Tourism in Marine Environments, official journal of the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS),is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in coastal and marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism and recreation. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes “those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected).” Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such asscuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events,Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.
Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts incoastal and marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board coordinates most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
Brooke A. Porter School of Hospitality and Tourism Faculty of Applied Humanities Auckland University of Technology Private Bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand Email: email@example.com
Michael Lück School of Hospitality and Tourism Faculty of Applied Humanities AUT University Private Bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Commentary/Research Notes Editor Marc L. Miller, University of Washington, USA
Book Review Editor Mark B. Orams, AUT University, New Zealand
Student Section Editor David A. Fennell, Brock University, Canada
Kirin Therese Apps, Southern Cross University, Australia Richard S. Aquino, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK Peter Corkeron, Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life, USA Philip Dearden, University of Victoria, Canada Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenberg, Sweden Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada Anna Lewis, University of Wollongong, Australia Kerrie Littlejohn, University of Hawaii, USA Serena Lucrezi, North-West University, South Africa Gianna Moscardo, James Cook University, Australia Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia David Newsome, Murdoch University, Western Australia (Chris) E. C. M. Parsons, Oceans Division, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., USA Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia Liz Slooten, University of Otago, New Zealand Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK Jeffrey Wilks, Tourism Safety, Australia Jackie A. Ziegler, University of Victoria, Canada
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Recent Updates to Instructions as a Result of COVID-19
COVID-19 has changed the world, and of course tourism is particularly affected by this as well. Tourism in Marine Environments is not calling for a special issue on this topic, but welcomes papers related to the effects of COVID-19 on coastal and marine tourism.
We do not wish to invalidate research undertaken pre-COVID-19, although some of the results and conclusions may not be applicable any longer. However, for all new submissions where data collection was unrelated to the COVID-19 pandemic, we ask authors for the following.
Either build a reflection about how COVID-19 may have influenced the research and results/development into the conclusion, or add a post script. The post script would leave the initial paper and research untouched, but puts it in the light of a new reality. To accommodate this addition, we suggest the post script to be about 500 words in length.
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief, Brooke A. Porter, at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Full research papers are commonly in the range of 5,000-7,000 words in length (excluding figures, tables, and references). Longer papers may be negotiated with the editor-in-chief.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and Keywords: The article abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, acknowledgment, biographical note(s), reference list, figure legends, figures and tables (or provide figures as a separate file). Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Biographical Note: A short biosketch of the author(s) should be included. Manuscripts accepted for publication should include a biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests,education, important activities, and professional affiliations) of all authors.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Bramwell, 2003) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Schuler, A. R., & Pearson, H. C. (2019). Conservation benefits of whale watching in Juneau, Alaska. Tourism in Marine Environments, 14(4), 231–248. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15719404264632
Book:Bramwell, B. (Ed.). (2003). Coastal mass tourism: Diversification and sustainable development in southern Europe. Channel View Publications.
Book chapter:Bekoff, M. (2002). Ethics and marine mammals. In W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, & H. G. M. Thewissen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of marine mammals (pp. 398–404). Academic Press.
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in the text. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book and Conference Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Commentaries and research are commonly between 3,000 and 3,500 words in length; book and conference reviews up to 3,000 words. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism in Marine Environments are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibilityor liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) Peer Review Policy
Peer review serves to evaluate the scientific work of academics and/or working in the same field to ensure trustworthy scientific research is published.
In order to uphold these standards, Tourism in Marine Environments (TIME) utilizes a double blind review process in which neither the identities of reviewers nor of the author(s) are shared.
The peer review process for TIME is laid out below:
The Editor-in-Chief (EIC) checks the suitability of a submission for review. This may include such aspects such as general relevance to journal aims, format according to journal requirements, quality of research, adherence to relevant ethical guidelines, and/or basic readability (language and grammar).
If the article is deemed suitable for review, the EIC assigns the submission to an Editorial Board Member (EBM) based on expertise, lack of any conflicts of interest, and availability. The identity of the EBM is available to the authors during any point of submission.
The EBM then selects two reviewers for detailed peer review. The reviewers are chosen based on their expertise on the topic and lack of any conflict of interests is assured. Authors may not suggest reviewers; however, they are allowed to suggest reviewers to be avoided due to a potential conflict of interest.
Completion of peer review is expected within 4 weeks. Reviewers submit comments and recommendations to the EBM who then reviews the inputs and has autonomy to makes a decision regarding the article submission. If the EBM has questions about the review process she/he confers with the EIC for a final decision.
The decision of accept, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or rejection is then relayed to the authors along with detailed, blinded comments.
As a reviewer for TIME you would have the benefit of reading and evaluating current research in your area of expertise at its early stage, thereby contributing to the integrity of scientific exploration. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TIME, please contact the EIC Michael Lück, Auckland University of Technology at email@example.com
As a reviewer for Tourism in Marine Environments, you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism in Marine Environments is governed by an international editorial board consisting of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-in-marine-environments under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Editorial: The “Liquid-Modern” Cruise Sector: Growth, Responsibility, and the Failure of Moral Relativism – 59 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15833179029590
Alexis Papathanassis* and Ross A. Klein†
*Tourism and Cruise Management, Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences, Bremerhaven, Germany †School of Social Work, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Canada
Organization and Challenges of the Human Resources Function in a Cruise Ship Company – 65 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15833208921145
Esperanza Suárez,* Lourdes Susaeta,† and Frank Babinger‡
*Department of Business Organization, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain †Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Faculty of Commerce and Tourism, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain ‡Department of Geography, Faculty of Commerce and Tourism, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Since the Maritime Labor Convention (MLC) came into force, cruise line companies have been required to make human resource (HR) organizational changes in order to comply with the corresponding rules on employees’ rights. This article offers an overview of the role and organization of HR in the Spanish cruise line company Pullmantur. This research suggests that cruise HR managers face greater challenges, compared to those of other sectors, not only because of the specific regulations affecting cruise line companies, but also because of the complexity of the processes from recruitment to incorporation. Pullmantur’s case illustrates a particular way of organizing the HR planning and assignment of its personnel, reflected in their Crew Cycle Life (CCL). After having reviewed different documents as well as interviews carried out with Pullmantur’s HR management, this article describes and examines the different positions, functions, and responsibilities of HR “on ship and shore.” It concludes that HR’s function within a cruise ship company is more stressful and complex, but at the same time, more vibrant and challenging than in other industries.
Key words: Cruise industry; Human resources; Shipboard HR manager; Organization; Work conditions
Work–Life Balance On Board Cruise Ships: A Survey on Crew Members’ Well-Being – 73 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15833169859482
University of Applied Sciences, Bremerhaven, Germany
The cruise industry is a still-growing tourism sector in need for many personnel. However, criticism regarding the working and living conditions on board cruise vessels is a frequently seen topic in the news as well as in research literature. The well-being of the people running the floating hotel resorts is a critical success factor for the industry. Recently, the topic of employee well-being is bonded to concepts of work–life balance. There is rarely any literature on this topic with regard to the cruise industry. This research aims at examining whether the concept of work–life balance is applicable to working and living on board, as well as finding out the extent to which the critically discussed characteristics of this unique environment relate to well-being. To meet the aim of this study an online survey was conducted. It was spread on social networks to reach former and current employees of different cruise lines and was closed with a sample of 212 respondents. The study revealed that all chosen factors, including the ones often criticized, are related to the work–life balance of crew members on board. The only factor that was not a significant predictor of well-being was the multicultural environment employees are living and working in. The overall work–life balance on board was positively rated by the survey’s participants.
Sexual Harassment During Tourism and Cruise Internships: Exploring Situational Factors, Causes, and Their Implications – 85 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15833223601611
Sharlene Winter and Alexis Papathanassis
Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences, Bremerhaven, Germany
The goal of this study is to determine the factors influencing students’ perception of sexual harassment during their tourism and/or cruise internship. Particular focus was placed on the role of organizational culture and work environment, as well on the effectiveness of anti-harassment company policies. For this purpose, a self-administered survey was distributed online, yielding 135 completed questionnaires. The analysis results underlined aspects of organizational culture/work environment as a reliable predictor of sexual harassment occurrences. More specifically, the degree of direct customer contact and the fluidity between private and public space, both foster sexual harassment occurrences. In this context, the particularities of the work environment and conditions on board cruise ships would be expected to result to relatively higher frequencies of sexual harassment incidents. Indeed, compared to the rest of the sample, the cruise interns reported higher frequencies of sexual harassment and were also less likely to receive support from their employers. Despite the small sample size, the study produced statistically significant results for tourism internships in general. Yet, the small proportion of cruise interns in the sample only allowed a nonrepresentativecomparison (i.e., descriptive comparison of sample means). Nonetheless, our preliminary findings encourage a more in-depth investigation in the cruise domain, underlining the relevance of this research note.
Key words: Sexual harassment; Perception; Tourism; Internship; Students
An Analytical Approach to Cruise Tourism as an Option for Development: A Case Study of the Sultanate Of Oman – 95 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15828792518754
Heba Aziz,*† Osman El-Said,*† and Marike Bontenbal‡
*Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt †Faculty of Business and Economics, German University of Technology in Oman (GUtech), Halban, Oman ‡Policy Advisor Science & Innovation at Netherlands Commission for UNESCO, The Netherlands
The objective of this study was to measure the level of cruise tourists’ satisfaction as well as the relationship between satisfaction, recommendation, return intention, and expenditure. Also, the impact of factors such as nationality, length of the visit, and age on the level of expenditure was measured. An empirical approach for data collection was followed and a total of 152 questionnaires were collected from cruise tourists visiting the capital city of Oman, Muscat, as cruise liners anchor at Sultan Qaboos Port. Results of the regression analysis supported the existence of a causal relationship between satisfaction with destination attributes, overall satisfaction, recommendation, return intention, and expenditure. It was found that the average expenditure varies according to age and length of the visit. Recommendations for policy makers were suggested on how to increase the role of cruise tourism in strengthening the economy.
NaKreu: Evaluations of Cruise Passengers’ Attitudes Towards Sustainability in Cruise Contexts – 111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427320X15833193080731
Julia Eva Peters
University of Applied Sciences, Kempten, Germany
In the pursuit of sustainability in tourism, a rethink is necessary. The individual decision-making process merits more attention, because it is decisive for sustainable behavior both in a regulated environment as in noncodified contexts. This is particularly true in those areas that are experiencing high growth rates and are thus developing rapidly—partly controlled, partly uncontrolled—as can currently be observed in the cruise segment. Attitudes are to be understood as the basis for decisions. Once one has gained an understanding of these, one knows starting points for tapping sustainability potentials. Because little attention has been paid to this connection so far, this research note is primarily intended to present the theoretical background considerations of the “NaKreu” study, which was carried out in cooperation with TUI Cruises in 2019 in order to explore the attitudes of cruise passengers towards sustainability. In this, sustainability potentials in the segment are attributed to an interest in change, an ability to change, and structural factors. Additionally, sustainability is discussed as a quality facet of cruises. The present contribution introduces the methodical procedure of the project and gives an insight into its first results: By applying a mixed-methods approach, it can be shown that the attitudes of cruise passengers are generally neutral positive, but at the same time are permeated by strong skepticism. It is concluded that customers face the dilemma of a double claim. The results are to be interpreted as representative for the concrete project context; a transfer from the German-centered perspective of the project is still pending.
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