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Aims & Scope
Tourism in Marine Environments, official journal of the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS), is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in coastal and marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism and recreation. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes “those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected).” Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such as scuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events, Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.
Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in coastal and marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board coordinates most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
Marc L. Miller, University of Washington, USA
Research Notes Editor
Richard Aquino, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Book Review Editor
Mark B. Orams, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Kirin Therese Apps, Southern Cross University, Australia
Mike Brown, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand
Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK
Peter Corkeron, Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life, New England Aquarium, USA
Giacomo del Chiappa, University of Sassari, Italy
Adam Dennett, University of Huddersfield, UK
Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA
Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK
Vinicius J. Giglio, Federal University of Western Pará, Brazil
C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand
Andreas Skriver Hansen, Center for Regional & Turismeforskning, Denmark
Jennie Holland, University of Suffolk and Researcher and Consultant, UK
Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada
Whitney Knollenberg, North Carolina State University, USA
Anna Lewis, University of Wollongong, Australia
Kerrie Littlejohn, Woodland Park Zoo, USA
Serena Lucrezi, North-West University, South Africa
Manue Martinez, M2M Consulting – Maunga to Moana Consulting, New Zealand
Gianna Moscardo, James Cook University, Australia
Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia
E. C. M. Parsons, National Science Foundation, USA
Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal
Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia
Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Tempi Tichaawa, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Lindsay Usher, Old Dominion University, USA
Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK
Jeffrey Wilks, Southern Cross University, Australia
Jackie A. Ziegler, University of Victoria, Canada
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Recent Updates to Instructions as a Result of COVID-19
COVID-19 has changed the world, and of course tourism is particularly affected by this as well. Tourism in Marine Environments is not calling for a special issue on this topic, but welcomes papers related to the effects of COVID-19 on coastal and marine tourism.
We do not wish to invalidate research undertaken pre-COVID-19, although some of the results and conclusions may not be applicable any longer. However, for all new submissions where data collection was unrelated to the COVID-19 pandemic, we ask authors for the following.
Either build a reflection about how COVID-19 may have influenced the research and results/development into the conclusion, or add a post script. The post script would leave the initial paper and research untouched, but puts it in the light of a new reality. To accommodate this addition, we suggest the post script to be about 500 words in length.
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief, Michael Luck, at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Full research papers are commonly in the range of 5,000-7,000 words in length (excluding figures, tables, and references). Longer papers may be negotiated with the editor-in-chief.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and Keywords: The article abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, acknowledgment, biographical note(s), reference list, figure legends, figures and tables (or provide figures as a separate file). Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Biographical Note: A short biosketch of the author(s) should be included. Manuscripts accepted for publication should include a biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests,education, important activities, and professional affiliations) of all authors.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Bramwell, 2003) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Schuler, A. R., & Pearson, H. C. (2019). Conservation benefits of whale watching in Juneau, Alaska. Tourism in Marine Environments, 14(4), 231–248. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15719404264632
Book: Bramwell, B. (Ed.). (2003). Coastal mass tourism: Diversification and sustainable development in southern Europe. Channel View Publications.
Book chapter: Bekoff, M. (2002). Ethics and marine mammals. In W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, & H. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals (pp. 398–404). Academic Press.
Internet source: Weissmann, A. (2019, October 7). Cruising’s climate challenge. Travel Weekly. https://www.travelweekly.com/Arnie-Weissmann/Cruisings-climate-challenge
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book and Conference Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Commentaries and research are commonly between 3,000 and 3,500 words in length; book and conference reviews up to 3,000 words. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism in Marine Environments are available to be open access and may also contain color figures (not a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
A Voluntary Submission Fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $50.00 per color page). (Not a condition for publication).
Open Access is available for a fee of $200.00. Color would be discounted to $50.00 per color page. (Not a condition for publication).
The use of Color Figures in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. Color figures are available for a cost of $100.00 per color page. This amount would be discounted to $50.00 per color page if choosing to pay the voluntary submission fee or the open access option as indicated above. (Not a condition for publication).
If you choose any of the above options, a form will be sent with the amount due based on your selection, at proof stage. This form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof, prior to publication.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibilityor liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Articles appearing in publications are available to be published as Open Access and/or with color figures. A voluntary submission fee is also an option if you choose to support this publication. These options are NOT required for publication of your article.
You may complete the Author Option Payment Form here.
The designated corresponding author will receive a free pdf file of the final press article via email.
A special thanks to the Pacific Whale Foundation https://www.pacificwhale.org for its partnership with TiME and support of the ESL Authors program.
ESL Author Option
Tourism in Marine Environments is committed to improving issues of social justice within and access to the scientific literature. As part of this effort we are offering free copy editing for qualifying ESL author(s) who do not otherwise have access to this service through their institutions. To qualify for this service, we ask authors specify the need for this service in the letter to the editor that accompanies submission. Upon receipt of a qualifying ESL manuscript, an intern/volunteer copy editor will be assigned. In return for the copy-editing service, we kindly request that ESL author(s) acknowledge by name, the copy editor in the acknowledgements section. Should a case arise where the assigned copy editor makes substantial contributions to the content of the manuscript (data analysis, suggestion/addition of scientific literature, advancement of the discussion, etc.) we kindly ask the author(s) to consider adding the copy editor as an additional author.
Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) Peer Review Policy
Peer review serves to evaluate the scientific work of academics and/or working in the same field to ensure trustworthy scientific research is published.
In order to uphold these standards, Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) utilizes a double blind review process in which neither the identities of reviewers nor of the author(s) are shared.
The peer review process for TIME is laid out below:
The Editor-in-Chief (EIC) checks the suitability of a submission for review. This may include such aspects such as general relevance to journal aims, format according to journal requirements, quality of research, adherence to relevant ethical guidelines, and/or basic readability (language and grammar).
If the article is deemed suitable for review, the EIC assigns the submission to an Editorial Board Member (EBM) based on expertise, lack of any conflicts of interest, and availability. The identity of the EBM is available to the authors during any point of submission.
The EBM then selects two reviewers for detailed peer review. The reviewers are chosen based on their expertise on the topic and lack of any conflict of interests is assured. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Completion of peer review is expected within 4 weeks. Reviewers submit comments and recommendations to the EBM who then reviews the inputs and has autonomy to makes a decision regarding the article submission. If the EBM has questions about the review process she/he confers with the EIC for a final decision.
The decision of accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection is then relayed to the authors along with detailed, blinded comments.
As a reviewer for TIME you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TIME, please contact the EIC Michael Lück, Auckland University of Technology at email@example.com
As a reviewer for Tourism in Marine Environments, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism in Marine Environments is governed by an international editorial board consisting of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-in-marine-environments under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Table of Contents:
Volume 18, Numbers 3-4
Shark Diving Tourism Experiences: Perspectives From Professionals and Tourists to Improve Management – 77
Serena Lucrezi, Olivia Wilson, and Martinette Kruger
Tourism Research in Economics, Environs and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Shark diving tourism is an industry potentially contributing to shark conservation while supporting economies worldwide. Managing experiences in shark diving tourism is essential to guarantee the sustainability of this industry and the safety of people and sharks. In this context, investigations of what constitutes positive and negative shark diving experiences are necessary to steer management. This qualitative study assessed the perspectives of tourists and professionals (N = 55) concerning positive and negative experiences characterizing shark diving tourism. The study focused on Southern Africa, including four shark diving locations in South Africa and Mozambique. The thematic analysis of participants’ responses to a semistructured interview revealed that positive experiences in shark diving tourism include responsible dive operations, edifying experiences, and quality dive sites, while negative experiences include declining natural features and careless behavior from stakeholders. Taking into account the limitations of this study, the results highlight the importance of ethically sound operational management in shark diving, as well as education, to steer the growth of shark diving tourism as a sustainable industry. Additionally, the results offer guidelines for ensuring positive experiences in shark diving tourism that can support shark conservation while counteracting negative public opinions of sharks.
Key words: Conservation; Education; South Africa; Mozambique; Code of conduct; Attitude
The Future of Scuba Diving Tourism: Assessments of Perceived Value and Satisfaction on the Mississippi Gulf Coast – 105
Bradley G. Winton and Ka’lon Duncanson
College of Business and Economic Development, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA
Across a range of diving locations, there is a need for greater understanding about what local divers value in their diving experiences and how this might lead to greater satisfaction with this activity in the future. In particular, the Mississippi Gulf Coast is known for its coastal beauty and the tourism that comes from the recreational activities associated with the water. However, scuba divers appear to be an underserved segment of the tourism industry. The coast provides opportunities for local scuba divers to take part in a range of diving activities, but there is minimal support for this tourism activity in Mississippi. To remedy this situation, this study argues that the functional, emotional, social, risk, and epistemic value local divers put on their diving experience leads to greater satisfaction in their diving experience. Accordingly, hypotheses are developed to directly link each dimension of perceived value to satisfaction with the diving experience. Results highlight a significant effect of overall perceived value on satisfaction with the diving experience. Further, the functional and social value factors were also found to have significant and positive relationships with diver satisfaction. Beyond providing greater understanding of what brings local divers greater fulfillment, a larger goal of this research is to discover future ways to better market scuba diving along the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
Key words: Perceived value; Satisfaction; Tourism; Scuba diving
Achieving Sustainable Coastal Environment by Examining Destination Image and Tourists’ Environment Responsible Behavior – 119
Sadia Aziz,* Muhammad Abdullah Khan Niazi,† Usman Ghani,‡ and Misbah Noor*
*Management Sciences Department, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, Pakistan
†Institute of Business and Management Sciences (IBMS), University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
‡Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan
The irresponsible actions of tourists harm the coastal environment. Throwing garbage in the water, damaging green belts and lawns, and throwing disposable material and shopping bags harm the environment and beautification of coastal destinations. Previous researchers have identified the worse effect of tourists’ irresponsible behaviors on the environment and the aquatic ecosystem of coastal destinations. Concern for the coastal destination environment has pushed researchers and destination management officers to identify the underlying behavioral patterns of tourists and proposed strategies for influencing tourists’ environment responsible behavior (ERB). Current research has discussed the significance of destination image in shaping tourists’ ERB with the help of the cognitive–affective– conative destination image (DI) model. Further study has discussed the mediating effect of perceived destination trust (PDT) and the moderating role of perceived destination reputation (PDR) in shaping tourists’ ERB with the theoretical lens of signaling theory. A self-administrative survey research design was employed, and 954 completed questionnaires were used for data analysis. Data were gathered from the tourists attending coastal destinations located in Karachi, a city in Pakistan. Sitting arrangements for the data collection were made at the exit points of each beach. The study used three categories of hypothesized relationships: direct, mediation, and moderation. The findings of the study indicated that cognitive image has an insignificant effect on the tourists’ ERB while having a significant effect on the affective image and conative image. Results for affective DI show significant effect on conative DI and tourists’ ERB. Further results for conative image showed a significant effect on ERB. Results for mediation showed significant meditation of PDT among the DI and ERB. Finally, the results for PDR showed significant moderation and further indicated that a high level of PDR raises the level of tourists’ ERB. In contrast, tourists showed a low level of ERB when they had a low perception of the destination’s reputation. The study has made unique efforts to understand the complex tourists’ ERB with the help of the cognitive–affective–conative image model and signaling theory.
Key words: Environment responsible behavior; Perceived destination reputation; Cognitive–affective–conative destination image; Perceived destination trust
Does the Psychological Well-Being of Male and Female Tourism-Reliant Workers Differ During a Crisis Such as COVID-19? A Case of Fiji – 143
Navneel Shalendra Prasad, Avineel Avineet Kumar, and Archana Sitamma Reddy
Department of Management, School of Business and Economics, The University of Fiji, Lautoka, Fiji
Tourism was the major contributor to the GDP and employment in Fiji, which changed after COVID-19. This study explores the psychological well-being of 82 tourism industry workers from tourism-dominant areas of Fiji who completed an online questionnaire assessing their past experiences, psychological well-being, and positive thinking attitude. A regression analysis was performed to analyze the results. The results showed that the psychological well-being and positive attitude scores were very high. An average score in positive feelings from past experiences and a below average negative attitude indicated that psychological well-being was slightly affected. Findings also reveal that the psychological well-being of males is positively linked to positive and negative experiences of the past. In contrast, for females, it is linked to positive past experiences. This indicates that studies should always account for male and female differences to better understand psychological well-being. These findings will enable the industry, government, and related stakeholders to respond to future crises. Practical implications are discussed.
Key words: Psychological well-being; Tourism; COVID-19; Employment; Fiji; Small Island Developing State
Whales for Sale: A Content Analysis of American Whale-Watching Operators’ Websites – 161
Marcus Reamer,* Catherine Macdonald,* Julia Wester,† and Meryl Shriver-Rice†
*Rosenstiel School of Marine, Atmospheric, and Earth Science, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
†Leonard & Jayne Abess Center for Ecosystem Science and Policy, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
Digital media, particularly websites, have become a critical component of wildlife tourism experiences, especially during the pretour information-seeking stage. With a focus on whale watching, this study used a grounded theory approach to identify, categorize, and investigate the common themes, text, and images used on 178 whale-watching operator websites across six geographic regions in the US. The results of a content analysis suggest that operators who are predominantly small business owners focus their marketing strategies on elements of their tour offerings and operator characteristics to distinguish themselves from competitors rather than emphasizing the whales themselves, conservation actions, or educational opportunities, catering to a segment of entertainment-oriented rather than sustainability-oriented guests. Ecolabel-certified operators in the sample mentioned conservation and educational topics more, though the information provided could still use improvement. We discuss implications and opportunities for the continued study of media related to whale watching and other marine wildlife tourism activities.
Key words: Whale watching; Environmental media; Tourism marketing; Wildlife tourism; Tourism operators
Safety Criteria in Ecotourism Activities: The Case of a Marine Salt Pan During the COVID-19 Pandemic – 185
Jorge Ramos* and Soraia Garces*†
*CinTurs – Research Centre for Tourism, Sustainability and Well-being, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal
†Universidade da Madeira/CIERL, Funchal, Portugal
This study used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to examine the application of the main safety rules in ecotourism activities in a marine salt pan during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results suggest that, among the activities analyzed, the best way perceived to maintain social distance was the guided tour activity, while hand hygiene was seen as the most important in the saline bath and in the combined activity. Mask was generally removed in activities involving immersion in water by tourists. These measures were crucial to ensure a sense of security and well-being both for tourists and employees of the tourism and hospitality industry.
Key words: Analytic hierarchy process (AHP); Nature park; Safety rules; Portuguese General Directorate of Health (DGS); World Health Organization (WHO)
The Blue Flag Award in South Africa: Raising Consciences and Influencing Beach Goers’ Decisions – 203
Lesleen Chenesai Mukaronda and Reshma Sucheran
Department of Hospitality and Tourism, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
In recent years, the tourism sector has experienced significant expansion, with the beach ecosystem emerging as the most popular destination for recreational and leisure pursuits. The proliferation of marine tourism activities has resulted in undeniable ecological consequences, including but not limited to the generation of solid waste, noise and air pollution, unattractive landscapes, and degradation of the coastal biome. The Blue Flag certification has been widely embraced by several coastal municipalities as a means of addressing the adverse environmental consequences that arise from tourism and recreational activities. The objective of this research is to evaluate the perceptions and level of awareness of beach visitors regarding the Blue Flag award, as well as determine if their selection of a beach destination is influenced by the Blue Flag standards. The study employed a quantitative methodology and gathered data, using convenience sampling, from beach visitors at nine Blue Flag beaches located in KwaZulu-Natal. The data were collected through a structured, self-administered questionnaire. The findings suggest that there is a dearth of awareness among beach visitors regarding the Blue Flag certification and that certain criteria associated with the award have an impact on their selection of beaches. The study is expected to yield significant advantages in enhancing and strengthening the Blue Flag certification program within the country at large. Additionally, it will promote the necessity of public environmental education and awareness regarding the award.
Key words: Blue flag; Beach; Environmental management; Marine tourism; Awareness
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Number of submissions: 61
Number of reviews requested: 170 (approximate)
Number of reviews received: 150 (approximate)
Approval rate: 54.1%
Average time between submission and publication: approximately 4 months