Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. The editors adopt a purposefully broad scope that welcomes readers and contributors from diverse disciplines and who are receptive in a wide variety of research methods. While potential cultural issues and identities are unlimited, there is a requirement that their consideration should relate to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also particularly welcome. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the editors recognize the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment.
The journal publishes high-quality research and applies a double-blind refereeing process. Tourism, Culture & Communication consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
BOOK AND MEDIA REVIEWSEDITOR Stephen Pratt,University of the South Pacific, Fiji
EDITORIALBOARD JeromeAgrusa, University of Hawaii at Manoa,USA ElizabethAgyeiwaah,MacauUniversityofScienceandTechnology,Macau TraceyBerno,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand WuBihu,PekingUniversity,China DavidBojanic,UniversityofTexasatSanAntonio,USA ErikCohen,HebrewUniversity,Israel ChrisCooper,OxfordBrooksUniversity,UK JenniferCraik,RMITUniversity,Australia GrahamDann,FinmarkUniversityCollege,Norway KadirDin,UniversityofUtara,Malaysia HillaryDuCros,UniversityofNewBrunswick,Canada David Harrison, Middlesex University, UK Anne-MarieHede,VictoriaUniversity,Australia WilliamG.Feighey,Tourism21,Switzerland ThorFlognfeldt,LillehammerCollege,Norway DavidHarrison,UniversityoftheSouthPacific,Fiji JafarJafari,UniversityofWisconsin-Stout,USA MyriamJansen-Verbeke,CatholicUniversityLeuven,Belgium AlanLew,NorthernArizonaUniversity,USA AlastairMorrison,PurdueUniversity,USA WienduNuryanti,InternationalCentreforCulture&Tourism(ICCT),Indonesia AbrahamPizam,UniversityofCentralFlorida,USA GlennRoss,JamesCookUniversity,Australia ChrisRyan,UniversityofWaikato,NewZealand CarlaSantos,UniversityofIllinoisatUrbana-Champaign,USA TonySeaton,UniversityofBedfordshire,UK TomSelanniemi,UniversityofJyvaskyla,Finland MyraShackley,NottinghamTrentUniversity,UK DavidSimmons,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand TejVirSingh,CentreforTourismResearch&Development,India ValeneSmith,CaliforniaStateUniversity,USA PeterSpearritt,UniversityofQueensland,Australia
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically and in Word format by email to the joint editors-in-chief, Professor Brian King and Assistant Professor WantaneeSuntikul at email@example.com. The submission of manuscripts, figures, and tables should follow the guidelines noted below.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. Maximum word count for article submission is 7,500. Because manuscripts are sent out for blind review, submissions should include a cover page that includes only the title. Submissions should include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. It is important to note that figures and tables should not be incorporated within the text of the manuscript. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, and the names of all authors and corresponding affiliation(s) for each contributor, which should include Department/School/College, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete postal mailing address and email address must be included for the corresponding author (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Submissions should include an abstract of up to 300 words. This will represent the content of the manuscript in abbreviated form. It should include major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations, followed by supporting details of the research method, scope and purpose, as appropriate. Three to five key words that are suitable for indexing purposes should be supplied.
Text: All main and subheadings should be clearly indicated. The APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines should be followed for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends and figures (or provide figures in a separate file), and tables.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, following the examples that are set out below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text forquoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Please note that names within parentheses should appear in alphabetical order, NOT listed chronologically.
Journal Article: Crouch, I. G. (1994). The study of international tourism demand: A review of findings. Journal of Travel Research, 33(1), 12–23. Book: Witt, E. S., & Witt, C. A. (1992). Modeling and forecasting in tourism. London: Academic Press. Book chapter in edited book:Frechtling, C. D. (1994). Assessing the impacts of travel and tourism: Measuring economic benefits. In J. R. Brent Ritchie & C. R. Goeldner (Eds.), Travel, tourism, and hospitality research (2nd ed., pp. 367–391). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Internet Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbookshop.org
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Materials: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be includedat the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
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Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
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Disclaimer: Although the publisher and editorial board make every effort to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism, Culture and Communication (TCC) Peer Review Policy
To maintain high peer reviewing standards, Tourism, Culture & Communication (TCC) uses a double-blind review process, whereby the identity of the reviewers is unknown to the authors and authors identities are unknown to the reviewers. Peer review is defined as the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure the publication of high-quality scientific research.
The TCC peer review process is as follows:
An article is first checked for formatting and required acknowledgments by the Journal Administrator, after which it is forwarded to the Joint-Editors-in-Chief (JEIC).
The JEIC select between 2 and 4 reviewers based on key words, article content and peer review track record. to provide a detailed assessment of the paper. The reviewers are always experts in their field and may be members of the TCC editorial board. Reviewers will have no history of conflict with the authors of the paper and should be in good standing, based on their scholarly track record.
The comments received from the reviewers (a minimum of 2) will be received within 4-6 weeks. They are delivered to the JEIC who draw upon these comments to assess the merit of the manuscript, along with their own assessment. Special attention is given to declarations of potential conflict of interest. Where applicable, the JEIC will verify statements about appropriate approvals received in the case of research using human subjects. Likewise, claims about the use of appropriate statistical testing are ensured.
On receipt of relevant and sufficient reviewer comments, the JEIC will reach a collective decision based on a close examination and a determination is then conveyed to the authors. The authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision: accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection. Authors may be invited to resubmit their work as a research note at the discretion of the JEIC. The comments to authors are blinded. The identity of the JEIC (and where appropriate the applicable editorial associate) is revealed in the decision letter.
Prospective TCC reviewers have the opportunity to read and evaluate current research in their area of expertise when it is at an early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. Anyone interested in becoming a reviewer for TCC is invited to contact the JEIC Brian King and Wantanee Suntikul, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China at firstname.lastname@example.org.
As a reviewer for Tourism, Culture & Communication, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Culture & Communication have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Culture & Communication is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in interdisciplinary perspectives in areas of interest that may branch away from traditionally recognized national and indigenous cultures, for example, cultural attitudes toward the management of tourists with disabilities, gender aspects of tourism, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-culture-a-communication under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Introduction: Critical Thinking in Tourism Studies – 59 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540133
Rodanthi Tzanelli* and Maximiliano Korstanje†
*School of Sociology & Social Policy, University of Leeds, UK †Department of Economics, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina
In our introduction to the special issue we attempt to reflect on the plurality and development of critical argumentation in tourism analysis. First, we adopt a “genealogical” approach to the parallel birth of critical thinking in early 20th century European social sciences and critical–institutional elaboration of the “tourist” and “tourism” as contemporary phenomena. These interlaced histories of social thought are examined as “attitudes” towards the grand project of modernity, and divided into “soft” and contemplative, and “hard” or activist. We argue that these scholarly attitudes-as-projects organized groups of tourism theorists, passionate for the discussion of similar problems. The same groups would subsequently develop variations of criticality into more coherent “paradigms.” In more recent decades these protoparadigms came to interrogate the basic tenets of business ethics, as well as the moral core of activities such as tourism and hospitality in more fulsome paradigmatic registers and vocabularies. From there, we proceed to present the organizational rationale of our eclectic collection of contributions to this special issue. Organized under the principles and axioms of Keith Hollinhead’s “worldmaking,” and the development of critical tourism paradigms, the articles discuss four themes: (a) postcoloniality and tourism, (b) biopolitics and tourism, (c) media representations, social identities, and tourism, and (d) cultural industries and tourism.
Legitimacy, Authenticity, and Authority in Brazilian Quilombo Tourism: Critical Reflexive Practice Among Cultural Experts – 71 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540142
Carla Guerrón Montero
Department of Anthropology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
Using a critical tourism studies framework, I discuss the participation of “cultural experts” (anthropologists, historians, and cultural heritage professionals) in the production of legitimacy, authenticity, and sovereignty of Brazilian quilombos. Quilombos are defined as communities composed of peoples of African, indigenous, and European descent, who constructed independent societies outside the plantation system. I address the process of cultural experts whose individual, institutional, and interdisciplinary identities are intertwined with power–knowledge relations in both academic and applied contexts. I focus on the role of these professionals in two main issues: 1) the debate over conceptualizing and identifying quilombos; and 2) the legitimation of quilombo cultural heritage for tourism purposes. Through this discussion, I aim to problematize scholarly reflexivity, which has permeated anthropological and social sciences debates since the 1990s and critical tourism studies debates since the 2000s.
“Children That Are Cute Enough to Eat”: The Commodification of Children in Volunteering Vacations to Orphanages and Childcare Establishments in Siem Reap, Cambodia – 83 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540151
P. Jane Reas
Teacher Education, University Centre Hastings, East Sussex, UK
That the volunteer tourism industry in Cambodia is now considered to be fueling the demand for “orphans” in towns like Siem Reap requires that academia continues to apply a broad range of critical perspectives to the examination of this popular tourist trend. Here I add to the growing body of criticality by framing around the question of just “what” is being consumed in these popular vacations. It was during a 6-week period as a volunteer tourist in an orphanage in the town that my curiosity and unease compelled me to ask: “what is going on here?” This article is based on the subsequent research project examining the volunteer tourist experience in orphanages and children’s care centers in Siem Reap and draws on interviews with individuals considering a volunteering vacation, volunteers in situ, and vacation returners, as well as an extensive examination of grey literature. Critically examined through the lens of consumerism and an understanding of the pleasure-seeking motives inherent in consumer decisions, volunteer tourism is recognized as a contemporary consumer commodity, but significantly one that involves personhood. Commodification and objectification of people and bodies are familiar concepts in the tourism literature. I discuss how, when examined using these concepts, the role that these processes play in making the bodies of poor children available to the volunteer tourist market is made evidently visible. I also discuss how, through the trope of eating, poor children in orphanages are objectified as “morsels of exotic otherness,” evoking a provocative concept of “consumerism.” I conclude that critical analysis shows that there is significantly more to these helpful vacations than their often taken-for-granted positive depiction and argue that sentimentality can detract from the real processes that are operating in this popular vacation trend.
Place, Labor, and (Im)Mobilities: Tourism and Biopolitics – 95 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540160
Dominic Lapointe and Myra Coulter
Département d’études urbaines et touristiques, École des sciences de la gestion, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada
Contemporary tourism is omnipresent in development discourses and policies, functioning as a “worldmaking” force in which tourism activities provide a representation and storyline that influence the tourist and their behavior, thus becoming a form of social production. Justifying the inclusion of biopolitics as a response to the questions raised by the worldmaking tenet, this article aims to set the concept of biopolitics as the articulation between dominant structures and agency. As contemporary social life and the reproduction of society are integrated into the scope of market capitalism, and the state exerts its role as protector of the “free” market, biopolitics functions through the internalization of the rules of conduct by individuals, as well as through the economic integration of previously noneconomic spheres. Conducting a systematic literature review to expose the presence of the biopolitical lens in tourism research reveals the relevance of pursuing critical and unconventional research strategies. A diverse yet limited corpus of texts has developed in the context of the persistence and pervasiveness of both biopolitics and tourism in complex and uneven global social, political, and spatiotemporal systems and networks, highlighting new theoretical constellations rooted primarily in Foucauldian biopolitics. This essay uncovers a powerful entanglement of nonlinear and multiscalar tourism elements, and calls for ambitiously undertaking tourism research to address tourism discourses, structures, and practices in place and society.
The “Vagabond” as a Nemesis of the Tourist: Toward a Postcolonial Critique of Zygmunt Bauman – 107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540179
Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Cachar, Assam, India
Zygmunt Bauman invokes the trope of vagrancy, wherein the “vagabonds” are squarely juxtaposed with the “tourists” who are, in sum, the global elite. For him, there are no vagabonds, they are only forced to be. This article questions Bauman’s classificatory categories, his dualistic views, and the explanatory apparatus of the “voluntary-versus-involuntary travel.” If “vagabond” de facto means involuntary traveler, where in Bauman’s schema are we going to place those itinerants—particularly, in the context of South Asia—who self-assert, and quite eloquently so, to be “vagabonds”? Using India as a case study, this article demonstrates how the trope of the vagabond has been perpetually leveraged—by certain political dissenters—to articulate a nonroutinized, noninstrumental, rhizomatic-style traveling, and by extension, political dissidence in the face of statist techniques of demographic control. Thinking in these terms, the imagination of vagabonds as volition-stripped travelers can be assumed to be a product of the Western value system (that uses the utility-maximized “tourists” as the prototype of traveler), which anyway cannot be universalized. This article, from a postcolonial vantage point, argues that Bauman’s differentiation of the category “vagabond” has no resonance in India.
Key words: Zygmunt Bauman; India; Postcolonialism; Hybridity; Nomadology; Vagabond and tourist
The Worldmaking Agency of the Sri Lankan Travel Blogger – 117 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540197
Gauthami Kamalika Jayathilaka
School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
This article presents a scrutiny of the powerful “worldmaking” role performed by English language travel writers in the context of Sri Lanka. It critically positions travel representations as a crucial means of knowledge production that shapes the way Sri Lanka is known and experienced. In that, it examines an emerging version of the country produced by young Sri Lankan travel bloggers through their employment of an “activist gaze” alongside the use of a “promotional gaze” by professional tourism writers. The article illuminates each of these distinctive worldmaking roles; the latter engaging the authority of tourism in constructing/perpetuating a particular favored version of the country to persuade the global tourist, and the former’s “aware” agency in constructing a potential or alternative representation distinctive from the first. However, surpassing an exploration of representations and their worldmaking power, the article sheds light on the way writers are inculcated into certain standpoints and their negotiation of these through the employment of the Bourdieusian concepts of habitus, capital, and field. As such, it innovatively combines structure and agency in the study of tourism representations, unveiling the social implications underlying worldmaking and thereby elucidating the critical link between the English language, travel writing and social class in an understudied postcolonial context of South Asia.
Key words: Worldmaking; Travel writing; Tourist agency; Tourist gaze; Social class; Sri Lanka
Where Have all the People Gone?: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Study of the Representation of People in Promotional Tourism Discourse – 129 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540205
Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
This article critically analyzes how tourists and hosts are represented verbally and visually in a travel brochure about Russia and what power relations might such representation shape. The interaction between hosts and tourists, one of the essential aspects of tourism, provides an opportunity to get acquainted with the sociocultural context of other nations, thus improving international relations. Russia is sometimes regarded as an unfriendly or unsafe travel destination and the Russian Government aims at increasing the popularity of the country among international tourists. However, there are concerns that promotional tourism discourse contributes to shaping asymmetrical power relations between tourists and locals and jeopardizes hospitality. While a number of researchers have examined the representation of people in tourism discourse, most of these studies have only considered the representation of hosts. Moreover, despite indications that various destinations can be represented differently, there is a lack of studies analyzing the representation of people in tourism discourse about Russia. To address this research gap, I conduct a multimodal critical discourse analysis and look at how hosts and tourists are represented in the 2018 Russia Travel Brochure. This approach allows revealing power relations and ideologies expressed in a text by various semiotic resources, such as language, images, typography, and layout. The results support previous findings that by foregrounding material tourist attractions and excluding hosts or representing them mostly as servants or performers, promotional tourism discourse downplays the role of locals in hospitality and contributes to shaping asymmetrical power relations between tourists and hosts. However, I argue that tourists can also be excluded from promotional tourism discourse about Russia or represented as a featureless group, thus establishing an asymmetrical power relationship between the tour operator and tourists. Visual and verbal representation of tourists and locals as diverse individual identities might contribute to maintaining balanced power relations.
Rest in Fame: Celebrity Tourism in Hollywood Cemeteries – 141 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540214
Marta Soligo and David R. Dickens
Department of Sociology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA
This research is a critical study of tourism at four cemeteries in the Los Angeles area between 2013 and 2019: Hollywood Forever, Forest Lawn in Glendale, Forest Lawn in Hollywood, and Pierce Brothers Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery. We examined these venues through the lens of celebrity tourism, since they are known as “Hollywood memorial parks,” hosting the graves of some of the most famous stars in the world. Through participant observation, informal conversations, and content analysis of texts we aimed to understand how the relationship between these venues and the entertainment industry works as a “pull factor” for tourists. Our data collection and analysis led to three main findings. Firstly, we identified the motivations behind the increasing number of tourists who add Los Angeles cemeteries to their must-see list. Although scholars often define cemeteries as dark tourism destinations, our investigation shows that Hollywood memorial parks are more related to celebrity tourism. Secondly, employing the notion of “cult of celebrity,” we described how the experience of tourists visiting their favorite celebrity’s grave can be seen as a modern pilgrimage centered on a collective experience. Thirdly, we analyzed the cemetery as a commodity in which executives work to promote the site as the perfect location where one can spend the “eternal life.” In this sense, we also investigated how memorial parks are often used as venues for cultural events, attracting a large number of tourists. As described in the findings section, initiatives such as movie screenings and guided tours transform cemeteries into much more than just peaceful places where to honor the dead, becoming venues for both commodification and spectacle.
Key words: Celebrity culture; Hollywood; Dark tourism; Tourism; Cemeteries; Critical theory
Putting Faith in Vinyl, Real Ale, and Live Music: A Case Study of the Limits of Tourism Policy and a Critical Analysis of New Leisure Spaces in a Northern English Town – 151 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15894802540223
Karl Spracklen* and Dave Robinson†
*Leeds School of Social Sciences, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK †Leeds School of Arts, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK
Skipton, on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, is an old mill town that has seen tourists flocking to it since the arrival of the railway in the 19th century. Like many other old mill towns in northern England, Skipton has lost those mills-as-factories and the workers in them—and has struggled to retain a sustainable local economy. At the same time, Skipton has become increasingly gentrified, and has become a focus for day visitors and tourists attracted by the beautiful countryside seen when Le Tour de France came through Yorkshire in 2014. In this article, we explore the area of Skipton, dubbed the Canal Quarter. We focus on the leisure spaces that have opened there as attempts to construct alternative, authentic experiences around the consumption of real ale, the performance of live music, and the curation of second-hand vinyl records. We have previously explored how these might be shown to be a space for Habermasian rationality. In this sequel, we use critical theory to show how the alternative, authentic space of vinyl, real ale, and live music has already been compromised by two conflicting hegemonic powers: the cooption of leisure into the economics of tourism and tourism policy, and the meaninglessness of cool capitalism and Bauman’s consumer society.
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