Tourism in Marine Environments, official journal of the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS),is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in coastal and marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism and recreation. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes “those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected).” Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such asscuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events,Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.
Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts incoastal and marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board coordinates most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
Michael Lück School of Hospitality and Tourism Faculty of Applied Humanities AUT University Private Bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand Email: email@example.com
Commentary/Research Notes Editor Marc L. Miller, University of Washington, USA
Book Review Editor Mark B. Orams, AUT University, New Zealand
Student Section Editor David A. Fennell, Brock University, Canada
Simon Berrow, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway, Ireland Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK Peter Corkeron, NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center USA Philip Dearden, University of Victoria, Canada Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenberg, Sweden Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada Kevin Markwell, Southern Cross University, Australia Gayle Mayes, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore Gianna Moscardo, James Cook University, Australia Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia David Newsome, Murdoch University, Western Australia E. C. M. Parsons, George Mason University, USA Brooke Porter, Coral Triangle Conservancy, Philippines Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia Liz Slooten, University of Otago, New Zealand Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK Jeffrey Wilks, Tourism Safety, Australia
Instructions for Contributors
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief, Michael Lück, at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Full research papers are commonly in the range of 5,000-7,000 words in length (excluding figures, tables, and references). Longer papers may be negotiated with the editor-in-chief.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and Keywords: The article abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, acknowledgment, biographical note(s), reference list, figure legends, figures and tables (or provide figures as a separate file). Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Biographical Note: A short biosketch of the author(s) should be included. Manuscripts accepted for publication should include a biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests, education, important activities, andprofessional affiliations) of all authors.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Fennell, 1999) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Orams, M. (1996). An interpretation model for managing marine wildlife-tourist interaction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 4(4), 81–95. Book:Gill, P., & Burke, C. (1999). Whale watching in Australian & New Zealand waters. Sydney: New Holland Publishers. Book chapter:Cater, E., & Goodall, B. (1992). Must tourism destroy its resource base? In A. M. Mannion & S. R. Bowlby (Eds.), Environmental issues in the 1990s (pp. 309–323). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Internet source:Byron Underwater Research Group. (2009). Byron Underwater Research Group low impact diving. Retrieved from http://burg.org.au/diving.html
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should beincluded at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in thetext. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book and Conference Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Commentaries and research are commonly between 3,000 and 3,500 words in length; book and conference reviews up to 3,000 words. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism in Marine Environments are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisementsherein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any suchinaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism in Marine Environments is governed by an international editorial board consisting of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-in-marine-environments under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Measuring Perceived Crowding in the Marine Environment: Perspectives From a Mass Tourism “Swim-With” Whale Shark Site in the Philippines – 211 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15677721896465
Jackie A. Ziegler,* Gonzalo Araujo,† Jessica Labaja,† Christine Legaspi,† Sally Snow,† Alessandro Ponzo,† Rick Rollins,*‡ and Philip Dearden*
*Marine Protected Areas Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada †Large Marine Vertebrates Research Institute, Cagulada Compound, Barangay Tejero, Jagna, Bohol, Philippines ‡Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, Canada
Perceived crowding is an important measure in assessing the social impacts of tourism activities. The goal of this study was to determine if the method used to measure perceived crowding in the marine environment (numerical vs. visual approach, boat vs. swimmer crowding) affects the crowding outcome and to apply the concept to a high-density marine wildlife tourism site, viewing whale sharks in Oslob, Philippines. The influence of various variables, including specialization, gender, nationality, swimmer behaviors, and proximity, was also tested to see if they affected crowding levels. Results indicate that a visual approach is more accurate in measuring reported encounters and encounter norms, and that boat and swimmer crowding are not interchangeable. Boat crowding is a serious problem in Oslob (95.6% crowded). Specialization, nationality, and swimmer behaviors and proximity all affected perceived crowding. Individuals who reported feeling crowded were more likely to perceive negative impacts of tourism activities on the local community, whale sharks, and wider environment. They also showed higher levels of support for management interventions to limit the number of people and boats at the site and to better regulate or ban whale shark provisioning activities. This study provides important insights regarding how to measure perceived crowding in the marine environment and management implications for a mass tourism wildlife site experiencing overcrowding.
*College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau, AK, USA †Department of Natural Sciences, University of Alaska Southeast, Juneau, AK, USA
An increasing number of visitors to Juneau, AK, alongside a predictable population of humpback whales (Megapteranovaeangliae), has supported the substantial growth of its whale-watching industry. The industry provides benefits to the community through economic gains, while the experience can foster environmental awareness and support for protection of whales and the environment. However, the sustainability of the industry could be jeopardized if increasing whale-watching vessel pressure affects the health of its resource, the whales. This study investigates whether participation in whale-watching tours in Juneau, AK can support conservation of whales and the environment. Participant knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors were obtained from 2,331 respondents in surveys before, after, and 6 months after a whale-watching tour during the 2016 and 2017 seasons. Following a whale watch, the percentage of participants that indicated whale watching as a knowledge source increased (p = 0.022), awareness of guidelines and regulations doubled (p < 0.001), and strong support for regulations increased (p = 0.016). Six months later, these responses remained significantly higher than before the whale watch. Despite knowledge of distance threshold increasing after a whale watch (p = 0.003) and 6 months after (p = 0.021), getting close to whales remained an important factor in a participant’s whale watch. Participants had a higher likelihood of strongly supporting guidelines and regulations if they indicated that boats can have a negative impact on whales or were aware of guidelines and regulations. Lastly, participants that acknowledged negative effects on whales from boats had higher overall proenvironmental attitudes. This study indicates that incorporating messages that facilitate participant awareness of guidelines/regulations and the purpose of those measures can support conservation and protection of local whale populations through managing participant expectations and ultimately encouraging operator compliance.
A Curriculum Framework for Undergraduate Coastal and Marine Tourism University Programs – 249 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15721827632578
Lynn C. Jonas,* Nonnie M. Botha,* and Peter Myles†
*Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa †Nelson Mandela Bay Maritime Cluster, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Coastal and marine tourism is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the tourism industry and the workforce needs to be equipped to be able to work in this industry. There is a lack of importance placed on coastal and marine tourism curricula and a focused curriculum framework would provide a guideline for future course development for the industry. The purpose of this article is to present a curriculum framework for undergraduate coastal and marine tourism university programs. Data were collected in the South African context through a mixed methods approach with a multiphase design whereby qualitative data were first collected through content analysis, followed by quantitative data collected through questionnaires, and the third phase included qualitative data collected through semistructured interviews. The study found a variety of both soft and physical skills that are applicable to the coastal and marine tourism environment. Specific teaching and assessment methods that would be more applicable to the industry are also identified. Coastal and marine tourism curricula will have to be all-encompassing yet industry focused.
Close Encounters With Wild Cetaceans: Good Practices and Online Discussions of Critical Episodes – 265 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15719407307721
School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
This research note reports on whale interactions in northern Norway and asks: How are close encounters not in line with good practices of whale watching represented and discussed in the online sources accessible by tourists and recreationists? Based on an exploratory qualitative investigation of critical episodes of close encounters with cetaceans, this article identifies some main aspects emerging from the online representations and discussions at various levels (local, national, international). The findings suggest some important points of reflections for future developments of whale watching in northern Norway as well as worldwide.
Key words: Close encounters with cetaceans; Swim-with programs (SWPs); Whale-watching guidelines Using Ranking Data to Understand International Surfers’ Travel Motivations – 275 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15719409492319
Brooke A. Porter*†‡ and Lindsay E. Usher§
*Food and Sustainability Studies, Umbra Institute, Perugia, Italy †School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, NZ ‡Coral Triangle Conservancy, Taguig, Philippines §Park, Recreation and Tourism Studies, Human Movement Sciences Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA
Some emerging destinations are looking to surf tourism as a development strategy. Surf tourism stakeholders can better govern surf tourism development if they know more about the surf travelers themselves. To better understand the behavior of surf tourists, this research uses ranked data to explore items in three major categories: 1) surf-related travel attributes; 2) destination attributes; and 3) general experience attributes. Findings suggested that swell consistency and wave size, accommodation, and escapism were among the most popular items, while aspects such as surf photography, nightlife, and access to competitions were among the least popular. These preliminary findings may assist emerging destinations in their surf tourism development plans as well as identify important areas for future research.
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