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Aims & Scope
Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. The editors adopt a purposefully broad scope that welcomes readers and contributors from diverse disciplines and who are receptive in a wide variety of research methods. While potential cultural issues and identities are unlimited, there is a requirement that their consideration should relate to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also particularly welcome. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the editors recognize the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment.
The journal publishes high-quality research and applies a double-blind refereeing process. Tourism, Culture & Communication consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
Brian King, PhD
Professor & Department Chair
Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University
600 John Kimbrough Boulevard, TAMU 2261, College Station, TX 77843
Dr. Wantanee Suntikul
Associate Professor, Visiting
University of Cincinnati, Clermont College
4200 Clermont College Drive
Batavia, OH 45103
Emily Howell – firstname.lastname@example.org
Lindsay Turner,Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
BOOK AND MEDIA REVIEWS EDITOR
Stephen Pratt, University of Central Florida, USA
CRITICAL REVIEW EDITOR
Rodanthi Tzanelli, Leeds University, UK
Jerome Agrusa, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Elizabeth Agyeiwaah, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau
Tracey Berno, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Wu Bihu, Peking University, China
David Bojanic, Missouri University of Science & Technology, USA
Vicky Chen, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies (IFTM), Macau
ONG Chin-Ee, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
Erik Cohen, Hebrew University, Israel
Chris Cooper, Oxford Brooks University, UK
Jennifer Craik, RMIT University, Australia
Kadir Din, University of Utara, Malaysia
Hillary Du Cros, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Johan Edelheim, Hokkaido University, Japan
Anne-Marie Hede, Victoria University, Australia
William G. Feighey, Tourism 21, Switzerland
Robert Gip, Texas A&M University, USA
Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA
Myriam Jansen-Verbeke, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium
Weng Hang (Frances) Kong, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao
Alan Lew, Northern Arizona University, USA
Alastair Morrison, Purdue University, USA
Wiendu Nuryanti, International Centre for Culture & Tourism (ICCT), Indonesia
Abraham Pizam, University of Central Florida, USA
Greg Richards, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Tony Seaton, University of Bedfordshire, UK
David Simmons, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Valene Smith, California State University, USA
Peter Spearritt, University of Queensland, Australia
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit their manuscripts to the joint editor-in-chief, Professor Brian King and Assistant Professor Wantanee Suntikul at https://tcc.scholasticahq.com/for-authors. The submission of manuscripts, figures, and tables should follow the guidelines noted below.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. Because manuscripts are sent out for blind review, submissions should include a cover page that includes only the title. Submissions should include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. It is important to note that figures and tables should not be incorporated within the text of the manuscript. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, and the names of all authors and corresponding affiliation(s) for each contributor, which should include Department/School/College, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete postal mailing address and email address must be included for the corresponding author (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and key words: Submissions should an abstract of up to 300 words. This will represent the content of the manuscript in abbreviated form. It should include major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations, followed by supporting details of the research method, scope and purpose, as appropriate. Three to five key words that are suitable for indexing purposes should be supplied.
Text: All main and subheadings should be clearly indicated. The APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines should be followed for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends and figures (or provide figures in a separate file), and tables.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, following the examples that are set out below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Bruckman, 2002) or (Alderman & Modlin, 2016; Cai, 2002; Laesser et al., 2009) or (Kahn, 2013, p. 38) (for quoted material). Please note that names within parentheses should appear in alphabetical order, NOT listed chronologically.
Journal Article: Parashar, A., Kumar, M., & Saluja, V. (2019). Discovering India through imagery in postcolonial travel writings. Tourism, Culture & Communication, 19(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X15536971539399
Book: Arnold-de Simine, S. (2013). Mediating memory in the museum: Trauma, empathy, nostalgia. Palgrave Macmillan.
Book chapter in edited book: Gallas, K. L., & Perry, J. D. (2014). Comprehensive content and contested historical narratives. In K. L. Gallas & J. D. Perry (Eds.), Interpreting slavery at museums and historic sites (pp. 1–20). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Internet Source: The Art of Travel. (2016). Solo female travel on rise: A report. https://artoftravel.tips/solo-female-travel/#.WgkIW1uCy71
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in thetext and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must becompleted and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Culture and Communication are available to be open access and may also contain color figures (not a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
A Voluntary Submission Fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $50.00 per color page). (Not a condition for publication).
Open Access is available for a fee of $200.00. Color would be discounted to $50.00 per color page. (Not a condition for publication).
The use of Color Figures in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. Color figures are available for a cost of $100.00 per color page. This amount would be discounted to $50.00 per color page if choosing to pay the voluntary submission fee or the open access option as indicated above. (Not a condition for publication).
If you choose any of the above options, a form will be sent with the amount due based on your selection, at proof stage. This form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof, prior to publication.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although the publisher and editorial board make every effort to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Articles appearing in publications are available to be published as Open Access and/or with color figures. A voluntary submission fee is also an option if you choose to support this publication. These options are NOT required for publication of your article.
You may complete the Author Option Payment Form here.
The designated corresponding author will receive a free pdf file of the final press article via email.
Tourism, Culture and Communication (TCC) Peer Review Policy
To maintain high peer reviewing standards, Tourism, Culture & Communication (TCC) uses a double-blind review process, whereby the identity of the reviewers is unknown to the authors and authors identities are unknown to the reviewers. Peer review is defined as the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure the publication of high-quality scientific research.
The TCC peer review process is as follows:
An article is first checked for formatting and required acknowledgments by the Journal Administrator, after which it is forwarded to the Joint-Editors-in-Chief (JEIC).
The JEIC select between 2 and 4 reviewers based on key words, article content and peer review track record. to provide a detailed assessment of the paper. The reviewers are always experts in their field and may be members of the TCC editorial board. Reviewers will have no history of conflict with the authors of the paper and should be in good standing, based on their scholarly track record.
The comments received from the reviewers (a minimum of 2) will be received within 4-6 weeks. They are delivered to the JEIC who draw upon these comments to assess the merit of the manuscript, along with their own assessment. Special attention is given to declarations of potential conflict of interest. Where applicable, the JEIC will verify statements about appropriate approvals received in the case of research using human subjects. Likewise, claims about the use of appropriate statistical testing are ensured.
On receipt of relevant and sufficient reviewer comments, the JEIC will reach a collective decision based on a close examination and a determination is then conveyed to the authors. The authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision: accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection. Authors may be invited to resubmit their work as a research note at the discretion of the JEIC. The comments to authors are blinded. The identity of the JEIC (and where appropriate the applicable editorial associate) is revealed in the decision letter.
Prospective TCC reviewers have the opportunity to read and evaluate current research in their area of expertise when it is at an early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. Anyone interested in becoming a reviewer for TCC is invited to contact the JEIC Brian King and Wantanee Suntikul, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China at email@example.com.
As a reviewer for Tourism, Culture & Communication, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Culture & Communication have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Culture & Communication is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in interdisciplinary perspectives in areas of interest that may branch away from traditionally recognized national and indigenous cultures, for example, cultural attitudes toward the management of tourists with disabilities, gender aspects of tourism, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-culture-a-communication under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Table of Contents:
Volume 23, Numbers 2-3
IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON CULTURAL TOURISM
Guest Editors: Claire Wallace, Joyce Chen, Stephanie Garrison, and John Shaddock
Introduction: The Impact of COVID-19 n Cultural Tourism – 87
Claire Wallace,* Xiaoqing Chen,† Stephanie Garrison,* and John Shaddock*
*School of Social Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
†Business School, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
The coronavirus pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) has been disastrous for cultural tourism worldwide as many cultural tourist venues are concentrated in cities and have had to close along with tourism-related facilities such as hospitality businesses and hotels. There has been a widespread fear of travel and social contact. The comparative research drawn upon in this article suggests that new trends might be emerging with rural and natural attractions becoming more prominent and a rise in domestic tourism due to the problems of foreign travel. This is associated with increased use of individualized travel and self-catering facilities. There has been a resultant rediscovery of more local scenery and attractions. The greater use of information technology can enhance tourism under these conditions and this is likely a permanent shift. Our research shows how these shifts emerged over the course of different lockdowns. Comparative research suggests that new trends and directions might emerge instead of a postpandemic reset to what existed before.
Key words: COVID-19; Cultural tourism; Pandemic; Digital tourism
Google Trends Confirms COVID-19 Impact on Tourist Industry – 97
Sybille Menzel,* Steffen Springer,† Michael Zieger,† and Artur Strzelecki‡
*FeWo Watzmann-Menzel, Berchtesgaden, Germany
†SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera GmbH, Germany
‡Department of Informatics, University of Economics in Katowice, Poland
The coronavirus pandemic is having a dramatic impact on human health, societies, the global economy, and also the tourism industry. Google Trends has already been introduced as a study tool for scientific research in various fields, such as tourism. In this study, Google Trends data were collected to confirm the impact of COVID-19 on tourism. Google Trends data were analyzed with a weekly data resolution for the past 5 years. The region was selected as worldwide and all categories were set. Google Trends data were used to compare search interest among the world population for relevant English search topics. The results suggest that Google Trends is a valuable tool for monitoring and confirming the effects of major events of global concern, such as COVID-19. Differences between varied business models within the tourism industry could also be shown. This study supports the results of previous research to better understand the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the economy. Results underline the importance and duration of the COVID-19 effect in various areas of the global tourism industry.
Key words: Google Trends; COVID-19; Search engine data; Online travel agencies
Escaping COVID-19 Through Webcam-Travel: An Application of the Social Psychological Model of Tourism Motivation – 103
David Jarratt and Sean J. Gammon
The School of Business, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK
The use of webcams to virtually visit destinations has, over the last decade, generated much interest—none more so than during the COVID-19 lockdowns. As countless millions across the globe were forced to stay at home, the practice of webcam-travel significantly increased, with preliminary studies finding the key drivers for the growth in usage to be freedom, nostalgia, and connectiveness. However, it was unclear to what extent that such practice was born from a desire to escape from the lockdown experience or to seek out (virtually) new and familiar places. In order to explore this further the Social Psychological Model of Tourism Motivation (SPTMTM) was applied to findings related to webcam use during lockdown, which indicate that users were both escaping environments they found stressful and/or demanding, while at the same time seeking out specific compensatory environments that collectively helped in coping with lockdown restrictions. Furthermore, the model brought attention to the often hidden interpersonal components that impact upon the push and pull factors associated with webcam-travel, introducing and augmenting concepts such as virtual flânerie and anthropomorphic parasocial relationships.
Key words: Webcam-travel; Escape; Social Psychological Model of Tourism Motivation (SPTM); Virtual flânerie; Parasocial relationships
Visitor Behavior in Museums in Times of COVID-19 – 113
Núria Galí, Dolors Vidal, and Laura Perpiña
Faculty of Tourism, University of Girona, Girona, Spain
This research aims to better understand the circumstances of museums in times of COVID-19 and investigate the reopening of museums as physical spaces for visitors’ experience. The influence of visitors’ sociodemographic and tripographic characteristics on visitor behavior, safety measures implemented by museums, and visitation experience were examined in two major art museums in Catalonia (Spain): the Dalí-Theatre Museum and the Picasso Museum. Participants (879) were selected following systematic random sampling at the museum exit gates. A quantitative analysis of the data was performed using Pearson and ANOVA and the participants’ profiles are presented. Findings indicate significant relationships between visitors’ characteristics and visitor behavior, safety measures, and visitation experience, with place of residence showing a positive influence on all three. Museums complied with specific safety regulations due to COVID-19, and in this context, the findings revealed that visitors slightly changed their visitor behavior in museums. Most visitors positively evaluated the key aspects of museum management relating to health and safety and social distancing. Age, nationality, and personal experience were found to influence visitor behavior in museums. Specific effects of each characteristic are further analyzed. Theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for future research studies are also discussed. Marketing activities will benefit from knowing, in detail, the visitors’ characteristics—information that can be used to target niches. Finally, the cultural industry has a social function and supporting the digitalization of museum organizations is crucial to the dissemination of culture.
Key words: COVID-19; Museums; Visitor behavior; Safety measures
The Pandemic as a Challenge for the Diversification for the Diversification of Tourism – 131
Hilda Kramáreková,* Lucia Petrikovičová,* Alfred Krogmann,* and Henrich Grežo†
*Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Regional Development, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Informatics, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic
†Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Informatics, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant global impact on tourism. During the period of restricted travel between the countries, the segment of leisure activities in the regional city of Nitra (Slovakia) also gradually diversified. For the city, traditional events such as visits to theaters, museums, galleries, or trade fairs were halted and later moved online. The offer of activities has expanded to include the previously unnoticed objects of anthropogenic origin, which present the industrial history of the city and also point to the growth of the city. These objects are gradually transformed from the original production function to objects with a nonproduction function. This article aims to identify such buildings as an alternative to other leisure time activities of the residents and visitors to the city of Nitra. We analyze and evaluate their usability in the area of tourism based on primary and secondary sources and field research. The results are formulated as a proposal to form two thematic routes through the city, which can be used in nonpandemic times.
Key words: Coronavirus crisis; “New” discovered objects; Diversification of tourism; Nitra (Slovakia)
The Domestic Turn in Postpandemic Indigenous Arctic Tourism: Emerging Stories of Self and Other – 151
Camilla Brattland,* Carina Ren,† Elsbeth Bembom,† and Randy Bruin*
*Department for Social Sciences, Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
†Department of Culture and Learning, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark
In this article, we explore how the lockdowns followed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent rise in domestic tourism impacted the ways in which Arctic tourism businesses sold and shared their experiences and stories to the domestic tourist—for many, a new and unusual guest. In exploring cases from Greenland and Northern Norway, we are interested in describing tourism marketing and product innovation in times of crisis, using this disruption into the usual market dynamics of Arctic tourism to reflect on postpandemic tourism opportunities. As we argue, tourism marketing and development may serve as a lens to shed new light on the often turbulent relationships between tourism actors in Arctic communities. As we show, this was the case in the summer of 2020, where increasing concerns, as well as new insights and experiences, surfaced in the emerging domestic tourism encounters. We argued that these exemplify potential new ways for more reciprocal encounters in Indigenous and Arctic tourism.
Key words: Domestic tourism; Arctic tourism; Indigenous tourism; Encounters; Identity
The Cocreation of a Pandemic Tourist Experience: The Case of Belitung, Indonesia – 163
Mohamad Robbith Subandi and Karolina Doughty
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands
Even as the global tourism industry has begun to recover, the evolving COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact how tourism experiences are offered and consumed. This article contributes to the literature by illuminating how power operates around and through interactions in the experience cocreation, particularly in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. It focuses on the way tourism experiences have been cocreated and influenced by what has been termed the ‘new normal’ for the tourism industry since the start of the pandemic. This article examined the impact of the pandemic on tourism experience cocreation on-site through exploring the construction and negotiation of the ‘pandemic gazes’ of hosts and tourists in a cultural tourism village on the Indonesian island destination of Belitung. Our findings identified 4 factors, namely Pandemic fatigue, Safe zone, Setting Impracticality and Convivial relations, which influenced how hosts and tourists (re)adjusted their pandemic gazes during their interactions in the experience cocreation process.
Key words: Experience cocreation; Host–guest relationship; Tourist gaze; Belitung; COVID-19 pandemic; Indonesia
Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Tourism Businesses in India: Operational and Strategic Measures Undertaken for Survival – 177
Prachi Jain Aggarwal,* Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav,† and Dogan Gursoy‡
*Amity University, Noida, India
†FORE School of Management, New Delhi, India
‡School of Hospitality Business Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA
This study employs a qualitative research approach based on the premises of the Grounded Theory method to identify the impact of COVID-19 on travel businesses, especially on travel agencies, in India and investigates the various operational and strategic measures undertaken by those businesses to survive during the pandemic. Data for this study were collected from 40 travel agency businesses in India through structured interviews of representatives from various travel agencies and from secondary data sources such as interview articles, newspaper reports, and blogs. The results highlight the impacts of the pandemic on travel agency businesses and the measures being taken by those businesses to survive in the short run, sustain in the medium run, and thrive in the long run. Findings provide critical insights on the operational and strategic measures for policymakers and other stakeholders of the travel and hospitality industry for effective management and comeback from the pandemic’s effects. This research extends previous studies by focusing more specifically on tourism business organizations with different modes and scales of operations.
Key words: Travel agencies; Tourism business; COVID-19; Grounded theory; India
Risk Perception and Travel Behavior of Urban Residents in a Densely Populated Region of East India Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic – 193
Bidyut Kumar Ghosh* and Debasish Batabyal†
*Department of Commerce, Old TAPMI Building, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India
†Travel & Tourism Management, Amity Institute of Travel and Tourism, Amity University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Travel risk perception and tourist behavior have been of paramount importance since the COVID-19 pandemic. As the nature, intensity, and consequences of these perceptions and behaviors vary, an extensive study on the perceptions of tourists’ attitudes toward COVID-19-associated travel risks and travel behaviors related with gender, age, and educational level is essential, particularly in East India, one of the world’s most densely populated urban areas. The major outcome incorporates logistic regression showing how traveling with family exhibits a different behavior during the COVID-19 outbreak, with distinctive gender-specific characteristics influencing future choices and travel decisions.
Key words: Risk perception; Travel behavior; Urban residents; Sociodemographic variables; Logistic regression
Media Tourism and COVID-19: An Empirical Investigation of the Impact f COVID-19 on the Scottish Tourism Industry – 207
Stephanie Garrison, Claire Wallace, And Xiaoqing Chen
School of Social Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
The growth of Scotland’s creative industries within the last decade has resulted in a significant rise in media tourism, a subsector of cultural tourism that focuses on tourism inspired by media such as novels, films, and television series. In March 2020 when Scotland’s tourism and hospitality industry would typically be preparing to welcome visitors, the nation went into a national lockdown due to mounting concerns over the rapidly spreading coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This “black swan event” brought Scotland’s tourism industry to a complete halt with government-mandated cessation of international travel, stay-at-home orders, and the closure of non-essential businesses going into effect. By drawing on qualitative interviews with Scotland-based tour operators and international travel bloggers, as well as examining the strategies of heritage and conservation charities and national tourism bodies this article explores how media tourism, as a main form of tourism in Scotland, was restructured during the pandemic. From these data, the authors consider three phases of the 2020 season beginning with an initial lockdown, which evolved into a stalled seasonal start and concluded with a truncated summer season. This article highlights the challenges presented to those in the industry and how these challenges were mitigated through the use of digital platforms from the creation of “virtual tours” and using social media for a “top of mind” marketing approach to the use of online booking platforms for track and trace and measuring visitor numbers. It then turns to explore the different strategies adopted to create a sustainable tourism model for reopening. In looking to the future of Scotland’s tourism industry, the article concludes with what the expectations are for the industry and recommendations for sustaining the industry in a postcoronavirus climate.
Key words: Coronavirus; Digital technologies; Media tourism; Popular culture
Cultural Tourism During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Portugal – 219
Greg Richards* and Carlos Fernandes†
*Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands
†Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo (IPVC), Centro de Estudos Transdisciplinares para o Desenvolvimento (CETRAD), Viana do Castelo, Portugal
The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic represented a significant break with previous patterns of cultural consumption, effectively halting the growth of “mass cultural tourism” driven by cheap flights and collaborative economy accommodation. Surveys conducted by the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Group in Portugal were used to develop a detailed picture of cultural tourism consumption during the pandemic. In 2020 and early 2021 surveys were conducted at different locations in the country, generating over 500 responses. The research shows that COVID-19 had significant impacts on the profile and activities of cultural tourists in Portugal, with much more domestic tourism at most sites, and fewer visitors staying away from home. Levels of satisfaction and intention to return remained high, as did perceived authenticity. There was a significant drop in touring holidays, with visitors more likely to stay in a single location. Those tourists visiting cultural attractions during the pandemic had a positive experience, despite the challenging conditions. Levels of satisfaction increased compared with previous surveys in Portugal in 2004, but there were also fluctuations in levels of satisfaction during the pandemic period, correlated with levels of COVID-19 infections. Some indications of emerging alternative forms of cultural tourism include an increased proclivity for rural locations and inland areas, away from destinations usually associated with mass (cultural) tourism. The article concludes by considering a number of implications for the development of cultural tourism in Portugal and other destinations in the postpandemic era.
Key words: Cultural tourism; COVID-19; Cultural experiences; Tourist profiles; Authenticity
The Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on Tourism Development in Peripheral Areas in Austria – 233
Jasmin Sandriester, Carmen Kern, and Jörn Harfst
Department of Geography and Regional Science, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
COVID-19 has greatly influenced and restricted people’s everyday lives worldwide, especially the freedom to travel and engage in tourism. In Austria, tourism contributes 7.5% to the country’s GDP, ranking it in the top one third of EU countries. Hence, the consequences of the pandemic have been significant. However, in contrast to the overall declining numbers in arrivals and overnight stays, domestic tourism has experienced a revival compared to 2019, with a +22.6% increase in overnight stays by Austrian guests in August 2020. Nevertheless, these trends have been unevenly distributed across Austrian regions. As the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on tourism are unclear, this article aims to provide a snapshot by analyzing the pandemic’s impact on selected Austrian regions as well as the district of Leoben, a small and peripheral tourism region. Based on quantitative and qualitative research, the article highlights the uneven geographical character of COVID-19’s impact on tourism and shows that more peripheral regions have indeed experienced short-term gains in regard to their visitor numbers—especially strengthening existing peaks. Nevertheless, there are questions regarding the sustainability of these trends because of the intrinsic deficits of these regions in terms of infrastructure and management capacities. Future research in this field should consider the unevenness of COVID-19’s impact while also analyzing (long-term) changes related to peripheral regions and their tourism development in post-COVID-19 times. A microanalysis on a municipal level could also be beneficial.
Key words: COVID-19 tourism impact; Peripheral areas; Tourism; Industrial regions/towns; Regional development
COVID-19 and the Impact on Cultural Tourism: The Case of Beit She’an Valley, Israel – 249
Michael Sofer,* Irit Shmuel,† Irit Amit-Cohen,* Anat Tchetchik,* Shilo Shiff,* and Yaron Michael*
*Department of Geography and Environment, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
†Hadassah Academic College, Tourism Studies, Jerusalem, Israel
Under the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in Israel, almost every taken-for-granted feature of the day-to-day life was affected. This phenomenon and its derived socioeconomic effects on cultural tourism have been investigated in a northern peripheral area, Beit She’an Valley, which includes a small urban municipality, Beit She’an town, and a regional council, Emek HaMaayanot (a rural municipality). The closure of heritage sites and almost every kind of public cultural venue has led to economic consequences such as absence of tourists, worker layoffs in the cultural tourism industry, and a wave of collapse of businesses. In order to understand the implications of the pandemic on the area, surveys were conducted among two local groups: business owners and residents. The findings show that 9 out of 10 businesses have been affected, yet few have received governmental support. A large number of business owners think that under the current circumstances, their business can be sustained only for several months. Residents reported that during the pandemic, they avoided public spaces and gatherings, visiting cultural sites much less often than before the pandemic. It is clear that both groups have to readjust their perception of tourist spaces and their activities. The changes that took place in tourism activities following the pandemic have led the owners of local businesses related to cultural tourism, as well as tour guides, to think of different ways to operate their activities. Interviews with a group of business owners suggest that new initiatives and survival strategies may have far-reaching implications for cultural tourism in the region and its characteristics. The findings of this research yield several recommendations regarding how to deal with similar crises in the future so that tourism activities at heritage sites will not be harmed.
Key words: COVID-19 impact; Cultural tourism; Survival strategies; Residents’ perception
The COVID-19 Pandemic in the Cyclades: Patterns and Prospects in Cultural Tourism – 263
Theano S. Terkenli and Vasiliki Georgoula
Department of Geography, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece
Until July 2021, the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic were severe for tourism-dependent countries, such as Greece, and particularly the Cyclades. The cultural sector and related activities, at the crux of Cycladic tourism industry, were especially hit by the pandemic. The rest of the 2021 tourist season, however, proved especially successful for Cycladic tourism, which poses the question of why and how a destination may survive—and even profit—from the pandemic. This article thus explores emerging Cyclades tourism patterns and prospects (in a case study of Andros, Syros, and Santorini), in the context of the anticipated postpandemic tourism regeneration. Methodologically, the study was based on: a) a series of in situ in-depth interviews with key informants, b) a questionnaire survey of tourists and related local businesses, and c) a focus group panel discussion with key local/regional stakeholders. The study was conducted between the fall of 2020 and spring of 2021, in the context of the SPOT HORIZON2020 EU project; the research design and data interpretation were enriched by participant observation and consultation of Trip Advisor websites. Findings show that the pandemic and its repercussions were grave for these islands, highly dependent on tourism based on a dominant small-and-medium enterprise tourism development model. Modes of travel, types of tourism, and visitors’ behavior were altogether affected, resulting in new patterns of (im)mobilities, while the role of culture was viewed as the destination’s “hope in the horizon” towards the reigniting and regeneration of smaller scale, creative, dispersed, and more sustainable tourism. However, great disparities also emerged between the current state and regenerative potential for local cultural tourism development. The study participants specifically emphasized that the private tourism sector had been left by the State to their own devices, and pointed to a lack of a) cultural infrastructure, b) public funding, and c) destination marketing/promotion.
Key words: Tourism-dependent destinations; Tourism trends; COVID-19 pandemic; Cultural tourism; Cyclades
The End of “Business as Usual”? Reimagining Barcelona Tourism After COVID-19 – 279
Danielle Bishop,* Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway,* and Montserrat Simó Solsona†
*Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Economics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
†Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Sociology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
This article examines the impact of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) on tourism in Barcelona, identifying the pandemic as a crucial turning point and window of opportunity for redefining the sector and reimagining Barcelona’s relationship with tourism. Throughout the pandemic, Barcelona’s tourism sector has experienced an unprecedented drop in visitors and revenue. The city must embrace new strategies for tourism and development in order to remain resilient in the face of this crisis. Cultural tourism offers both a short-term opportunity for economic recovery and a longer-term solution to the city’s preexisting sustainability issues. In addition to capitalizing on Barcelona’s wealth of cultural resources to attract “proximity” tourists, cultural tourism affords future opportunities to reduce the negative externalities of mass tourism and to reimagine a more sustainable tourism model for the city. Employing a mixed-methods approach, the article weighs the present need to promote tourism’s potential contribution to economic recovery against the future challenges of post-COVID-19 tourism and Barcelona’s need for greater sustainability. We include qualitative analysis based on press and document analysis of local newspapers and city government and tourism sector documents, as well as quantitative analysis of existing economic and tourism data and the results of a residents’ survey undertaken through the SPOT project (EU-H2020). In doing so, we highlight the role cultural tourism may play in Barcelona’s inclusive growth after COVID-19, addressing prior sustainability issues and promoting a more equal distribution of tourism’s benefits. This article also contributes to the ongoing dialogue between researchers and government and tourism actors regarding tourism’s role in local development and the future of the city, thus contributing to future strategies and policies.
Key words: Tourism; Cultural tourism; COVID-19; Sustainability; Sustainable cities
Cultural Tourism After COVID-19: First Findings From Czechia – 295
Milada Šťastna, Antonin Vaishar, and Kristyna Tuzova
Department of Applied and Landscape Ecology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Czechia
This article presents and discusses the visible effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cultural tourism in Czechia, Europe. The pandemic has caused or accelerated certain changes. Mainly urban destinations focusing on foreign tourists (e.g., Prague) were affected by the pandemic. However, despite the significant decline in tourism as an industry, the seeds of positive changes can be traced. For example, domestic tourists have discovered the appeal of the rural regions of their homeland. The trend has started to evolve from mass tourism to a more individual one. The decline of the workforce in tourism will likely result in the increase of more self-service forms of activities. Even though e-tourism cannot replace real experiences, it will contribute to a more deliberate selection of tourist destinations and services. Therefore, investing in a higher quality infrastructure should be a priority. The latest observations show that the main obstacle is insufficient cooperation among local stakeholders, such as entrepreneurs, public administration, or individual government departments. Czechia’s fundamental drawback is the lack of clear distinction of whether culture tourism falls into the economic sector or the cultural sphere.
Key words: Cultural tourism; COVID-19; Future trends; Czechia
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