Tourism in Marine Environments, official journal of the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS),is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in coastal and marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism and recreation. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes “those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected).” Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such asscuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events,Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.
Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts incoastal and marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board coordinates most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
Michael Lück School of Hospitality and Tourism Faculty of Applied Humanities AUT University Private Bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand Email: email@example.com
Commentary/Research Notes Editor Marc L. Miller, University of Washington, USA
Book Review Editor Mark B. Orams, AUT University, New Zealand
Student Section Editor David A. Fennell, Brock University, Canada
Simon Berrow, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway, Ireland Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK Peter Corkeron, NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center USA Philip Dearden, University of Victoria, Canada Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenberg, Sweden Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada Kevin Markwell, Southern Cross University, Australia Gayle Mayes, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore Gianna Moscardo, James Cook University, Australia Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia David Newsome, Murdoch University, Western Australia E. C. M. Parsons, George Mason University, USA Brooke Porter, Coral Triangle Conservancy, Philippines Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia Liz Slooten, University of Otago, New Zealand Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK Jeffrey Wilks, Tourism Safety, Australia
Instructions for Contributors
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief, Michael Lück, at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Full research papers are commonly in the range of 5,000-7,000 words in length (excluding figures, tables, and references). Longer papers may be negotiated with the editor-in-chief.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and Keywords: The article abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, acknowledgment, biographical note(s), reference list, figure legends, figures and tables (or provide figures as a separate file). Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Biographical Note: A short biosketch of the author(s) should be included. Manuscripts accepted for publication should include a biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests, education, important activities, andprofessional affiliations) of all authors.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Fennell, 1999) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Orams, M. (1996). An interpretation model for managing marine wildlife-tourist interaction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 4(4), 81–95. Book:Gill, P., & Burke, C. (1999). Whale watching in Australian & New Zealand waters. Sydney: New Holland Publishers. Book chapter:Cater, E., & Goodall, B. (1992). Must tourism destroy its resource base? In A. M. Mannion & S. R. Bowlby (Eds.), Environmental issues in the 1990s (pp. 309–323). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Internet source:Byron Underwater Research Group. (2009). Byron Underwater Research Group low impact diving. Retrieved from http://burg.org.au/diving.html
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should beincluded at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in thetext. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book and Conference Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Commentaries and research are commonly between 3,000 and 3,500 words in length; book and conference reviews up to 3,000 words. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism in Marine Environments are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisementsherein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any suchinaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism in Marine Environments is governed by an international editorial board consisting of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-in-marine-environments under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Using an Electronic Monitoring System and Photo Identification to Understand Effects of Tourism Encounters on Whale Sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park – 121 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15634581669992 Emily Lester,*† Conrad Speed,* Dani Rob,‡ Peter Barnes,‡ Kelly Waples,§ and Holly Raudino§
*Australian Institute of Marine Science, Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia †School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Australia ‡Exmouth District, Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Exmouth, Australia §Marine Science Program, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Perth, Australia
In-water shark-based tourism is growing worldwide and whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) are one of the most popular targets of this industry. It is important to monitor tourism industries to minimize any potential impacts on target species. At Ningaloo, Western Australia, Electronic Monitoring Systems (EMS) have been installed on licensed tour vessels to collect information on encounters between snorkelers and whale sharks. This study combined data from the EMS with whale shark identification photographs, to assess the impact of in-water tourism on the encounter duration for individual sharks. During 2011 and 2012, 948 encounters with 229 individual sharks were recorded using EMS. Encounter durations between whale sharks and tourism vessels ranged between 1 and 59 min (mean = 11 min 42 s, SD = ± 11 min 19 s). We found no evidence for a decline in encounter duration after repeated tourist encounters with individual sharks. Encounter duration varied among tourism operator vessels and were shorter when the sex of the whale shark could not be identified. Given that individual sharks were swum with on average 2.4 times per day (±SD 2.08), and up to 16 times over the course of the study, our results suggest that there is no evidence of long-term impacts of tourism on the whale sharks at Ningaloo. However, the inclusion of well-defined categories of whale shark behaviors and information regarding how interactions between tourists and whale sharks end will complement the data already collected by the EMS. This preliminary investigation demonstrates the potential for the EMS as a data resource to better understand and monitor the impacts of tourism interactions on whale sharks.
An International Online Survey on Public Attitudes Towards the Keeping of Whales and Dolphins in Captivity – 133 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15627970573318 Whitney Naylor* and E. C. M. Parsons†‡
*Department of Environmental Science & Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA †SEAQuEST Consulting, Fairfax, VA, USA ‡Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
In 2015, an international online survey was conducted to investigate public attitudes on keeping cetaceans in captivity (N = 858). Respondents were significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to be opposed to displaying dolphins and whales in marine theme parks and aquariums (opposed to captive display: 54.4%; support captive display: 45.5%). Only 5% of respondents from the US stated they “strongly support” (with 33.3% “support”) keeping dolphins and whales in marine theme parks and aquariums, while 21% of participants from India did so (43.4% “support”). Participants that support cetaceans in captivity were significantly more likely to believe cetacean conservation is not important. Six times as many respondents (or 86%) preferred to view cetaceans in the wild via whale watching (61% preferring boat based, 25% land based) versus in captivity. Respondents from the US were less likely to prefer watching cetaceans in a marine theme park (9%) than those from India (26%). Almost 80% of respondents objected to capturing free-ranging dolphins and whales for display in zoos and aquariums. Only 19% of respondents indicated approval for dolphins performing shows involving tricks for human enjoyment, while 85% supported keeping dolphins in captivity when they are sick or injured. Eighty percent supported captive research that benefited conservation of free-ranging populations, dropping to 60% when the research supported the development of captive husbandry methods. Seventy percent of participants were opposed to keeping cetaceans in concrete tanks, versus 53% who were opposed to sea pen enclosures as well. Respondents who believed dolphin and whale conservation was not important were significantly more likely to oppose keeping captive dolphins for research benefiting conservation in the wild. Moreover, respondents who felt dolphin and whale conservation was only “slightly important” were significantly more like to support keeping captive cetaceans for entertainment purposes.
Key words: Public attitudes; Captive display; Whales and dolphins; Conservation support; Dolphinariums; Marine theme parks Divers or Divas? A Market Analysis of the Mature Aged Female Diver: An Australian Perspective – 143 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15635387000925
Sally F. Gregory* and Joanne Edney†
*School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, Australia †School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia
If you ask the average person to describe a scuba diver, you would probably receive comments such as strong, young, athletic, male, and a bit of a daredevil. However, recent research into the highest growth sector of diver training reveals women over 40 are signing on for dive training in unprecedented numbers. Dive service providers and tourist destination promoters may be missing opportunities to market effectively to attract this dynamic group, using a “one size fits all” approach and potentially losing sales opportunities for equipment, courses, dive travel, and more. This study examines the mature aged female diver, revealing new demographic data, information about their dive travel preferences, how much they spend on diving holidays, and other information useful to dive and tourism industry stakeholders. A web-based survey was used to study 111 female divers over age 40. The average age of participants was 51 to 55, and most had logged over 100 dives. The results depicted participants as a vibrant part of the diving community, with money to spend and the desire to travel. Safety in dive operations was identified as a priority as was small-group travel. Spending over $500 a day on international diving trips, they represent an untapped and lucrative market segment. This study aims to contribute new insight into this dynamic and motivated market segment. Findings will assist dive tourism service providers and destination marketers to better understand this segment, to create attractive products and services to tap into this lucrative market.
Beach Uses and Users in Four Beaches of the Ecuadorian Coast: The Importance of Physical and Socioeconomic Conditions for Recreational Beach Use Assessment in Latin American Contexts – 163 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15634413181250
Carla Ricaurte-Quijano,* David Nacipucha,* Julio Gavilanes,* Fanny Manner,*† Alba Calles,* and Eduardo Cervantes*
*Facultad de Ingenieria Maritima, Ciencias Biologicas, Oceanicas y Recursos Naturales, Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Guayaquil, Guayas, Ecuador †Facultad de Turismo y Hoteleria, Universidad Espiritu Santo, Samborondon, Guayas, Ecuador
The understanding of the different conditions that shape the recreational use of sandy beaches is key for their management. This article explores visitors’ and residents’ recreational use of four sandy beaches in Ecuador in relation to the physical and socioeconomic context in which this use takes place, including beach morphodynamics, level of urban development, as well as the type and quality of tourism services available. Results show that visitors and residents use the beach for the same recreational activities (i.e., walking and swimming) on beaches with different morphologies and socioeconomic conditions. However, respondents also indicated that physical characteristics (e.g., beach size and swell) are important aspects for choosing a beach. Visitors to rural beaches are more likely to consume informal catering services located within the beach area than formal ones located outside. This particular emerging theme should be taken into consideration for further research on management initiatives in the context of developing countries.
Tourism and Poverty: Perspectives and Experiences of Local Residents in Cu Lao Cham MPA, Vietnam – 179 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15631036242632
Van Hoang Nguyen
School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Department of Geography, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Although the tourism–poverty nexus has received increased attention, limited research considers the perspectives of people residing (with)in marine protected areas (MPAs). This article examines the views and experiences of local people in Cu Lao Cham MPA, Vietnam, with regard to tourism and poverty alleviation. Participant observation and semistructured interviews were conducted with 41 local people working in tourism. Results suggest that most respondents are involved in tourism and fishery simultaneously. Although tourism contributes significantly to respondents’ living conditions and to the local economy overall (e.g., jobs creation for poor people and women), benefits are distributed unequally, which increases social conflicts. The challenges facing local people in participating in tourism include a lack of capital, lack of market access, and obstacles caused by local policies. This research suggests that locals’ perceptions of tourism are important criteria for evaluating the tourism–poverty alleviation nexus. Additionally, in the context of MPAs, local attitudes may have an effect on conservation outcomes. Further research should consider the wider views of local people and other tourism stakeholders with regard to tourism, poverty, and conservation.
Key words: Poverty reduction; Perceived tourism benefits; Marine protected areas (MPAs); Cu Lao Cham, Pro-poor tourism
Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2018–2019 – 199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15645796379985
Christine Gleason* and E. C. M. Parsons†‡
*Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA †SEAQuEST Consulting, Fairfax, VA, USA ‡Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, from monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published over the past year, since June 2018.
Key words: Whale watching; Impacts; Regulations; Management; Whale watchers; Education; Social science; Human dimensions; Economics; Tourist satisfaction; Public opinion
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