Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. The editors adopt a purposefully broad scope that welcomes readers and contributors from diverse disciplines and who are receptive in a wide variety of research methods. While potential cultural issues and identities are unlimited, there is a requirement that their consideration should relate to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also particularly welcome. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the editors recognize the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment.
The journal publishes high-quality research and applies a double-blind refereeing process. Tourism, Culture & Communication consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
BOOK AND MEDIA REVIEWSEDITOR Stephen Pratt,University of the South Pacific, Fiji
EDITORIALBOARD JeromeAgrusa, University of Hawaii at Manoa,USA ElizabethAgyeiwaah,MacauUniversityofScienceandTechnology,Macau TraceyBerno,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand WuBihu,PekingUniversity,China DavidBojanic,UniversityofTexasatSanAntonio,USA ErikCohen,HebrewUniversity,Israel ChrisCooper,OxfordBrooksUniversity,UK JenniferCraik,RMITUniversity,Australia GrahamDann,FinmarkUniversityCollege,Norway KadirDin,UniversityofUtara,Malaysia HillaryDuCros,UniversityofNewBrunswick,Canada David Harrison, Middlesex University, UK Anne-MarieHede,VictoriaUniversity,Australia WilliamG.Feighey,Tourism21,Switzerland ThorFlognfeldt,LillehammerCollege,Norway DavidHarrison,UniversityoftheSouthPacific,Fiji JafarJafari,UniversityofWisconsin-Stout,USA MyriamJansen-Verbeke,CatholicUniversityLeuven,Belgium AlanLew,NorthernArizonaUniversity,USA AlastairMorrison,PurdueUniversity,USA WienduNuryanti,InternationalCentreforCulture&Tourism(ICCT),Indonesia AbrahamPizam,UniversityofCentralFlorida,USA GlennRoss,JamesCookUniversity,Australia ChrisRyan,UniversityofWaikato,NewZealand CarlaSantos,UniversityofIllinoisatUrbana-Champaign,USA TonySeaton,UniversityofBedfordshire,UK TomSelanniemi,UniversityofJyvaskyla,Finland MyraShackley,NottinghamTrentUniversity,UK DavidSimmons,LincolnUniversity,NewZealand TejVirSingh,CentreforTourismResearch&Development,India ValeneSmith,CaliforniaStateUniversity,USA PeterSpearritt,UniversityofQueensland,Australia
Tourism Culture and Communication uses CrossRef Similarity Check and is sustained by Portico Preservation Services.
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit their manuscripts electronically and in Word format by email to the joint editors-in-chief, Professor Brian King and Assistant Professor Wantanee Suntikul at firstname.lastname@example.org. The submission of manuscripts, figures, and tables should follow the guidelines noted below.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. Because manuscripts are sent out for blind review, submissions should include a cover page that includes only the title. Submissions should include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. It is important to note that figures and tables should not be incorporated within the text of the manuscript. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, and the names of all authors and corresponding affiliation(s) for each contributor, which should include Department/School/College, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete postal mailing address and email address must be included for the corresponding author (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and key words: Submissions should an abstract of up to 300 words. This will represent the content of the manuscript in abbreviated form. It should include major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations, followed by supporting details of the research method, scope and purpose, as appropriate. Three to five key words that are suitable for indexing purposes should be supplied.
Text: All main and subheadings should be clearly indicated. The APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines should be followed for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends and figures (or provide figures in a separate file), and tables.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, following the examples that are set out below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Bruckman, 2002) or (Alderman & Modlin, 2016; Cai, 2002; Laesser et al., 2009) or (Kahn, 2013, p. 38) (for quoted material). Please note that names within parentheses should appear in alphabetical order, NOT listed chronologically.
Journal Article: Parashar, A., Kumar, M., & Saluja, V. (2019). Discovering India through imagery in postcolonial travel writings. Tourism, Culture & Communication, 19(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X15536971539399
Book: Arnold-de Simine, S. (2013). Mediating memory in the museum: Trauma, empathy, nostalgia. Palgrave Macmillan.
Book chapter in edited book: Gallas, K. L., & Perry, J. D. (2014). Comprehensive content and contested historical narratives. In K. L. Gallas & J. D. Perry (Eds.), Interpreting slavery at museums and historic sites (pp. 1–20). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Internet Source: The Art of Travel. (2016). Solo female travel on rise: A report. https://artoftravel.tips/solo-female-travel/#.WgkIW1uCy71
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in thetext and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must becompleted and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism, Culture & Communication are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although the publisher and editorial board make every effort to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism, Culture and Communication (TCC) Peer Review Policy
To maintain high peer reviewing standards, Tourism, Culture & Communication (TCC) uses a double-blind review process, whereby the identity of the reviewers is unknown to the authors and authors identities are unknown to the reviewers. Peer review is defined as the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure the publication of high-quality scientific research.
The TCC peer review process is as follows:
An article is first checked for formatting and required acknowledgments by the Journal Administrator, after which it is forwarded to the Joint-Editors-in-Chief (JEIC).
The JEIC select between 2 and 4 reviewers based on key words, article content and peer review track record. to provide a detailed assessment of the paper. The reviewers are always experts in their field and may be members of the TCC editorial board. Reviewers will have no history of conflict with the authors of the paper and should be in good standing, based on their scholarly track record.
The comments received from the reviewers (a minimum of 2) will be received within 4-6 weeks. They are delivered to the JEIC who draw upon these comments to assess the merit of the manuscript, along with their own assessment. Special attention is given to declarations of potential conflict of interest. Where applicable, the JEIC will verify statements about appropriate approvals received in the case of research using human subjects. Likewise, claims about the use of appropriate statistical testing are ensured.
On receipt of relevant and sufficient reviewer comments, the JEIC will reach a collective decision based on a close examination and a determination is then conveyed to the authors. The authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision: accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection. Authors may be invited to resubmit their work as a research note at the discretion of the JEIC. The comments to authors are blinded. The identity of the JEIC (and where appropriate the applicable editorial associate) is revealed in the decision letter.
Prospective TCC reviewers have the opportunity to read and evaluate current research in their area of expertise when it is at an early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. Anyone interested in becoming a reviewer for TCC is invited to contact the JEIC Brian King and Wantanee Suntikul, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China at email@example.com.
As a reviewer for Tourism, Culture & Communication, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Culture & Communication have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Culture & Communication is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in interdisciplinary perspectives in areas of interest that may branch away from traditionally recognized national and indigenous cultures, for example, cultural attitudes toward the management of tourists with disabilities, gender aspects of tourism, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-culture-a-communication under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Why Microtraders Harass Visitors: A Review of the Literature – 163 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15905615874173
School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
The goal of this article was to propose a set of beliefs likely to fuel microtraders’ harassment behaviors toward visitors. Nineteen beliefs were identified and proposed. The five beliefs that received the most support from the scholarly and nonscholarly literature were: (1) harassing visitors is necessary for survival; (2) visitors are wealthy; (3) harassment has little or no negative effect on visitors; (4) I am entitled to visitors’ business; and (5) harassment is normal, even cultural. The article then ends with suggestions on how tourism officials and academics may use the list of beliefs discussed to reduce trader harassment.
A Dangerous Business: Exploring Heroism in Travel Blogs Through Emphasis Framing – 175 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15692567324886
Andrew Duffy* and Marianne Mingwei Chua†
*Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore †College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Emphasis framing has routinely been applied to hard news. This article extends it to “softer” media texts. It considers a specific example of how travel blogs use the frame of heroism, and the underlying ideologies it reveals about how people imagine a destination and conceive of Others. We analyze 400 travel blog posts to assess how bloggers recount tales of overcoming different challenges, and how this subsequently directs their own role performances. This article offers the use of heroism in travel blogs as evidence that emphasis framing is a critical aspect of nonnews media texts, and that it can also be interpreted to offer insights into ideologies that underpin culture. This article argues for more analysis of emphasis framing in lifestyle texts as a means to identify social realities and the role the media plays in creating and maintaining them.
Key words: Travel; Blogs; Hero’s journey; Cultural studies; Emphasis framing
Segmenting Tourists Based on Traditional Versus Social Media Usage and Destination Image Perception – 189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15905692660247
Anja Van Dyk,* Elmarie Slabbert,* and Aaron Tkaczynski†
*School of Tourism Management, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa †School of Business, Faculty of Business, Economics & Law, University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia
Despite considerable insight into both traditional and social media, the research on these media types is largely mutually exclusive. Consequently, it is largely not known what media tourists use before forming an image of a destination for potential visitation. To provide insight into this phenomena, this study segmented 558 tourists to South Africa based on their media usage and destination image perception. The first segment, experienced South African tourists (39%), did not use media when forming an image of South Africa, but rather focused on their frequent past experience. This segment rated cognitive and behavioral image of South Africa the highest. The second segment, friends and family orientated tourists (21%), utilized personal sources in their destination image formation of South Africa. They also rated the country’s image the lowest. The third segment, multiple media usage tourists (40%), employed both traditional and social media in forming their destination image of South Africa. These tourists also rated affective image of the country the highest. While destination marketing organizations (DMOs) need to continue to employ traditional and social media to cater for different consumer learning techniques and different consumer response stages of the largest segment (multiple media usage segments), three fifths of the sample are currently being neglected. Because past experience is incredibly relevant for segment validation and representing destination image of the two smaller segments, the DMO needs to identify through in-depth interviews what South Africa’s destination image means to all three segments. This process allows comparisons between the segments to be made. It can identify how these tourists’ perception of the country’s image has changed with experience and if their perceived image accurately represents what is currently marketed by DMOs.
Key words: Destination image; Segmentation; Social media; South Africa; Traditional media
Development of a Personal Values Scale for Tourism Using a Mixed Method – 207 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15915043095820
Won Seok Lee* And Joon Moon†
*Department of Tourism and Recreation, Kyonggi University, Seoul, South Korea †Department of Tourism Administration, Kangwon National University, Chooncheon, South Korea
This study aims to develop cross-cultural value measurement scales that can overcome established methodological problems and test the dimensional frameworks of the scale with non-Asian respondents. It applies a mixed-method approach to observe intrinsic, nationally distinct values, and develop a generalized values measurement scale. This study found new value dimensions that were not present in the previous value studies (i.e., life balance, emotional growth, family union, and friendship) and provided segmented subdimensions (i.e., balancing between work and rest, time management, rewards of investment, and self-examination). This complements and enhances the current body of knowledge on value measurement.
Key words: Cross-cultural value; Scale development; Life balance; Emotional growth; Family union; Friendship
In Search of Food in a Foreign Destination: The Dining Choice Behaviors of Young Australian Tourists in Japan – 219 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15692567324903
Toyohiko Sugimoto* and Hayato Nagai†
*College of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama, Japan †Faculty of Tourism, Wakayama University, Wakayama, Japan
Dining experience is a crucial element in international tourism because it can encourage tourists to understand local culture and has the potential to increase repeat visitation. A better understanding of tourists’ dining choice behaviors is important for destination development; however, the literature has not yet fully investigated this topic, and in particular it is unclear how their behaviors change across repeat visits. This study aimed to fill these gaps by conducting semistructured in-depth interviews with young Australian tourists traveling to Japan. The analysis of the qualitative data identified four major dining choice patterns: perusing the area, searching online sources, hearing from friends or family members, and calling on previous experience. Within the four patterns, perusing the area (i.e., walking around a food district) was the most observed behavior for both first-time and repeat tourists. In addition, repeat tourists tended to choose more local and authentic food due to their motivational development from new-and-touristy to local-and-authentic dining experiences. This study’s findings extend the current understanding of tourists’ dining choices in the tourism literature and offer suggestions for practitioners.
Key words: Dining choice behavior; Young Australian tourists; Japanese food; First-time tourist; Repeat tourist
Virtual Pilgrimage: An Irrealist Approach – 235 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830420X15991011535517
School of Sociology & Social Policy, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
In this reflective essay I revise the relationship between travel as an embodied secular journey and pilgrimage as a sacred ritual via examinations of websurfing as a form of virtual pilgrimage. My main premise is that virtual travel facilitated by the internet and through various digital platforms and collaborative social media should be considered as a novel secular form of metamovement we can approach as a pilgrimage. This pilgrimage produces multiple versions of reality (“world versions”), both in collaboration with corporate internet design and independently from it. Because such nonembodied secular engagement with other places and cultures produces online “travel” communities, digital pilgrimage prompts us to revisit John Urry’s “tourist gaze” thesis and Keith Hollinshead’s “worldmaking authority” in a critical fashion. Critical reconsideration of these two influential theses involves a closer inspection of metamovement for its aesthetic parameters, as well as their affording of creative connections between the mind (internalism) and the world (externalism) as a form of travel. Such connections can also assist in the production of conventional tourism mobilities.
Key words: Irrealism; Virtual pilgrimage; Popular culture; Travel; Worldmaking
CRITICAL REVIEWS SECTION – 241
CRITICAL BOOK REVIEW
Tourist Behavior: The Essential Companion (Philip L. Pearce, Editor) – 243
Back issues of this journal are available online. Order Here
Tourism Culture & Communication is indexed in:
CAB INTERNATIONAL (CABI) C.I.R.E.T. EBSCO DISCOVERY SERVICE-EDS EMERGING SOURCES CITATION INDEX GOOGLE ANALYTICS I.B.S.S. PROQUEST OCLC PRIMO CENTRAL PROQUEST SCOPUS WORLDCAT DISCOVERY SERVICES
Advertisements: Tourism, Culture & Communication will accept advertisements. All advertisements are subject to approval by the Editors-in-Chief. For details and rates contact the Publisher.
Copyright Notice: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright for the article is transferred to the publisher, if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic, or any other reproductions of similar nature and translations. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without permission in writing from the copyright holder.
Photocopying information for users in the USA: The Item Fee Code for this publication indicates that authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by the copyright holder for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service provided the stated fee for copying beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the United States Copyright Law is paid. The appropriate remittance of $60.00 per copy per article is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. The copyright owner’s consent does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific written permission must be obtained from the publisher for such copying. In case of doubt, please contact Cognizant Communication Corporation.
The Item Fee Code for this publication is 1098-304X/10 $60.00.