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Aims & Scope
Tourism in Marine Environments, official journal of the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS), is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in coastal and marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism and recreation. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes “those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected).” Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such as scuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events, Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.
Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts in coastal and marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board coordinates most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
School of Hospitality and Tourism
Faculty of Culture and Society
Auckland University of Technology
Private Bag 92006
Auckland, New Zealand
Marc L. Miller, University of Washington, USA
Research Notes Editor
Richard Aquino, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Book Review Editor
Mark B. Orams, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Student Section Editor
David A. Fennell, Brock University, Canada
Kirin Therese Apps, Southern Cross University, Australia
Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand
Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK
Peter Corkeron, Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life, New England Aquarium, USA
Giacomo del Chiappa, University of Sassari, Italy
Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA
Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK
Vinicius J. Giglio, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand
Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenberg, Sweden
Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada
Anna Lewis, University of Wollongong, Australia
Kerrie Littlejohn, University of Hawaii, USA
Serena Lucrezi, North-West University, South Africa
Manue Martinez, NorthTec/Tai Tokerau Wananga, New Zealand
Gianna Moscardo, James Cook University, Australia
Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia
E. C. M. Parsons, National Science Foundation, USA
Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal
Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia
Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK
Jeffrey Wilks, Southern Cross University, Australia
Jackie A. Ziegler, University of Victoria, Canada
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Recent Updates to Instructions as a Result of COVID-19
COVID-19 has changed the world, and of course tourism is particularly affected by this as well. Tourism in Marine Environments is not calling for a special issue on this topic, but welcomes papers related to the effects of COVID-19 on coastal and marine tourism.
We do not wish to invalidate research undertaken pre-COVID-19, although some of the results and conclusions may not be applicable any longer. However, for all new submissions where data collection was unrelated to the COVID-19 pandemic, we ask authors for the following.
Either build a reflection about how COVID-19 may have influenced the research and results/development into the conclusion, or add a post script. The post script would leave the initial paper and research untouched, but puts it in the light of a new reality. To accommodate this addition, we suggest the post script to be about 500 words in length.
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief, Michael Luck, at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Full research papers are commonly in the range of 5,000-7,000 words in length (excluding figures, tables, and references). Longer papers may be negotiated with the editor-in-chief.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and Keywords: The article abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, acknowledgment, biographical note(s), reference list, figure legends, figures and tables (or provide figures as a separate file). Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Biographical Note: A short biosketch of the author(s) should be included. Manuscripts accepted for publication should include a biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests,education, important activities, and professional affiliations) of all authors.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Bramwell, 2003) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Schuler, A. R., & Pearson, H. C. (2019). Conservation benefits of whale watching in Juneau, Alaska. Tourism in Marine Environments, 14(4), 231–248. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15719404264632
Book: Bramwell, B. (Ed.). (2003). Coastal mass tourism: Diversification and sustainable development in southern Europe. Channel View Publications.
Book chapter: Bekoff, M. (2002). Ethics and marine mammals. In W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, & H. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals (pp. 398–404). Academic Press.
Internet source: Weissmann, A. (2019, October 7). Cruising’s climate challenge. Travel Weekly. https://www.travelweekly.com/Arnie-Weissmann/Cruisings-climate-challenge
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book and Conference Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Commentaries and research are commonly between 3,000 and 3,500 words in length; book and conference reviews up to 3,000 words. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism in Marine Environments are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibilityor liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
A special thanks to the Pacific Whale Foundation https://www.pacificwhale.org for its partnership with TiME and support of the ESL Authors program.
ESL Author Option
Tourism in Marine Environments is committed to improving issues of social justice within and access to the scientific literature. As part of this effort we are offering free copy editing for qualifying ESL author(s) who do not otherwise have access to this service through their institutions. To qualify for this service, we ask authors specify the need for this service in the letter to the editor that accompanies submission. Upon receipt of a qualifying ESL manuscript, an intern/volunteer copy editor will be assigned. In return for the copy-editing service, we kindly request that ESL author(s) acknowledge by name, the copy editor in the acknowledgements section. Should a case arise where the assigned copy editor makes substantial contributions to the content of the manuscript (data analysis, suggestion/addition of scientific literature, advancement of the discussion, etc.) we kindly ask the author(s) to consider adding the copy editor as an additional author.
Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) Peer Review Policy
Peer review serves to evaluate the scientific work of academics and/or working in the same field to ensure trustworthy scientific research is published.
In order to uphold these standards, Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) utilizes a double blind review process in which neither the identities of reviewers nor of the author(s) are shared.
The peer review process for TIME is laid out below:
The Editor-in-Chief (EIC) checks the suitability of a submission for review. This may include such aspects such as general relevance to journal aims, format according to journal requirements, quality of research, adherence to relevant ethical guidelines, and/or basic readability (language and grammar).
If the article is deemed suitable for review, the EIC assigns the submission to an Editorial Board Member (EBM) based on expertise, lack of any conflicts of interest, and availability. The identity of the EBM is available to the authors during any point of submission.
The EBM then selects two reviewers for detailed peer review. The reviewers are chosen based on their expertise on the topic and lack of any conflict of interests is assured. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Completion of peer review is expected within 4 weeks. Reviewers submit comments and recommendations to the EBM who then reviews the inputs and has autonomy to makes a decision regarding the article submission. If the EBM has questions about the review process she/he confers with the EIC for a final decision.
The decision of accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection is then relayed to the authors along with detailed, blinded comments.
As a reviewer for TIME you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TIME, please contact the EIC Michael Lück, Auckland University of Technology at email@example.com
As a reviewer for Tourism in Marine Environments, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism in Marine Environments is governed by an international editorial board consisting of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-in-marine-environments under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Table of Contents:
Volume 16, Number 4
The Relevance of Skilled In-Water Guides in Swim-With Wildlife Tours – 195
Chantal Denise Pagel
Independent Researcher, Auckland, New Zealand
Commercial in-water interactions (IWIs) with wildlife may hold potential risks for their participants. Precautionary mechanisms for mitigating such risk factors are crucial for safe human–wildlife encounters. One of those tools is the provision of skilled in-water guides, yet across the industry it is not a standard practice. This article communicates the relevance of in-water guides for the safety and well-being of tour participants, substantiated by semistructured interview data obtained in three case study locations in the South Pacific. Participants interacting with humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri), and bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) reported various benefits from the presence of in-water guides, including anxiety relief, elevated confidence and perception of safety, and obtainment of information on animal behavior. Apart from tourist safety, a deployment of in-water guides would also constitute an effective way of managing inappropriate tourist behavior. Hence, the results of this study strongly suggest the inclusion of in-water guides in commercial operations for tourist safety and management in future licensing schemes.
Key words: Marine wildlife tourism; Tourist safety; Swim-with programs; In-water guides; Tourism policy
An Assessment of Commercial Fleet Applications of Management Measures in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Canada, Aimed to Mitigate Whale-Watching Impacts – 205
Kendra A. Moore,* Rianna E. Burnham,† Dave A. Duffus,† and Peter G. Wells*‡
*Marine Affairs Program, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
†Department of Geography, Whale Research Lab, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada
‡International Ocean Institute–Canada, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
The interactions between wildlife tourism operators and the animals that they rely on are complex. For commercial whale watching, the recognition of the potential disturbance from the vessels generates uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of management strategies for it to remain a “no-take” practice. This warrants further evaluation. In this study, we analyzed the activities of the whale-watching fleet in Tofino, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, to evaluate industry sustainability and its ability to meet legislated conservation objectives. Visual observations gave context to an analysis of the communications of the fleet, made using very high frequency (VHF) marine radio. Transcription of these communications demonstrated three main themes: whale location, whale “transfers” between operators, and encounter or “show” quality. Cumulative encounter times from the fleet far exceeded the 30-min limit recommended in the whale-watching guidelines. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) were subject to the longest periods of vessel presence, with an average time spent in active encounters of 4.21 ±1.96 hr. This extended to almost the full operating day if whales remained within a feasible traveling distance of Tofino. Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) encounters also exceeded the suggested time limit by 2.40 ± 1.73 hr and 1.31 ± 1.07 hr, respectively. Increased education and the addition of spatial and temporal restrictions in management regimes could address the shortcomings of the current system to minimize potential disturbance to whales from commercial whale-watching encounters and facilitate sustainable industry practices.
Key words: Assessing effectiveness; British Columbia; Conservation; Disturbance; Industry sustainability; Management; Whale watching
The COVID-19 Pandemic’s Effect on Marine National Parks in Thailand – 225
Onanong Cheablam,* Utai Dachyosdee,† and Sonthaya Purintarapiban‡
*Tourism and Hospitality Industry Program, School of Management, Walailak University, Thailand
†Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, Thailand
‡Than Sadet–Ko Pha-ngan National Park, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Thailand
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment, including coral reefs, seagrasses, terrestrial/aquatic animals, waste/sewage, and the economy of 27 marine national parks and four marine national park operations centers. Structured interviews were employed in this study. The results from national park officers indicated that during the COVID-19 pandemic, natural resources, such as coral, seagrass, and terrestrial/aquatic animals, had recovered and become more productive since animals in the area were observed. In addition, the amount of waste in the area has decreased; however, some national parks still have problems with marine debris. In contrast, the economic findings indicated that the number of tourists, both Thai and foreign, has decreased, reducing the total national park revenue by THB 1,507,681,302 (US$50,256,043). Our research shows that there is an important association between the reduction of tourists and environmental quality. In addition, a reduction in revenue may impact the environment through illegal logging and fishing. Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, technology should be used for surveys in the national parks, regularly informing budget support from the government, and tourism management.
Key words: COVID-19 pandemic; Natural resources; Economy;Marine national park, Thailand
Tourism Actors’ Engagement and Logics of Whale Protection and Conservation in Norway – 239
School of Business and Economics, UiT –The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
The perception of activities that may harm whales and their coexistence with whale tourism can be problematic for a destination’s attractiveness and its potential role in setting good standards for the sector and educating tourists. This research note investigates the online debate about the legitimacy of a research project on wild whales in Norway. In particular, it investigates the local tourism actors’ engagement in such debate, and how the two sides of the debate argue for the legitimacy of different logics of whale protection and conservation. The findings derived from a thematic and discourse analysis show that the local tourism sector and academia minimally engage in the debate and that the debate presents elements of different logics relating to the traditional and compassionate conservation paradigms. This article considers the tourism actors’ non-engagement in the aforementioned debate as a missed opportunity, and concludes by inviting the reader to reflect on the collaboration between the tourism sector and academia, in particular its desirability, motivations, and consequences.
Key words: Whale protection and conservation; Conservation paradigm; Whale tourism
Avoiding Disappointment in Marine Tourism – 247
Volume 16 Subject and Author Index – 251
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Copyright © 2021 Cognizant, LLC
Printed in the USA
Updated as of December 2021
Number of submissions: 37
Number of reviews requested: 77
Number of reviews received: 56
Approval rate: 55%
Average time between submission and publication: 52 days