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Aims & Scope
Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. The editors adopt a purposefully broad scope that welcomes readers and contributors from diverse disciplines and who are receptive in a wide variety of research methods. While potential cultural issues and identities are unlimited, there is a requirement that their consideration should relate to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also particularly welcome. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the editors recognize the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment.
The journal publishes high-quality research and applies a double-blind refereeing process. Tourism, Culture & Communication consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
Brian King, PhD
Professor & Department Chair
Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University
600 John Kimbrough Boulevard, TAMO 2261, College Station, TX 77843
Dr. Wantanee Suntikul
Scholar in Residence
Carl H. Lindner College of Business,
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221
Emily Howell – firstname.lastname@example.org
Lindsay Turner,Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
CRITICAL REVIEWS EDITOR
Keith Hollinshead, Independent Scholar, England and Australia, Warwickshire, UK
BOOK AND MEDIA REVIEWS EDITOR
Stephen Pratt, University of Central Florida, USA
Jerome Agrusa, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Elizabeth Agyeiwaah, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau
Tracey Berno, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Wu Bihu, Peking University, China
David Bojanic, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA
Vicky Chen, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies (IFTM), Macau
ONG Chin-Ee, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
Erik Cohen, Hebrew University, Israel
Chris Cooper, Oxford Brooks University, UK
Jennifer Craik, RMIT University, Australia
Kadir Din, University of Utara, Malaysia
Hillary Du Cros, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Johan Edelheim, Hokkaido University, Japan
Anne-Marie Hede, Victoria University, Australia
William G. Feighey, Tourism 21, Switzerland
Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA
Myriam Jansen-Verbeke, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium
Frances Kong, Macau Institute for Tourism Studies, Macau
Alan Lew, Northern Arizona University, USA
Alastair Morrison, Purdue University, USA
Wiendu Nuryanti, International Centre for Culture & Tourism (ICCT), Indonesia
Abraham Pizam, University of Central Florida, USA
Greg Richards, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Tony Seaton, University of Bedfordshire, UK
David Simmons, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Valene Smith, California State University, USA
Peter Spearritt, University of Queensland, Australia
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit their manuscripts to the joint editor-in-chief, Professor Brian King and Assistant Professor Wantanee Suntikul at https://tcc.scholasticahq.com/for-authors. The submission of manuscripts, figures, and tables should follow the guidelines noted below.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. Because manuscripts are sent out for blind review, submissions should include a cover page that includes only the title. Submissions should include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. It is important to note that figures and tables should not be incorporated within the text of the manuscript. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
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Text: All main and subheadings should be clearly indicated. The APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines should be followed for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends and figures (or provide figures in a separate file), and tables.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, following the examples that are set out below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Bruckman, 2002) or (Alderman & Modlin, 2016; Cai, 2002; Laesser et al., 2009) or (Kahn, 2013, p. 38) (for quoted material). Please note that names within parentheses should appear in alphabetical order, NOT listed chronologically.
Journal Article: Parashar, A., Kumar, M., & Saluja, V. (2019). Discovering India through imagery in postcolonial travel writings. Tourism, Culture & Communication, 19(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X15536971539399
Book: Arnold-de Simine, S. (2013). Mediating memory in the museum: Trauma, empathy, nostalgia. Palgrave Macmillan.
Book chapter in edited book: Gallas, K. L., & Perry, J. D. (2014). Comprehensive content and contested historical narratives. In K. L. Gallas & J. D. Perry (Eds.), Interpreting slavery at museums and historic sites (pp. 1–20). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Internet Source: The Art of Travel. (2016). Solo female travel on rise: A report. https://artoftravel.tips/solo-female-travel/#.WgkIW1uCy71
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
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Tourism, Culture and Communication (TCC) Peer Review Policy
To maintain high peer reviewing standards, Tourism, Culture & Communication (TCC) uses a double-blind review process, whereby the identity of the reviewers is unknown to the authors and authors identities are unknown to the reviewers. Peer review is defined as the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure the publication of high-quality scientific research.
The TCC peer review process is as follows:
An article is first checked for formatting and required acknowledgments by the Journal Administrator, after which it is forwarded to the Joint-Editors-in-Chief (JEIC).
The JEIC select between 2 and 4 reviewers based on key words, article content and peer review track record. to provide a detailed assessment of the paper. The reviewers are always experts in their field and may be members of the TCC editorial board. Reviewers will have no history of conflict with the authors of the paper and should be in good standing, based on their scholarly track record.
The comments received from the reviewers (a minimum of 2) will be received within 4-6 weeks. They are delivered to the JEIC who draw upon these comments to assess the merit of the manuscript, along with their own assessment. Special attention is given to declarations of potential conflict of interest. Where applicable, the JEIC will verify statements about appropriate approvals received in the case of research using human subjects. Likewise, claims about the use of appropriate statistical testing are ensured.
On receipt of relevant and sufficient reviewer comments, the JEIC will reach a collective decision based on a close examination and a determination is then conveyed to the authors. The authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision: accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection. Authors may be invited to resubmit their work as a research note at the discretion of the JEIC. The comments to authors are blinded. The identity of the JEIC (and where appropriate the applicable editorial associate) is revealed in the decision letter.
Prospective TCC reviewers have the opportunity to read and evaluate current research in their area of expertise when it is at an early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. Anyone interested in becoming a reviewer for TCC is invited to contact the JEIC Brian King and Wantanee Suntikul, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China at email@example.com.
As a reviewer for Tourism, Culture & Communication, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Culture & Communication have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Culture & Communication is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in interdisciplinary perspectives in areas of interest that may branch away from traditionally recognized national and indigenous cultures, for example, cultural attitudes toward the management of tourists with disabilities, gender aspects of tourism, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-culture-a-communication under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
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Table of Contents:
Volume 22, Number 2
The Interface of Culture and Communication Through Tourism
Guest Editors: Jundan Jasmine Zhang and Adam Doering
Introduction: The Interface of Culture and Communication Through Tourism – 105
Jundan Jasmine Zhang* and Adam Doering
*Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
†Faculty of Tourism, Wakayama University, Wakayama, Japan
The introduction to this special issue explores why in an “age of communication” it has become increasingly important to revisit a somewhat lost sense of communication that we describe as the interface of culture and communication. Inspired by Karen Barad’s work and the diverse range of contributions to this special issue, we reflect on the fragmented, multiplied, and diffracted sense of communication that has emerged in recent years. We examine this emergent form of communication through three interlinking yet distinct areas of study: “affective communication,” “tourism media interface,” and “interface of the human and nonhuman.” Providing grounded empirical research alongside unique theoretical insights, the eight articles bring together a diverse and complex range of contexts that would otherwise not enter into conversation with one another. And yet in their own ways each contribution challenges how communication has been approached and perceived in specific tourism settings and opens up spaces for understanding communication as diffraction and differentiation rather than a coming together. By revisiting communication in this way, previous relationships embedded in tourism can be seen in new and interesting ways. The introduction to this special issue offers an initial exploratory conceptual framing of what we call the interface of culture and communication in effort to forefront new ways of thinking and engaging with culture and communication in tourism studies and beyond.
Key words: Critical tourism studies; Communication studies; Tourism culture; Intercultural communication; Diffraction
Cross-Cultural Communication Through Affect: The Potential for Postdisaster Tourism in Japan – 115
Annaclaudia Martini* and Anna Vainio†
*Department of History and Cultures (DiSCi), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
†School of East Asian Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
The success of tourism encounters can be aided by devising cross-cultural strategies so that conscious feelings (emotions) and subtle impressions (affects) of locals are communicated effectively to tourists. This article investigates how postdisaster tourism narratives, practices, and landmarks can be used to “attune” the feelings of culturally different groups. After the Triple Disaster of 2011 in the Tōhoku region of Japan, the recovering communities have used tours as a way to support the local economy, confront their loss, and overcome trauma. As global attention moves to new disasters, communities feel the need to attract more visitors and create new jobs for the locals. However, this has proven difficult: differences in expressing emotional responses caused tensions and dissatisfaction among locals and internationals, as locals feel misunderstood and tourists do not see their expectations met. This hinders the tourist encounter, which is seen by some of the communities as crucial, as they feel that “being able to tell their stories” and “being remembered” is a central tenet of the recovery process. In the case of Japan, we argue, affect can constitute an appropriate means to negotiate meaning and memory between Japanese and internationals. Affective elements are often overlooked by academics, as they are considered volatile and unstructured. There is no research that utilizes geographical and interdisciplinary theories of affect to gain an in-depth understanding in the ways to communicate heritage and memory cross-culturally in disaster sites, as well as rigorous and appropriate approaches to affective methods. Affect can benefit both locals and visitors, as it bridges understandings of the delicate and complex issues pertaining to disaster memory and heritage, and may lead to more socioculturally and politically sustainable approaches to planning, development, and management of tourism.
Key words: Cross-culturality; Affect; Japan; Postdisaster tourism; Heritage
“What Your Head!”: Signs of Hospitality in the Tourism Linguistic Landscapes of Rural Japan – 127
Adam Doering and Kurara Kishi
Faculty of Tourism, Wakayama University, Japan
This article explores signs of hospitality in the tourism linguistic landscape (LL) of the Kumano Kodo Pilgrimage Trail in Wakayama, Japan. We argue that the multilingualization of visible tourism public signage in this rural region raises important philosophical questions of hospitality. With the help of Jacque Derrida to navigate this terrain, we examine how rural communities communicate and negotiate hospitality in a rapidly internationalizing rural tourism destination. Combining photographic data, participant observation, and open-ended interviews, we offer a close reading of the tourism LL at three gathering points along the Nakahechi route: Shingu City station, Kumano Hongu Taisha, and the small village of Chikatsuyu. The article is structured as follows. We begin by defining LL studies and draw attention to the current research in tourism settings. Next, an overview of Derrida’s contribution to the philosophy of hospitality is presented, which acts as a guide for reading the trail’s tourism LL. The discussion then revolves around three main themes: the host as hostage to hospitality; the reproduction of the conditional hospitality through tourism LL; and the work of hospitality understood as an ethic of negotiating the threshold of the unconditional and conditional, the impossible and the unavoidable. Bringing together a philosophy of hospitality with tourism LL research, the article adds new theoretical perspectives to the study of LL. It also deepens our understandings of the relationship between hospitality, tourism, and linguistic landscapes.
Key words: Hospitality; Linguistic landscapes (LL); Rural tourism; Japan; Philosophizing tourism
Digital Tourism Communication and Democracy – 143
Ana Maria Munar* and Richard Ek†
*Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark
†Department of Geography, Media and Communication, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
Political philosophy is applied to analyze the democratic potential of tourism social media. This study shows that while these media have deliberative potential, they also reflect the postpolitical and postdemocratic condition in tourism digital communication. This analysis is illustrated through the discussion of three metaphors: the menu, the stranger, and the tourist-light. The menu represents the increased invasion of lifeworlds by the commercialization and corporate regulation of the tourism social Web. The stranger symbolizes the weak accountability of online communities. The tourist-light embodies the relevance of hedonism in virtual worlds. Social media contributes to digital narcissism and supports consumer centricity. Digital communication produces a sanitized version of tourism and entails a subtle constraint of political citizenship.
Key words: Social media; Political philosophy; Cyberactivism
The Dual Journey: Traveling On-Site and Online – 157
Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia
Travel is increasingly imagined as a sociotechnical practice wherein ICTs are integrated with experience. In this context, in addition to the movement of the traveler within and between places, and encounters with peoples, cultures, and landscapes, the activity of travel is constituted within various forms of online interactions. Emphasizing this point, emerging industry and theoretical paradigms such as “smart tourism” propose the use of social media and digital devices as ubiquitous and essential to the future of tourism. This article uses the theoretical concept of mediatization—the integration and influence of media forms within social practice—to explore how the embeddedness of ICTs influences tourism, focusing on the avatar of online communication in particular. ICTs bridge distances in time and space, support the construction of personal identity and community, and channel the data flows permitting informationization, with these characteristics likewise being reflected in the textures of contemporary tourism. Tourists’ use of ICTs is conceptualized through the model of the “dual journey,” a vision of hybridized travel in which online and physical spheres are interwoven in the construction and consumption of tourist experience. The purpose of this conceptual investigation is not only to consider the intensification of communication within tourism but also to highlight the ways in which tourists’ communicative practices are enfolded within, and become, tourism.
Key words: Mediatization; Travel experience; Communication; Social media; Information communication technologies (ICTs)
Surrogate Tourists on Instagram: An(Other) Kind of Mimetic Gaze – 169
Megan Arzbaecher, Toni Sillanpää, and Desmond Wee
International Tourism Management, Faculty of International Business Cologne Business School, Cologne, Germany
From influencers to established travel brands to casual consumers, there are a number of existing organisms in the online ecosystem of Instagram simultaneously producing and consuming content. At first glance, the nature of these relationships seems simple—sharing and engaging via a visual medium—but upon prolonged review, deeper questions about the interwoven complexity existing between these organisms and their content emerge. The authors illuminate several discernible patterns through a deep theoretical framing of the gaze, mimetic reproduction, and ownership followed by a conceptual modeling through a review of everyday Instagramic practices. What becomes apparent are a number of stages of development in this process. Firstly, the practice of photographic mimicry becomes a form of consumption in which the consumer “consumes places” vicariously across space and time, making image reproduction an embodied practice. Secondly, the Instagram feed of an individual consumer (or influencer) becomes a sort of living autobiography, curating and aggrandizing the glossiest images that form a projected extension of self that is not grounded necessarily in authenticity, but in reproduction. Finally, the proliferation of communication between consumer and consumer reproduces a surrogate type that creates a constantly evolving circular content loop where the flow of influence and information becomes muddled and originality becomes less distinguishable. This article critically explores how Instagram has collapsed traditional influence and consumer relationships, particularly in how tourist experience and imagery are shared, resulting in a complex online community that resembles a cultural colonial organism fed by communication feedback loops. The result of this article is the positioning of a surrogate tourist embodied within a collection of individual entities performing specialized tasks dependent on other individuals in the community in which the function and nature of the individual recedes in importance to the relationship existing between organisms.
Key words: Surrogate tourist; Mimetic reproduction; Tourist gaze; Instagram
Sensitive Communication With Proximate Messmates – 181
Emily Höckert,* Outi Rantala,* and Gunnar Thór Jóhannesson†
*Multidimensional Tourism Institute, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland
†Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
The research at hand experiments with the communication that occurs in the encounters and entanglements between human and more-than-human agencies. It builds on the emerging debates on qualitative methodologies informed by new materialism, which help us recognize how more-than-humans can communicate and participate in producing and sharing knowledge. The main purpose of this article is to introduce the approach of sensitive communication with human and more-than-human others in tourism settings. The article explores and tests sensitive reading as a way of conducting research on sensitive communication in proximate surroundings by presenting two empirical examples from Iceland and Sweden. The research is driven by curiosity about the different ways of communicating with and about mundane and ordinary places in the context of proximity tourism. The idea of proximity refers here to curious and caring relations toward our proximate surroundings, beings, and thoughts. This approach to proximity tourism reopens ideas of nearness and farness and offers an alternative approach to current quantitative macrolevel discussions and inquiries of the Anthropocene.
Key words: Communication; More-than-human; New materialism; Sensitive reading; Proximity tourism
Interaction, Attentiveness, and Intimacy: Communicating With Waves in Surf Tourism – 193
Sarani Pitor Pakan
Department of Languages, Arts, and Culture Management, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Surf tourism places are comprised not only of surfing activities but a myriad of actions and interactions on land and at sea of which surfing and surf tourism business are a part. However, surf tourism literature has rarely emphasized the presences of other modes of encountering and interacting with waves, such as fishing and seafaring, especially among local inhabitants. This article puts the emphasis on a broader everyday busyness of living in a surf tourism place, by paying attention to the various ways local people attend to and interact with waves in which they inhabit. The everyday of surf tourism is explored through field research conducted at Ebay, a typical surf tourism place located in Siberut, Mentawai Islands, Indonesia. Drawing on more-than-human and relational ontologies, the mundane relationalities between waves and humans are analyzed as everyday practices of attentiveness and interaction, through which the entangled actors—humans and waves—further cocreate the uneasy notion of intimacy. In addition to challenging the “Nirvanification” of surf tourism places by narrating less touristic and more mundane, everyday situations involving waves and humans, this study also furthers our understanding of communication and culture by showcasing the possibilities of understanding local interaction between humans and nonhumans in a tourism context.
Key words: Attentiveness; Waves; Surf tourism; Human–nonhuman interaction; Everyday life
Filmmaking, Affective Communication, and the Construction of Tourism Imaginaries: Putting the Wow Into Sustainable Whale Watching – 205
Wiebke Finkler* and Lloyd S. Davis†
*Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
†Centre for Science Communication, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
The advent of filmmaking provided a means for affective communication, whereby what was real and what was filmed became conflated, helping to create tourism imaginaries that, in turn, drove tourism. However, increased tourism created negative impacts, especially for charismatic subjects like whales that elicit strong emotional responses of connectedness in viewers. In the whale-watching industry, getting too close to whales to satisfy visitor expectations has a major detrimental impact. Here, we test whether the very characteristics of film that have helped create the problem, might be used to fix the problem by re-creating tourism imaginaries and changing visitor expectations. We produced a video about sustainable whale watching using a formula designed specifically to enhance its affective and emotional qualities. Survey respondents were randomly assigned to Test and Control Groups, and shown the video either before or after recording their likelihood of going whale watching in the future. Those in both groups that were Likely or Very Likely to go whale watching identified affective qualities of the video nearly identically. Elements of the video associated with affective communication (imagery of whales in their natural environment and authentic reactions of tourists seeing whales) were most liked equally by Test and Control Group subjects. However, significantly less of the Test Group found the imagery of close encounters between whales and humans to be their favorite aspect of the video, while significantly more of them noted that the clarity of the message or the way it was told (editing) were their most liked aspects. In sum, the affective features of filmmaking that influence tourism imaginaries, also offer the potential to thwart the negative effects of tourism by invoking changes in attitudinal and behavioral intentions that should lead to more sustainable tourism practices.
Key words: Tourism imaginary; Affective communication; Filmmaking; Whale watching; Sustainable tourism
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Updated as of December 2021
Number of submissions: 220
Number of reviews requested: 110
Number of reviews received: 90
Approval rate: 12%
Average time between submission and publication (*FastTrack online publication): 6 months