Tourism in Marine Environments, official journal of the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS),is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in coastal and marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism and recreation. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes “those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected).” Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such asscuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events,Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.
Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts incoastal and marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board coordinates most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
Brooke A. Porter School of Hospitality and Tourism Faculty of Culture and Society Auckland University of Technology Private Bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Michael Lück School of Hospitality and Tourism Faculty of Culture and Society Auckland University of Technology Private Bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand Email: email@example.com
Commentary/Research Notes Editor Marc L. Miller, University of Washington, USA
Book Review Editor Mark B. Orams, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Student Section Editor David A. Fennell, Brock University, Canada
Kirin Therese Apps, Southern Cross University, Australia Richard S. Aquino, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK Peter Corkeron, Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life, New England Aquarium, USA Philip Dearden, University of Victoria, Canada Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenberg, Sweden Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada Anna Lewis, University of Wollongong, Australia Kerrie Littlejohn, University of Hawaii, USA Serena Lucrezi, North-West University, South Africa Gianna Moscardo, James Cook University, Australia Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia David Newsome, Murdoch University, Western Australia E. C. M. Parsons, National Science Foundation, USA Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia Liz Slooten, University of Otago, New Zealand Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK Jeffrey Wilks, Southern Cross University, Australia Jackie A. Ziegler, University of Victoria, Canada
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Recent Updates to Instructions as a Result of COVID-19
COVID-19 has changed the world, and of course tourism is particularly affected by this as well. Tourism in Marine Environments is not calling for a special issue on this topic, but welcomes papers related to the effects of COVID-19 on coastal and marine tourism.
We do not wish to invalidate research undertaken pre-COVID-19, although some of the results and conclusions may not be applicable any longer. However, for all new submissions where data collection was unrelated to the COVID-19 pandemic, we ask authors for the following.
Either build a reflection about how COVID-19 may have influenced the research and results/development into the conclusion, or add a post script. The post script would leave the initial paper and research untouched, but puts it in the light of a new reality. To accommodate this addition, we suggest the post script to be about 500 words in length.
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief, Brooke A. Porter, at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Full research papers are commonly in the range of 5,000-7,000 words in length (excluding figures, tables, and references). Longer papers may be negotiated with the editor-in-chief.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and Keywords: The article abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, acknowledgment, biographical note(s), reference list, figure legends, figures and tables (or provide figures as a separate file). Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Biographical Note: A short biosketch of the author(s) should be included. Manuscripts accepted for publication should include a biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests,education, important activities, and professional affiliations) of all authors.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Bramwell, 2003) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Schuler, A. R., & Pearson, H. C. (2019). Conservation benefits of whale watching in Juneau, Alaska. Tourism in Marine Environments, 14(4), 231–248. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15719404264632
Book:Bramwell, B. (Ed.). (2003). Coastal mass tourism: Diversification and sustainable development in southern Europe. Channel View Publications.
Book chapter:Bekoff, M. (2002). Ethics and marine mammals. In W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, & H. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals (pp. 398–404). Academic Press.
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book and Conference Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Commentaries and research are commonly between 3,000 and 3,500 words in length; book and conference reviews up to 3,000 words. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism in Marine Environments are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibilityor liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) Peer Review Policy
Peer review serves to evaluate the scientific work of academics and/or working in the same field to ensure trustworthy scientific research is published.
In order to uphold these standards, Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) utilizes a double blind review process in which neither the identities of reviewers nor of the author(s) are shared.
The peer review process for TIME is laid out below:
The Editor-in-Chief (EIC) checks the suitability of a submission for review. This may include such aspects such as general relevance to journal aims, format according to journal requirements, quality of research, adherence to relevant ethical guidelines, and/or basic readability (language and grammar).
If the article is deemed suitable for review, the EIC assigns the submission to an Editorial Board Member (EBM) based on expertise, lack of any conflicts of interest, and availability. The identity of the EBM is available to the authors during any point of submission.
The EBM then selects two reviewers for detailed peer review. The reviewers are chosen based on their expertise on the topic and lack of any conflict of interests is assured. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Completion of peer review is expected within 4 weeks. Reviewers submit comments and recommendations to the EBM who then reviews the inputs and has autonomy to makes a decision regarding the article submission. If the EBM has questions about the review process she/he confers with the EIC for a final decision.
The decision of accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection is then relayed to the authors along with detailed, blinded comments.
As a reviewer for TIME you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TIME, please contact the EIC Michael Lück, Auckland University of Technology at firstname.lastname@example.org
As a reviewer for Tourism in Marine Environments, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism in Marine Environments is governed by an international editorial board consisting of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-in-marine-environments under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
SPECIAL ISSUE SAFETY AND MARINE WILDLIFE Guest Editors: Michael Lück and Mark B. Orams
Marine Wildlife Tourism and Safety – 123 Michael Lück* And Mark B. Orams DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15969302280250
*School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
“I Would Die to See One”: A Study to Evaluate Safety Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Among Shark Scuba Divers – 127 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15779149069752
Serena Lucrezi,* Filippo Bargnesi,† and Francois Burman‡
*Tourism Research in Economics, Environs and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa †Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (DiSVA), Polytechnic University of Marche, UO CoNISMa, Ancona, and Cattolica Aquarium, Cattolica (RN), Italy ‡Divers Alert Network (DAN), Durham, NC, USA
Shark diving tourism is an activity that can contribute significantly to coastal economies, while also offering tremendous help to shark conservation efforts. Nevertheless, like any form of wildlife-based tourism, shark diving poses management challenges revolving around ethical and safety considerations. Safety in shark diving normally focuses on operational self-efficacy and adherence to shark diving codes of conduct to prevent incidents such as shark bites and to minimize ecological harm. However, safety issues in shark diving can arise from personal choices to exceed standard certification limits. Any detrimental results are capable of casting doubts on the sustainability of shark diving, thus jeopardizing its future as well as shark conservation. This study addressed compliance with shark diving codes of conduct and standard diving safety by examining the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of people who engage in free scuba diving with predatory sharks. The research made use of mixed methods of data collection, including interviews with shark divers at two popular shark diving destinations in Southeast Africa (n = 86) and an online questionnaire survey among shark divers (n = 89). The results showed that divers had positive attitudes towards sharks and shark diving. However, a notable proportion declared that they had exceeded certification limits and broken codes of conduct during shark diving. In particular, diving experience and being a professional diver were correlated significantly with poor safety attitudes and behavior. The results highlight the need to create an understanding among scuba diver of the connection between shark diving safety and conservation, including the negative implications of safety breaches, whether big or small, for the future of shark diving tourism and of sharks.
Key words: Codes of conduct; Marine wildlife tourism; Safety issues; Conservation; Marine protected area
Behaviors of Grey Seals (Halichoerusgrypus) Addressed Towards Human Swimmers During Experimental Open Water Encounters Off Heligoland (German Bight, North Sea) – 159 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15945013137030
Independent Scholar, Bremen, Germany
Risks arising for humans during swim encounters with seals are poorly understood. This study was initiated to examine behaviors of unhabituated grey seals addressed towards humans during experimental, noncommercial seal-swim activities off Heligoland. In total, 26 in-water encounters were conducted. Behavioral classes and the number of seals simultaneously approaching swimmers were time sampled. A set of risky and nonrisky interactive behaviors was continuously sampled. Seals spent approximately the same amount of time interacting with swimmers (53%) as they did ignoring them (47%). Seals displayed higher rates of nonrisky behaviors than risky ones, but risky behaviors occurred during 73% of all seal-swims. Seals remained ≤20 m near swimmers for 51% and ≤1 m for 13% of the time. A mean number of 0.65 and 0.18 seals approached swimmers per minute within a range of ≤20 m and ≤1 m, respectively. Behavioral classes, interactive behaviors, and the number of seals approaching ≤20 m did not vary significantly throughout seal-swims but the number of seals approaching ≤1 m moderately decreased. Due to high rates of risky behaviors, it is recommended to promote public awareness on site and to regulate seal-swims before commercial operations emerge.
Assessing and Mitigating Humpback Whale (Megapteranovaeangliae) Disturbance of Whale-Watching Activities in Reunion Island – 173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15943326793398
LudovicHoarau, MayeulDalleau, Sylvain Delaspre, Thibaut Barra, and Anne-Emmanuelle Landes
CEDTM: Centre d’Etude et de Decouverte des Tortues Marines, Saint-Leu, Reunion Island, France
Whale watching, including swim-with-whales activities, is developing at an enormous rate in Reunion Island. This is raising concerns about its impacts on breeding humpback whales and challenging the sustainability of the activity. In 2017, a dedicated-at-sea patrol team, “Quietude,” was created to observe, monitor, and raise awareness to the whale watchers in order to improve compliance with local guidelines. In this context, the team assessed whale watching in Reunion Island during two humpback whale breeding seasons in 2017 and 2018, between June and October. Sighted groups were mostly composed of mother/calf pairs spending most of their time resting near or at the surface. Whale-watching vessels were present in 85.1% of sightings, of which 68.4% were recreative. Swim-with-cetaceans activities were very frequently observed in 42% of sightings. Overall, compliance with the charter was as high as 68% of whale sightings with vessels/swimmers were in line with the recommendations. However, low compliance (32.8%) was observed with the specific recommendations of swim-with-cetaceans activities. Swimmers were reported in surface active groups displaying agonistic behaviors, which poses evident human safety concerns. Humpback whale resting behaviors were disrupted significantly by whale-watching activities. Humpback whales tended to avoid vessels and swimmers, especially when their behavior was intrusive or not compliant with the charter. Positive humpback whale responses were more likely to occur if the charter’s recommendations were not breached. Our results highlight how a nonbinding regulation, with recommendations scrupulously pursued, allows for a reduction in whale-watching disturbances and supports a better tourism experience. Our results advocate for reinforcing tourism education, whale-watching adaptive management and regulations, specifically for vulnerable groups with a calf, and for the swim-with-whales activities. This could be efficiently achieved by engaging all stakeholders and the permanent team on the field “Quietude” to enhance dissemination of best practices and sensitivity around sustainable values of implemented regulations.
Social Media Reveal High Rates of Agonistic Behaviors of Humpback Whales in Response to Swim-With Activities Off Reunion Island – 191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15960647825531
Thibaut Barra,*† Lars Bejder,‡§¶ MayeulDalleau,* Sylvain Delaspre,* Anne-Emmanuelle Landes,* Max Harvey,# and LudovicHoarau*
*Centre d’Etude et de Decouverte des Tortues Marines (CEDTM), Saint-Leu, La Reunion †Ethology and Ecophysiology, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France ‡Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Kaneohe, USA §Zoophysiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark ¶Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia #Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
The effect of nature-based tourism on wildlife has been the focus of much attention. Studies have demonstrated how boat-based cetacean-watching tourism can cause both short-term and long-term effects on targeted populations. However, limited attention has been given to the effect of swim-with activities on humpback whales (Megapteranovaeangliae). This study qualified whale responses to swim-with activities off Reunion Island during the 2018 humpback whales breeding season. We used both under- and above-water videos collected from social media outlets, commercial whale-watching operators, and audiovisual professionals. We documented a high rate of agonistic whale behaviors (during 42.1% of all observations; n = 164) towards swimmers within videos containing swim-with events. We documented seven agonistic behaviors including threat, attack, or defense behaviors that were predominantly exhibited by mother/calf groups (73.8%; n = 121) and by singletons (16.5%; n = 27). Pectoral shears (27.4%) and fluke thrashes (23.2%) were the most exhibited agonistic whale behaviors aimed towards swimmers, both of which pose a danger and serious injury to swimmers. During swim-with attempts whales changed their behavioral state (82.3%, n = 159) and used avoidance tactics to avoid swimmers (56.1%, n = 92). Whales exhibited a higher rate of agonistic behaviors when swim groups were active and dispersed, in contrast to when they were quiet and compact. To mitigate whale disturbance and improve swimmer safety, we recommend avoiding swimming with whale groups containing calfs. Our findings support the implementation of strong regulations and educational tools to ensure a sustainable practice of whale watching off the Reunion Island.
Key words: Swimmer safety; In water interaction; Agonistic behavior; Swim-with-whales; Whale watching; Humpback whales
Recommendations for Sustainable Cetacean-Based Tourism in French Territories: A Review on the Industry and Current Management Actions – 211 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15943351217984
*Souffleursd’Ecume, Brignoles, France †Grouped’InteretScientifique pour les MammiferesMarins de Mediterranee, Sausset-les-Pins, France ‡CEDTM (Centre d’Etude et de Decouverte des Tortues Marines), Saint Leu, Reunion Island §Grouped’Etude des MammiferesMarins (GEMM), Rangiroa, French Polynesia ¶Parc Naturel Marin de Mayotte, AgenceFrancaise pour la Biodiversite, Pamandzi, Mayotte #Universite de La Reunion – UMR 228 Espace-Dev – IRD (French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development), Saint Denis, Reunion Island **Parc National de Port-Cros, Hyeres, France
Whale-watching activities provide important socioeconomic benefits for local communities and constitute powerful platform incentives for marine mammals’ protection or more broadly marine environments. However, these activities can cause adverse effects on targeted populations, with considerable downside associated risks of injuries and fatality for whale watchers during in-water interactions. France with its overseas territories has the second largest exclusive economic zone (EEZ), in which more than half of existing cetacean species are encountered. In these territories, recreational and commercial whale watching, including swim-with cetacean activities, have recently developed. Yet few studies focused on these activities and their associated impacts across French territories, leading to an unclear assessment of the situation. To address this issue, we reviewed cetaceans’ occurrence within the French EEZ, whale-watching industry, targeted species, local management of marine mammal-based tourism activities, and regulations in France mainland and some overseas territories (Reunion Island, Mayotte, and French Polynesia). Forty-eight species are encountered in the French EEZ, and 15 are targeted by whale-watching activities. A total of 185 operators, including 34% offering swim-with-cetaceans tours, offered trips in France and overseas in 2019. While several more or less restrictive regulations exist locally, our results indicate that French’s national legal framework for marine mammals’ protection remains inadequate and insufficient to cope with the recent development of this activity. As conservation biologists, managers, and stakeholders from these French territories, we cooperated to provide general guidelines for a sustainable development of whale watching at a national scale. We urge (1) to legally acknowledge and regulate whale-watching commercial activities; (2) to create a national legal framework regarding whale watching and swim-with marine mammals practices, while accounting for local distinctiveness and disparities across regions; (3) to conduct more research to evaluate local short- and long-term impacts on targeted marine mammal populations as well as the socioeconomic benefits; and (4) to reinforce synergetic relations between the different stakeholders.
Key words: Whale watching; Human interactions; Swim-with cetacean encounters; French regulations; Whale-watching management
Pregnancy Cravings: Visitation at a Food-Provisioning Site is Driven by the Reproductive Status of Bottlenose Dolphins – 237 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15943283422072
Valeria Senigaglia*† and Lars Bejder*‡§
*Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia †Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia †Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA §Zoophysiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark
Marine wildlife tourism attractions often use food rewards to ensure close-up encounters with free-ranging animals. In Bunbury, Western Australia, the Dolphin Discovery Centre (DDC) conducts a food-provision program where bottlenose dolphins (N = 22; between 2000 and 2018) are offered food rewards to encourage their visitation at a beach in front of the DDC. We used historical records on individual beach visits by adult female dolphins collected by the DDC from 2000 to 2018 to develop generalized mixed effects models (GLMM) to test whether the frequency of beach visitation was influenced by their reproductive status (pregnant, lactating, nonreproductive) or climatic events (El Niño-Southern Oscillation phases) that could affect prey availability. We also quantified the behavioral budget of dolphins during food-provisioning sessions and documented intra- and interspecific aggressive behaviors using individual focal follows collected in 2017–2018. Provisioned females spend most of the time resting within the interaction area (66.3%) and aggressive interactions arise as a consequence of dominance behavior over food access. Visitation rates were most influenced by reproductive status with pregnant and lactating females visiting the provisioning area more frequently (z = 2.085, p = 0.037 and z = 2.437, p = 0.014, respectively). Females that frequently visit the provisioning area expose their dependent calves to regular human interactions at an early age when they are more susceptible to behavioral conditioning. Such experiences could cause the loss of awareness towards humans and promote maladaptive behaviors such as begging that increase risk of entanglement in fishing gear, boat strikes, and propeller injuries.
#Biteme: Considering the Potential Influence of Social Media on In-Water Encounters With Marine Wildlife – 249 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15754936027058
Chantal D. Pagel,* Mark B. Orams,†‡ and Michael Lück*
*School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand †USC Business School and Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coase, Australia ‡School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
Over the past three decades, interacting with wildlife as a tourism activity has grown significantly and has transformed from a relatively rare experience into a mainstream tourism product. Tourism opportunities to watch, photograph, and otherwise interact with animals in their natural environment have grown to include a range of species and settings, including in the sea. Close encounters with marine wildlife are facilitated by a wide range of commercial operators, and many include and promote a strong adventure component. This article provides a consideration of the issues of risk and the emerging role of the use of social media in marine wildlife tourism experiences. While the concept of ecotourism has been widely explored in wildlife tourism research, the inherited risk involved in these activities has received little attention. This is particularly the case regarding interactions with potentially dangerous wildlife in open-water environments. This aspect warrants exploration in the context of the growth of wildlife photography/videography and sharing via social media platforms, which frequently display close encounters with animals in dangerous scenarios for both people and wildlife involved.
Passenger Safety on Whale-Watching Vessels in Australia DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15722432101718
Jeff Wilks,* Michael Lück,† and Mark Orams‡§
*Southern Cross University, Southern Cross Drive, Bilinga, Queensland, Australia †School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand ‡USC Business School and Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia §School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
To date, the focus of research into risks and safety in whale watching has tended to be on the safety of the whales (or dolphins/porpoises). This article explores the issue from the human side of the interaction and considers boat-based whale-watching passenger safety by reviewing evidence from available legal case records and legislation in Australia to better understand the risks and injuries that can occur to people in these marine wildlife tourism scenarios. A review of two legal cases and observations from media reports of whale-watching incidents in other jurisdictions revealed that waves and associated violent vessel movement are responsible for serious injuries to passengers. Where there was a failure to keep a proper lookout for waves and safely adapt to changing sea conditions operators have been found negligent. Legal challenges have also been successful in cases involving inaccurate and misleading promotion and communication about the nature of the tour and associated risks, and where passengers had not received adequate safety briefings. Furthermore, signed waivers that sought to protect the tour operator from responsibilities for injuries sustained aboard were not sufficient to absolve operators from liability. Given the different cultures, languages, and physical capabilities of a diverse range of international tourists interested in whale watching it is recommended that promotional materials, safety briefings, and safety communications (such as warning signs) be communicated by widely used and understood symbols and in multiple languages. In addition, some screening of passengers to ascertain preexisting medical conditions and to assess their ability to participate in the voyage safely, and with understanding of safety instructions, should be undertaken prior to a vessel leaving the dock. Templates to assist operators with their responsibilities are now available from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority.
Key words: Whale watching; Safety; Accidents; Injuries; Lawsuits; Australia
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