battir: Inhabitants have started to react to the UNESCO World Heritage status of village lands and traditional agriculture, and offer services to visitors. Local products are sold and the beauty of the village can be enjoyed by sitting down with a cup of coffee. Because tourism is new to the village, the cultural dynamics unfolding could be influenced by the inhabitants if tourism would be formed consciously beyond the marketing for more visitors. The amazing story of Hasan Mustafa is an asset for a touristic Battir experience in the framework of a conflict-sensitive tourism. Is the immaterial inheritance, especially the stories about creative resistance, part of the future tourism product, an add-on to UNESCO World Heritage status? The stories still have to be put together to form a reflected narrative that motivates to recognize one’s own role in the conflict and the perspective towards change. Therefore, Palestinian tour guides can play a decisive role. This role and the impact of a reflected narrative cannot be underestimated. It is possible to contribute to an awareness of visitors beyond mere contact at a touristic site. Battir can be a sample for a tourism development that serves the village as a whole, if methods and ideas of conflict-sensitive tourism are applied. Inclusion of all stakeholders, a carefully developed strategy, and income for the community and the local government are important to maintain the UNESCO World Heritage landscape. Information about threats and the structure of violence need to be part of the touristic products. With a guided learning experience Battir can continue the inheritance of creative resistance.
Tourism and Gender Research in Brazil and Mexico – 277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15542140077530
Isis Arlene Díaz-Carrión* and Paola Vizcaino-Suárez†
*Facultad de Turismo y Mercadotecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Tijuana (B.C.), Mexico †Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK
Tourism and gender research emerged during the 1990s in the Anglophone academies. Despite the sociocultural improvement in gender studies, tourism and gender research remains a marginal and disarticulated subfield of studies three decades later, with limited impact on the broader tourism scholarship and on practical transformations at the destination level. In Latin America, tourism gender research was introduced towards the beginning of the 21st century and, apart from the limitations identified in the Anglophone academies, the lack of engagement with gender and feminist debates has contributed to marginalize this subfield of research. The gender dimensions of tourism have been examined mainly through social science frameworks. Even though tourism has been considered an interdisciplinary field of study, gender mainstreaming has been neglected as a relevant approach to research. Despite its limitations, tourism gender research in Latin America has made power relations visible in a wide array of tourism practices. The introduction of gender perspectives has facilitated the analysis of other hierarchical categories such as race, ethnicity, class, or sexual orientation. Drawing insights from a recent bibliometric analysis of the tourism and gender scholarship in Latin America for the period 2001–2015, this article continues a previous work and focuses on the production of the two leading countries in the region: Brazil and Mexico. Content analysis was conducted on a selection of 107 articles (64 from Brazil and 43 from Mexico). The purpose of the analysis was twofold: first, to identify the main research topics, and second, to examine the links with feminist or gender frameworks. Findings show these links are weak, and opportunities were detected to strengthen the association of tourism research with the social sciences through analysis that incorporate cultural and gender dimensions at the macro- or microlevels. Finally, we discuss areas for interdisciplinary collaboration with feminist traditions, such as intersectionality and transnationalism that may contribute to advance tourism gender research in the region.
From Cultural Governance to Cultural Tourism: Towards an Interpretation Perspective – 291 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15542140077657
Rui Su And Huifen (Helen) Cai
Middlesex Business School, Middlesex University, London, UK
The debate of “cultural turn” has recently drawn scholars’ attentions to the cultural dimension of tourism, particularly how and to what extent cultural symbols and languages make meaning in tourism production and consumption. This requires tourism scholars examining symbolic elements of culture and embedding them in tourism presentations, such as tourist products and service experiences. The authors attempt to address cultural dynamics between symbolism and signification and to illustrate their relationships within tourism through the studies of cultural governance and cultural tourism. Employing a qualitative approach with 85 semistructured interviews and secondary data, a case study of cultural tourism in Nanjing, China illustrates how the tourism and culture sectors selectively signify the tourism image—“A City of Universal Love”—with Nanjing’s cultural governance ideology. The interpretation and the marketing of this city tourism image also show several tensions—for example, the cultural sector holds greater power to represent own its interests, but is less successful in promoting interactive heritage experience to the domestic tourism market. This study offers a new insight of cultural dynamics, notably symbolism and signification dynamics influence governance, interpretation, and marketing of city tourism image.
Key words: Symbolism and signification; Cultural governance; Cultural tourism; Power relations; Interpretation; City tourism image
The Destruction of Buddhas: Dissonant Heritage, Religious or Political Iconoclasm? – 303 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15554157596173
Academy for Tourism, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands
This article attempts to explore the main impulses that might have led to the destruction of Buddha statues by Taliban in the Bamiyan Valley of Afghanistan. Drawing on existing literature, and anecdotal evidence, this article suggests that the main impulses that have led to destruction are rather linked to the overall political context of that time (i.e., political iconoclasm) rather than to pure Islamic iconoclasm or an explicit condition of disharmony in heritage (i.e., dissonant heritage). First, the Taliban did not consider the statues as “their” cultural heritage. The act of destruction, therefore, cannot be subscribed to the Afghan cultural dynamics but rather to the political–religious ideology imported by Taliban from outside of the country. Secondly, it seemed that Mullah Omar was viewing the statues as a revenue source at the beginning and as a political bargain chip at the end. In both circumstances, religion seems not to have played the main role. Lastly, the destruction seems a political iconoclasm—that is, a political exploitation, if not a direct political act. The Taliban and especially their external allies were very well aware of the consequences of the act of destruction. It seems implausible to suggest that there were no religion and/or culture in play when ordering the destruction of the statues. The latter is the least what this article aims for. However, to conclude that the destruction was solely triggered by theological and cultural factors might also be improbable. The author does not, in any way, attempt to rationalize the act of destruction, let alone justify the barbaric act.
Key words: Afghanistan; Bamiyan Buddhas; Dissonant heritage; Consonant heritage; Islamic iconoclasm; Political iconoclasm; Religious iconoclasm
A Future Perspective on Tourism and Cultural Dynamics – 313 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341419X15542140077549
Rami K. Isaac* and Vincent Platenkamp†
*Centre for Sustainability, Tourism and Transport, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands †Cross-Cultural Understanding, Academy for Tourism, Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands
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