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Aims & Scope
Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. The editors adopt a purposefully broad scope that welcomes readers and contributors from diverse disciplines and who are receptive in a wide variety of research methods. While potential cultural issues and identities are unlimited, there is a requirement that their consideration should relate to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also particularly welcome. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the editors recognize the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment.
The journal publishes high-quality research and applies a double-blind refereeing process. Tourism, Culture & Communication consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
Brian King, PhD
Professor & Department Chair
Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University
600 John Kimbrough Boulevard, TAMO 2261, College Station, TX 77843
Dr. Wantanee Suntikul
Scholar in Residence
Carl H. Lindner College of Business,
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221
Lindsay Turner,Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
CRITICAL REVIEWS EDITOR
Keith Hollinshead, Independent Scholar, England and Australia, Warwickshire, UK
BOOK AND MEDIA REVIEWS EDITOR
Stephen Pratt, University of the South Pacific, Fiji
Jerome Agrusa, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Elizabeth Agyeiwaah, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau
Tracey Berno, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Wu Bihu, Peking University, China
David Bojanic, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA
Vicky Chen, Macao Institute for Tourism Studies (IFTM), Macau
ONG Chin-Ee, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
Erik Cohen, Hebrew University, Israel
Chris Cooper, Oxford Brooks University, UK
Jennifer Craik, RMIT University, Australia
Kadir Din, University of Utara, Malaysia
Hillary Du Cros, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Johan Edelheim, Hokkaido University, Japan
Anne-Marie Hede, Victoria University, Australia
William G. Feighey, Tourism 21, Switzerland
Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA
Myriam Jansen-Verbeke, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium
Frances Kong, Macau Institute for Tourism Studies, Macau
Alan Lew, Northern Arizona University, USA
Alastair Morrison, Purdue University, USA
Wiendu Nuryanti, International Centre for Culture & Tourism (ICCT), Indonesia
Abraham Pizam, University of Central Florida, USA
Greg Richards, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Tony Seaton, University of Bedfordshire, UK
David Simmons, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Valene Smith, California State University, USA
Peter Spearritt, University of Queensland, Australia
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit their manuscripts to the joint editor-in-chief, Professor Brian King and Assistant Professor Wantanee Suntikul at https://tcc.scholasticahq.com/for-authors. The submission of manuscripts, figures, and tables should follow the guidelines noted below.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. Because manuscripts are sent out for blind review, submissions should include a cover page that includes only the title. Submissions should include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. It is important to note that figures and tables should not be incorporated within the text of the manuscript. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title of the manuscript, and the names of all authors and corresponding affiliation(s) for each contributor, which should include Department/School/College, Institution, City (State), and Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete postal mailing address and email address must be included for the corresponding author (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and key words: Submissions should an abstract of up to 300 words. This will represent the content of the manuscript in abbreviated form. It should include major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations, followed by supporting details of the research method, scope and purpose, as appropriate. Three to five key words that are suitable for indexing purposes should be supplied.
Text: All main and subheadings should be clearly indicated. The APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines should be followed for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends and figures (or provide figures in a separate file), and tables.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, following the examples that are set out below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries manual. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Bruckman, 2002) or (Alderman & Modlin, 2016; Cai, 2002; Laesser et al., 2009) or (Kahn, 2013, p. 38) (for quoted material). Please note that names within parentheses should appear in alphabetical order, NOT listed chronologically.
Journal Article: Parashar, A., Kumar, M., & Saluja, V. (2019). Discovering India through imagery in postcolonial travel writings. Tourism, Culture & Communication, 19(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.3727/109830419X15536971539399
Book: Arnold-de Simine, S. (2013). Mediating memory in the museum: Trauma, empathy, nostalgia. Palgrave Macmillan.
Book chapter in edited book: Gallas, K. L., & Perry, J. D. (2014). Comprehensive content and contested historical narratives. In K. L. Gallas & J. D. Perry (Eds.), Interpreting slavery at museums and historic sites (pp. 1–20). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Internet Source: The Art of Travel. (2016). Solo female travel on rise: A report. https://artoftravel.tips/solo-female-travel/#.WgkIW1uCy71
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in thetext and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table. Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must becompleted and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism, Culture & Communication are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although the publisher and editorial board make every effort to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Tourism, Culture and Communication (TCC) Peer Review Policy
To maintain high peer reviewing standards, Tourism, Culture & Communication (TCC) uses a double-blind review process, whereby the identity of the reviewers is unknown to the authors and authors identities are unknown to the reviewers. Peer review is defined as the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure the publication of high-quality scientific research.
The TCC peer review process is as follows:
An article is first checked for formatting and required acknowledgments by the Journal Administrator, after which it is forwarded to the Joint-Editors-in-Chief (JEIC).
The JEIC select between 2 and 4 reviewers based on key words, article content and peer review track record. to provide a detailed assessment of the paper. The reviewers are always experts in their field and may be members of the TCC editorial board. Reviewers will have no history of conflict with the authors of the paper and should be in good standing, based on their scholarly track record.
The comments received from the reviewers (a minimum of 2) will be received within 4-6 weeks. They are delivered to the JEIC who draw upon these comments to assess the merit of the manuscript, along with their own assessment. Special attention is given to declarations of potential conflict of interest. Where applicable, the JEIC will verify statements about appropriate approvals received in the case of research using human subjects. Likewise, claims about the use of appropriate statistical testing are ensured.
On receipt of relevant and sufficient reviewer comments, the JEIC will reach a collective decision based on a close examination and a determination is then conveyed to the authors. The authors receive detailed comments along with the final decision: accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection. Authors may be invited to resubmit their work as a research note at the discretion of the JEIC. The comments to authors are blinded. The identity of the JEIC (and where appropriate the applicable editorial associate) is revealed in the decision letter.
Prospective TCC reviewers have the opportunity to read and evaluate current research in their area of expertise when it is at an early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. Anyone interested in becoming a reviewer for TCC is invited to contact the JEIC Brian King and Wantanee Suntikul, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China at email@example.com.
As a reviewer for Tourism, Culture & Communication, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Culture & Communication have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Culture & Communication is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in interdisciplinary perspectives in areas of interest that may branch away from traditionally recognized national and indigenous cultures, for example, cultural attitudes toward the management of tourists with disabilities, gender aspects of tourism, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism, and related fields. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-culture-a-communication under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Table of Contents:
Volume 21, Number 4
The Experience of Disconnecting From Information and Communication Technology (ICT) While Traveling in Late Modernity – 1
Department of Sociology, University of Pau, Pau, France
Various authors have shown how information and communication technologies (ICTs) are transforming the travel experience to the point of undermining the original traveler objectives. Largely based on the traveler and technology relationship, most previous analyses have assumed that the changing travel experience is attributable to ICTs. From a survey based on 53 semistructured interviews, this article shows the inadequacy of seeking to understood traveler attempts to disconnect from ICTs as symptomatic of the relationship between travelers and technologies. The authors contend that it is equally important to understand travelers’ use of ICTs within the wider context of late modernity, which has induced particular relationships among relatives and the deployment of ICTs. The article highlights limitations of previous ethnographic approaches in ICT studies using the example of their role in the travel experience.
Key words: Disconnection; Information and communication technologies (ICTs); Traveling; Late modernity; Smartphones
Escaping From Cultural Practices at Home: An Exploration of Push and Pull – 13
Noela Michael,* Brian King,† and Anestis Fotiadis‡
*College of Communication and Media Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
†Recreation, Parks & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
‡College of Business, Zayed University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
This study explores the respective impacts of push and pull motivations on destination choices by Arab Emirati tourists, with emphasis on cultural aspects. The researchers evaluated the adequacy of Crompton’s sociopsychological and cultural model by examining why participants are drawn to destinations offering cultural contrasts to the norms prevalent in their usual places of residence. A qualitative approach was used to identify the aspects of destination choice that are most dependent on cultural context. It was concluded that pull factors should not be viewed in isolation because they operate alongside traveler cultural backgrounds in determining destination choices. Future researchers are encouraged to undertake further examinations of push and pull factors, taking full account of the hybridity of tourist motivations.
Key words: Push motivations; Pull motivations; Destination choice; Culture; Emiratis
Beyond the Tourist Experience: Analyzing the Imagination of Place and Travel in Everyday Life – 31
Stijn Reijnders, Balazs Boross, and Victoria Balan
Erasmus School of History, Culture and Communication, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
This article advocates a new agenda for (media) tourism research that links questions of tourist experiences to the role and meaning of imagination in everyday life. Based on a small-scale, qualitative study among a group of 17 respondents of diverse ages and backgrounds currently residing in the Netherlands, we offer an empirical exploration of the places that are of importance for people’s individual state of mind and investigate how these places relate to (potential) tourist experiences. The combination of in-depth interviews and random-cue self-reporting resulted in the following findings:1) all our respondents regularly reside in an elaborate imaginary world, consisting of both fictional and nonfictional places; 2) this imaginary world is dominated by places that make the respondents feel nostalgic; 3) in this regard, the private home and houses from childhood are pivotal; 4) the “home” is seen as topos of the self and contrasted with “away”; 5) the imagination of “away” emerges from memories of previous tourist experiences, personal fantasies, and, last but not least, influences from popular culture. We conclude that imagining and visiting other locations are part of a life-long project of “identity work” in which personal identities are performed, confirmed and extended. By traveling, either physically or mentally, individuals anchor their identity—the entirety of ideas about who they are, where they come from, and where they think they belong—in a broader, spatial framework.
Key words: Imagination; Tourism; Popular culture; Home; Everyday life
The Role of Face Gaining on Millennials’ Outbound Travel Intention in Mainland China – 45
Fei Long and Norzalita Abd Aziz
UKM-Graduate School of Business, The National University of Malaysia, Malaysia
As a typical cultural concept being deeply rooted in Chinese society, “face” regulates many social behaviors in China. However, research on the social aspect of “face” is limited in tourism studies. This study applies an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model incorporating face gaining for examining millennials’ outbound travel intention from mainland China. By analyzing data from 350 Chinese millennial tourists, we find that face gaining has an indirect impact on outbound travel intention through attitude (ATT), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Based on the findings, the research provides some insights regarding “face gaining” in travel behavior, and destination marketing on Chinese millennials.
Key words: Face gaining; Chinese millennials; Outbound travel intention; Mainland China; Theory of planned behavior (TPB)
Participation of Local Stakeholders at Ban Chiang World Heritage Site – 59
Pattarachit Choompol Gozzoli* and Roberto B. Gozzoli†
*Department of Society and Health, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
†Tourism and Hospitality Management Division, Mahidol University International College, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
This article deals with the empowerment of local residents and the economic development of the World Heritage (WH) site at Ban Chiang, Thailand, a prehistoric necropolis dating back to the first millennium BC. The site itself was added to the WH list in 1992, with the intention of safeguarding it from further looting by local inhabitants through the possible combination of restrictive laws and tourism-generated income. To ascertain the success of those policies three decades later, tourism activities and local community participation have been assessed in this study through GIS spatial analysis and a questionnaire survey based on the Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale (RETS). The spatial analysis shows that no tourism activity has developed within the heritage property, which remains unvisited by tourists, while the questionnaire survey confirms that tourism and the related income potential for Ban Chiang residents are limited, but they are proud of the fact that Ban Chiang is a WH site, and strongly support tourism. The other negative aspects are the lack of political participation by the local community, and the lack of tourism skills, both of which limit any possible further development of the site. Based on such results, a theoretical framework for sustainable heritage development derived from Landorf’s research is elaborated in this study, employing all the various stages of sustainable heritage development and analysis tools from site assessment to the planning and development stages.
Key words: Ban Chiang; World Heritage; Local stakeholders’ empowerment; Sustainability
Tacit Ontologies: An Application of Nisbett’s Geography of Thought Premise as Discerned by Hospitality and Tourism Students – 85
Earney Lasten,* Danqing Liu,† Lan Jiang,‡ and Randall S. Upchurch‡
*International Hospitality & Tourism Management, University of Curaçao, Curaçao
†School of Management, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, PR China
‡School of Resort & Hospitality Management, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, Florida, USA
Dr. Richard Nisbett’s seminal publication appropriately titled The Geography of Thought has generated considerable scientific interest relative to the social as well as cognitive processes that underlie information processing and assimilation. The encapsulation of Nisbett’s body of research is best summarized as how people process information directly impacts what they think. Furthermore, the application of social psychology research pertaining to ontological impact upon argument and reasoning analysis is lacking in the hospitality literature. Testing Nisbett’s premise using hospitality and tourism students in China, Korea, Colombia, and the US discovered a presence of geographical differences in information processing (decoding) of argument and reasoning statements, although within group variances in information analysis was also detected. The implication is that a deeper understanding of how cognitive, sociocultural, individual, situational factors influence decision making is needed in hospitality and tourism.
Key words: Geography of thought; Information processing; Social psychology; Hospitality; Tourism; Decision choices
Tourism Paradoxes: Contradictions, Controversies and Challenges (Erdinç Çakmak, Hazel Tucker, and Keith Hollinshead, Editors) – 97
Dr. Geoffrey Wall
Handbook of Social Tourism (Anya Diekmann and Scott McCabe, Editors) – 101
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Updated as of December 2021
Number of submissions: 220
Number of reviews requested: 110
Number of reviews received: 90
Approval rate: 12%
Average time between submission and publication (*FastTrack online publication): 6 months