Tourism in Marine Environments, official journal of the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS),is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in coastal and marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
The marine environment has long been one of the most attractive settings for tourism and recreation. Marine tourism, as defined by Orams (Marine tourism: Development, impacts and management. Routledge; 1999, p. 9) includes “those recreational activities that involve travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide-affected).” Thus, it includes a wide spectrum of activities, such asscuba diving and snorkeling, wind surfing, fishing, observing marine mammals and birds, the cruise ship and ferry industry, all beach activities, sea kayaking, visits to fishing villages and lighthouses, maritime museums, sailing and motor yachting, maritime events,Arctic and Antarctic tourism, and many more.
Tourism in Marine Environments aims to contribute to the process of theory building, and to be the leading source for research reports and analysis related to all forms of marine tourism. It is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts incoastal and marine tourism, marine science, and related fields. This board coordinates most of the manuscript reviews and therefore plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-In-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts, from time to time modifies the editorial board, and works to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
Michael Lück School of Hospitality and Tourism Faculty of Applied Humanities AUT University Private Bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Commentary/Research Notes Editor Marc L. Miller, University of Washington, USA
Book Review Editor Mark B. Orams, AUT University, New Zealand
Student Section Editor David A. Fennell, Brock University, Canada
Simon Berrow, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway, Ireland Anna Carr, University of Otago, New Zealand Carl Cater, Swansea University, UK Peter Corkeron, NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center USA Philip Dearden, University of Victoria, Canada Paul Forestell, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA Brian Garrod, Swansea University, UK C. Michael Hall, Canterbury University, New Zealand Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenberg, Sweden Ross Klein, Memorial University, Canada Kevin Markwell, Southern Cross University, Australia Gayle Mayes, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore Gianna Moscardo, James Cook University, Australia Sue Muloin, Southern Cross University, Australia David Newsome, Murdoch University, Western Australia E. C. M. Parsons, George Mason University, USA Brooke Porter, Coral Triangle Conservancy, Philippines Luis Silveira, University of Coimbra, Portugal Paul Stolk, The University of Newcastle, Australia Liz Slooten, University of Otago, New Zealand Emma J. Stewart, Lincoln University, New Zealand Clare Weeden, University of Brighton, UK Jeffrey Wilks, Tourism Safety, Australia
Instructions for Contributors
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit manuscripts to the Editor-in-Chief, Michael Lück, at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. Full research papers are commonly in the range of 5,000-7,000 words in length (excluding figures, tables, and references). Longer papers may be negotiated with the editor-in-chief.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names, and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title should also be included.
Abstract and Keywords: The article abstract should state concisely what was done and why, what was found, and what was concluded, and end with a list of up to five keywords pertinent to the central theme.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, acknowledgment, biographical note(s), reference list, figure legends, figures and tables (or provide figures as a separate file). Avoid the use of text footnotes.
Biographical Note: A short biosketch of the author(s) should be included. Manuscripts accepted for publication should include a biographical sketch (current position, prior significant professional experience, technical interests, education, important activities, andprofessional affiliations) of all authors.
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) for quoted material.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations:(Fennell, 1999) or (Duffus & Dearden, 1990; Hall, 2001, 2002) or Orams, 2002, p. 11) (for quoted material. Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article:Orams, M. (1996). An interpretation model for managing marine wildlife-tourist interaction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 4(4), 81–95. Book:Gill, P., & Burke, C. (1999). Whale watching in Australian & New Zealand waters. Sydney: New Holland Publishers. Book chapter:Cater, E., & Goodall, B. (1992). Must tourism destroy its resource base? In A. M. Mannion & S. R. Bowlby (Eds.), Environmental issues in the 1990s (pp. 309–323). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Internet source:Byron Underwater Research Group. (2009). Byron Underwater Research Group low impact diving. Retrieved from http://burg.org.au/diving.html
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list, but may be added parenthetically in the text.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .tif, .jpg, or pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color (note there is a charge for printing figures in color). Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should beincluded at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include a title caption and headings for columns. Avoid very wide or very long tables that would not fit on one printed page. Place tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Cite each table in thetext. Do not imbed tables within the text of the manuscript; include at the end of the file, each on a separate page.
Commentary, Research Notes, and Book and Conference Reviews: TIME also solicits submission to these Departments. The above general format applies. Commentaries and research are commonly between 3,000 and 3,500 words in length; book and conference reviews up to 3,000 words. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Postgrad Student Summaries: TIME publishes extended abstracts of Masters and Doctoral theses and dissertations, which have been completed within the past 18 months of submission. If the thesis/dissertation will be available online via a university library or repository, the extended abstract should not be submitted until after the URL is available. The submitted material should include a title page with title, name of the author, name(s) of supervisor(s), name of the degree, and the institution awarding the degree. In a separate document, the supervisor(s) must verify the authenticity of the document. The extended abstract should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length (not including figures, tables and reference list), and be structured in the standard format of a thesis/dissertation: Introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Submit to Scholastica at: https://time.scholasticahq.com/for-authors
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism in Marine Environments are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisementsherein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any suchinaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism in Marine Environments have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism in Marine Environments is governed by an international editorial board consisting of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-in-marine-environments under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Comparing Intended, Self-Reported, and Observed Behavior of Snorkelers in the Mombasa Marine Park and Reserve, Kenya – 1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427318X15369841121725 Sander D. denHaring*† and Stephen G. Sutton‡
*James Cook University, School for Earth and Environmental Sciences, Townsville, Australia †CORDIO East Africa, Mombasa, Kenya ‡Atlantic Salmon Federation, New Brunswick, Canada
Recreational marine resource use is conducted by a varied group of visitors. Regardless of how minimal this resource use is, or what intentions these visitors have, potentially damaging contacts with these resources are unavoidable. Management authorities need a clear understanding of these contacts so that resource management can be conducted effectively. Traditional monitoring of visitors in the past has relied on self-reported behavior by visitors themselves. Self-reporting of behavior is not always accurate or reliable. This research article illustrates that even though recreational marine visitors (snorkelers) in the Mombasa Marine Park and Reserve had intentions to not disturb the reef when they snorkel and indicated having positive attitudes about not disturbing the reef when they snorkel, they still created contacts with the reef. Furthermore, their self-reported behavior did not correspond with their actual monitored behavior. Monitoring snorkeler behavior is time-consuming and is therefore paired with financial investment; however, this method is the most accurate method of gathering impact data to be used for management purposes. When accurate data on snorkelers’ behavior is necessary, in-water behavior monitoring should be used rather than self-reports.
Key words: Snorkeling; Self-reporting; Behavioral intention; Resource management What Values Do Tourists Place on a Marine Protected Area? White Shark Cage-Dive Tourists and the Neptune Islands – 19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15567690274868 Kirin Apps,* Kay Dimmock,† David J. Lloyd,* and Charlie Huveneers‡
*School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia †School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia ‡College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Management of protected areas is as much about understanding how society values these resources as it is about understanding ecological processes. Yet, in comparison to standard ecosystem monitoring and economic evaluation, social values are frequently overlooked because of the challenge to measure and define them. As marine protected areas are currently the fastest growing protected area type, this article argues the need to incorporate social value assessment in planning and policy decisions to improve ecological and social outcomes. This study surveyed 675 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) cage-dive participants to investigate how tourists’ value the Neptune Islands group (Ron and Valerie Taylor) Marine Park. Applying a value typology previously used in forests, respondents were able to identify with 13 distinct values. Results demonstrate that tourists hold biocentric, indirect use, and nonconsumptive values of the marine park as most important. The relevance of these results as an indicator of tourists’ preference for management decisions is discussed.
Key words: Marine protected areas; Marine tourism; Shark-based tourism; Protected area management; Value typology Visiting Scuttled Ships: An Examination of the Important Elements of the Wreck Diving Experience – 31 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15567670161919 Alana N. Seaman* and Gina L. Depper†
*Department of Recreation, Sports Leadership & Tourism Management, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USA †Eppley Institute for Parks and Public Lands, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
Scuba diving is an increasingly popular recreational and tourist pastime. Diving enthusiasts are recognized for their dedication to the sport and willingness to both travel to and spend money on new and unique experiences. Subsequently dive tourism has become a multibillion dollar industry. In turn, many coastal (and other diveable) destinations are investing in the development of local dive sites. However, many popular dive attractions such as naturally occurring coral reefs and historic wrecks are fragile, easily damaged, and/or adversely impacted by visitors. Artificial reefs, or structures purposely sunk to create habitats for marine life and infrastructure for unique diving experiences (often stripped-down large scale pieces of machinery), can draw tourists away from fragile natural ecosystems. Ideally, artificial reefs could also be utilized as underwater cultural heritage management tools similarly drawing visitors away from aging, delicate historic wrecks. However, little is known about wreck divers and/or the wreck diving experience. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the specific aspects of the popular purposely scuttled wreck, the USS Spiegel Grove (off the coast of Key Largo) that contributed to visitors’ dive experiences. A total of 100 TripAdvisor reviews about the Spiegel Grove were collected and analyzed as data. The majority of reviews were positive and revealed that the size of the ship, the challenge of the dive, the ability to penetrate the ship, the chance to check the dive off a bucket list, and the opportunity to see marine life contributed to divers’ experiences. Historic ties were surprisingly of little importance. Although more research is needed, these findings should help destinations to better plan for and design artificial reefs aimed at attracting wreck divers.
Key words: Dive tourism; Wreck diving; Underwater heritage; Artificial reefs; Dive experience Cruise Holidays: How On-Board Service Quality Affects Passengers’ Behavior – 45 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15471581334642 Aleksandar Radić,* Peter Björk,† and Hannele Kauppinen-Räisänen‡
*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Singidunum University, Beograd, Serbia †Department of Marketing, Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management (CERS), Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland ‡School of Marketing and Communication, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland
This study examines the relations ships between the perceived service quality and satisfaction on on-board spending and behavioral action, while it also explores differences in on-board spending. Survey data were collected from 649 cruise ship passengers. A partial least square structural equation modeling was used to test the conceptual model and analysis of variances to explore the influence of passengers’ demographic characteristics. Results show a positive link between service quality and satisfaction, and satisfaction and behavioral actions. Spending behavior has a moderating effect on behavioral actions, and is influenced by gender and travel frequency. Investing in the quality of cruise ships is vital, as it influences satisfaction and positive word-of-mouth. How to increase on-board spending, is more complex. On the one hand, the findings show that increased customer satisfaction does not habitually mean increased revenue. On the other hand, the results imply that passengers’ on-board spending varies across customer segments.
Key words: Behavioral intention; Cruise tourism; Satisfaction; Service quality; Spending behavior Negative Events in the Cruise Tourism Industry: The Role of Corporate Responsibility and Reputation in Information Diffusion – 61 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427319X15471560218888 Marco Remondino, Lara Penco, and Giorgia Profumo
Department of Economics and Business Studies, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
The objective of this manuscript is to analyze the effects, in terms of diffusion of information, of negative events in the cruise sector, in two scenarios: one in which responsibility for the event is mainly attributed to the cruise company and the other in which the company cannot be held responsible. This theme is relevant because, in recent years, disasters or mishaps have affected the cruise industry, attracting the attention of global media and communities and stimulating the adoption of different crisis communication strategies by the cruise lines affected. Moreover, most extant literature focuses on corporate messages intentionally sent by organizations after a negative event, and not on the spontaneous diffusion of information that is generated by stakeholders’ reactions. In particular, the aim of the article is to explore how the perceived responsibility of the company may have an impact on the diffusion of information, and to understand whether a previous excellent corporate reputation could have a moderating role on this phenomenon. Input data from an online questionnaire have been employed to build a bottom-up agent-based simulation model that, being based on individual agents’ behavior, investigates the role of the two aforementioned variables in the aggregate diffusion of information about the negative event. The simulation showed that a perception of responsibility translates into higher and faster spontaneous information diffusion among the public. Moreover, it showed that a former excellent reputation mitigates the spread of news. Based on the results, some practical implications are provided for managing crisis communication strategies when a negative event occurs.
Recreational Fishing in Florida Bay: Economic Significance and Angler Perspectives – 89 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427318X15365306469746 G. Andrew Stainback,* Tony Fedler,† Stephen E. Davis Iii,* and Birendra KC‡
*Everglades Foundation, Palmetto Bay, FL, USA †School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainsville, FL, USA Everglades Foundation, USA ‡Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
Florida Bay is a large, shallow, subtropical estuary located off the southern tip of the Florida peninsula and north of the Florida Keys, and is mostly contained within the bounds of Everglades National Park. Its unique ecological characteristics and location near densely populated urban areas make Florida Bay a popular tourist destination for recreational fishing. A survey of recreational anglers and guides was conducted to estimate the economic significance of recreational fishing in the Bay. Results indicate that recreational fishing on Florida Bay contributed $439 million in economic activity to the local economy in the year the study was conducted. Further, anglers from outside the region made up a disproportionate share of the economic contribution. Anglers were also queried through the survey about their opinions of the current status of the Bay. Most respondents indicated that they perceived that the quality of fish populations and habitat was declining, and that they fished the Bay less frequently than in the past. The importance of the results to restoration efforts targeting the Bay
and the greater Everglades ecosystem is discussed.
Key words: Recreational fishing; Economic contribution; Angler perceptions; Florida Bay Research Note
Millennials’ Perceptions of Social Interactions, Memorability, and Satisfaction Onboard Cruise Ships – 107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427318X15417404952445 Shelby Rodden* and Nancy Hritz†
*Tourism, Hospitality and Events, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Winston-Salem, NC, USA †Department of Hospitality Management, University of South Carolina Beaufort, Bluffton, SC, USA
This study examined millennial’s social interactions and their memorability that occur onboard cruise ships and analyzed how they may affect satisfaction with their experience. Social interactions are important as they can assist cruise lines into creating memorable experiences that lead to future intentions to cruise again. Descriptive and regression analysis show that positive social interactions are important for overall satisfaction. Moreover, social interactions with crew were rated as more important for mentally stimulating social interactions and influencing choices of activities. However, social interactions were more memorable with other passengers. Practical applications for the cruise lines and directions for future research are discussed.
Key words: Millennials; Social interactions; Memorable experiences; Cruise satisfaction
Water Safety for International Students Studying in Australia – 117 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427318X15449875761233
Southern Cross University, Bilinga, QLD, Australia
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