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Special issue of Tourism Review International
Africa Tourism in Change
Tourism Review International (TRI) is an ESCI and SCOPUS indexed peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism and is published four issues per year.
Special Issue Editors:
Tembi Tichaawa, Associate Professor and Head of Department
Christian Rogerson, Distinguish Professor
School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Gyan P. Nyaupane, Professor and Interim Associate Dean, Arizona State University
Tourism is a dynamic phenomenon in a state of constant change. As such, issues of tourism and change has been explored by researchers, mainly incorporating social and economic dynamics that continue to shape the development of contemporary tourism (Lew, 2014), albeit from a global perspective. Geographically, the changing nature of tourism is anchored on the transforming relationships between demand and supply (Woosnam & Kim, 2014). Changes, whether historical or current, affect how residents and stakeholders perceive tourism and related impacts (Nyaupane, Lew & Tatsugawa, 2014). This special issue broadens the discussion around tourism in change, with a specific focus on Africa. Change in tourism is not a new phenomenon, not least for the region of sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, events of recent decades intensified the changing characteristics of African tourism. Overall, the impress of globalization, better access to and high mobility of available capital developed transportation systems, social media and global marketing, the sharing economy, economic growth in new market areas, security measures, increasing need to regulate the growth of tourism due to climate change and biodiversity challenges, for example, have all contributed to the changing characteristics and processes of African tourism. The COVID-19 pandemic is the most recent potential driver of change in the tourism landscape and economy of Africa. From another perspective, tourism represents a change for African destinations and various stakeholders as many localities and regions try to use tourism as a vehicle for positive change in destination economies and communities. Indeed, for the past two decades several international organizations, policy-makers and governments – national and sub-national- have increasingly framed the tourism industry and its local and regional development connections as high-potential tools for sustainable development. Tourism in many cases, however, has become an agent of negative change and a tool for exacerbating inequalities and imposing negative environmental impacts for destination communities across Africa. The aim of this special issue is to investigate different aspects of tourism in change in sub-Saharan Africa – past and present. Using a range of both theoretical and applied perspectives this special issue seeks to analyze tourism in change within the specific development context of sub-Saharan Africa. Several themes can be explored, including, but not limited to:
- Turning points in African tourism; past and present
- Local economies and tourism in change
- Tourism resilience and recovery strategies
- Agritourism in change
- Heritage and heritage tourism in change
- Changing inner-city tourism
- Changing sport tourism
- Changing festival, events and MICE tourism
- Environmental change, including climate change
- Ecotourism and the community
- Reconceptualizing tourism planning and policy
- Rethinking domestic and regional tourism
- Diaspora tourism
- Change in resident perceptions of tourism development
- Revisiting historical research in tourism
- Business tourism in Africa
- Re-imagining visiting friends and relatives tourism
- Tourism and technology
- Tourism and pandemics
Expressions of interest/extended abstract of 500 words due: September 15, 2020. Email to email@example.com
Notification of acceptance of abstracts: 30th September 2020
Submission of full papers: before February 1, 2021. Online at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Anticipated date of Publication: Towards the end of 2021
Aims & Scope
Tourism Review International (TRI) is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) General manuscripts, (2) Review articles that summarize the current state of knowledge on a specific area within tourism—these articles review, evaluate, and build theory/concept, and provide new directions to future research, (3) Invited articles and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (4) Theme-based research published as special issues, (5) Short research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, and (6) Book and software reviews. All manuscripts submitted to TRI are reviewed by recognized scholars using a double-blind procedure. Although the journal has an international focus, manuscripts need not be cross-cultural to be considered for publication. Instead, the primary criterion for publication is the extent to which the manuscript demonstrates a meaningful contribution to the literature in tourism and tourism-related activities. Authors are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief through email if they have any questions.
In order to enable researchers to develop appropriate research papers, special issues are announced in advance. The quality of the papers will be assessed through a double-blind peer review process that will include acknowledged leaders in that particular thematic field.
Gyan Nyaupane, Ph.D.
Professor, School of Community Resources & Development
Arizona State University
411 N. Central Avenue, Ste 550
Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690
David Cárdenas, University of South Carolina, USA
Chun-Chu Chen, University of Idaho, USA
Shu Cole, Indiana University, USA
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Australia
Dogan Gursoy, Washington State University, USA
Kam Hung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Kiki Kaplanidou, University of Florida, USA
Brian King, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Maximiliano Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina
Christian Laesser, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Woojin Lee, Arizona State University, USA
Chung-Hsien Lin, National Formosa University, Taiwan
Stephen W. Litvin, The College of Charleston, USA
Duarte B. Morais, North Carolina State University, USA
Cristian Morosan, University of Houston, USA
Stephen Page, University of Bournemouth, UK
Cody Paris, Middlesex University, United Arab Emirates
Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Pauline Sheldon, University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA
Matthew Stone, California State University – Chico, USA
Moren Tibabo Stone, University of Botswana, Botswana
Arch Woodside, Boston College, USA
Kyle Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Yang Yang, Temple University, USA
Kathy Andereck, Arizona State University, USA
Kenneth Bartkus, Utah State University, USA
Frederic Dimanche, SKEMA Business School, France
Cathy Hsu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Xiang (Robert) Li, University of South Carolina, USA
Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, USA
James F. Petrick, Texas A&M University, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscripts electronically via Scholastica at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures and tables in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. The maximum word limit is 10,000 words.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters (or less) should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
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Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures and tables in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Payne, A. (2019). From old west to cosmopolitan: Changing narratives of Oklahoma City tourism guidebooks. Tourism Review International, 23(3–4), 149–164. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15797285682546
Book: Goeldner, C., & Ritchie, B. (2011). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (12th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Book chapter in edited book: Hall, C. M., & Jenkins, J. (2004). Tourism and public policy. In A. Lew, C. M. Hall, & A. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 425–540). Blackwell.
Internet source: United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2017). Tourism highlights: 2017 edition. http://publications.unwto.org/publication/unwto-tourismhighlights-2017-edition-0
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
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Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
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If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
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Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Tourism Review International (TRI) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Tourism Review International (TRI) utilizes a double-blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers and authors is not known to each other.
The peer review process for Tourism Review International is laid out below:
The paper is first checked to determine if it is formatted according to the TRI Guidelines for Authors. Further, the authors need to provide statements that the paper has not been published before, it is not presently under consideration for in any publication, and it will not be submitted elsewhere until TRI has completed its review process.
The paper is then reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief (EIC) for the content. If the paper does not meet the minimum quality standard, it is desk rejected. Papers that meet the minimum quality standard are sent out to reviewers.
The EIC selects at least two reviewers who have expertise within the topic. Typically, reviewers are given three to four weeks to review the papers and provide feedback.
Once the comments are received from reviewers, the EIC assesses the merit of the paper and makes a decision to accept, revise and resubmit, or reject. In case of special issue papers, the special issue editors do the initial screening, invite reviewers, and make decisions. Usually authors receive the initial review within two months of submission.
As a reviewer for Tourism Review International you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TRI, please contact the EIC Professor Gyan P. Nyaupane, Arizona State University, USA at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Review International have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Review International is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) Theme-based research, (2) General research, (3) Literature reviews (all types), (4) Invited essays and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (5) Research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, (6) Book and software reviews, and (7) Technical reports from distinguished research groups. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-review-international under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
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References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
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The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
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The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Table of Contents:
Volume 25, Numbers 2–3
The State of Tourism and Community Development Research and Future Directions – 79
Lesego Senyana Stone,* Moren Tibabo Stone,† and Gyan P. Nyaupane‡§
*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
†Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
‡School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, AZ, USA
§College of Business & Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
Tourism is often considered as a vehicle for community development and poverty alleviation and it is recognized as an off-farm activity that is key in generating revenue and providing employment for poor rural and urban residents and promoting economic growth in those communities. Community-based tourism has been advanced as a bottom-up strategy that encourages more just and equitable benefits for local communities to meet their household needs. Despite tourism’s potentials in community development, this is a contested topic and needs both theoretical and applied research. This article provides an overview of tourism and community development research and offers future directions. With articles from across the globe, this special issue brings to the fore achievements as well as challenges experienced in different settings as different stakeholders engage in tourism with a view to develop host communities. Eleven articles published in the special issue highlight theoretical, practical, and policy implications and therefore have the potential to advance knowledge in the field. This volume contributes to the tourism and community development discourse by providing diverse theoretical and empirical pieces of research work that will provide knowledge, inform practitioners, community development planners, and policy makers in their efforts to assist destination communities, in both the Global North and the Global South, to use tourism resources and attractions in a sustainable manner to improve their livelihoods.
Key words: Community development; Community participation; Sustainable tourism development; Community empowerment; Community-based tourism
The Impacts of Ecotourism and Conservation Measures in Protected Areas on Local Communities in Cameroon – 89
Vyasha Harilal,* Tembi M. Tichaawa,* and Jarkko Saarinen*†
*School of Tourism and Hospitality, Department of Tourism, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
†University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
The growth of ecotourism has an impact on the livelihoods of people living within and adjacent to protected areas, where ecotourism activities often take place. In some cases, evolving ecotourism has compromised the ability of locals to sustain and diversify their livelihoods. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of ecotourism and conservation measures implemented in protected areas in Cameroon on local communities residing either within or in close proximity to them. The study employed a mixed method research approach based on two case study areas in Cameroon (the Mount Cameroon National Park and the Douala Edea Wildlife Reserve). Key findings of the study suggest that the geographic location of communities, coupled with instituted conservation and preservation measures and the level of ecotourism activity, has a direct bearing on the severity of resultant impacts experienced by locals. Overall, measures in protected areas have been found to increase the conservation and preservation thereof. However, the extent to which communities are impacted upon by these measures differs in each case study area owing to factors such as geographical proximity, livelihood strategies, and community involvement in ecotourism.
Key words: Ecotourism impacts; Livelihood strategies; Environmental impacts; Local communities; Cameroon
Climate Change, Tourism, and Community Development: Perceptions of Maun Residents, Botswana – 105
Wame L. Hambira,* Jarkko Saarinen,†‡ Julius R. Atlhopheng,§ and Haretsebe Manwa¶
*Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun, Botswana
†Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
‡School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
§Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
¶School of Communications, Faculty of Humanities, North West University, Mmabatho, South Africa
Tourism is a key economic sector and tool for community development in most developing countries. However, climate change remains one of the major threats to this development. This is especially so for countries such as Botswana whose tourism industry is largely nature based, making it vulnerable to the effects of environmental change. Consequently, communities who rely on tourism to some extent are also vulnerable to global climate change and its local effects. The purpose of this article is to examine community perceptions with regards to the tourism–climate change nexus in Maun, a key tourism hub in Botswana and dependent on the tourism economy. Data collection was done by means of a household survey. Interestingly, the results showed that most local people do not perceive tourism highly as a source of income. In practice, they depended on other forms of livelihoods like formal employment and farming. Furthermore, even though they have noted some changes in the environment and climate, they generally did not know the resultant impacts despite acknowledging that the tourism industry is bound to be affected. The low awareness levels may lead to inaction, and hence a clarion call to decision makers to develop information and adaptation strategies for communities that host tourist attractions to ensure resilience to anticipated effects of global climate change.
Key words: Climate change; Community perceptions; Livelihoods; Tourism; Botswana
Human Agency and Tourism Development in Natural National Parks in the Context of the Colombian Armed Conflict – 119
César Augusto Oliveros-Ocampo,* Cinta Sanz-Ibáñez,† Rosa Maria Chávez-Dagostino,* and Salvador Anton-Clavé†
*Centro Universitario de la Costa, Guadalajara University, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico
†Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Research Group on Territorial Analysis and Tourism Studies (GRATET)-Department of Geography, Catalonia, Spain
The goal of this research is to explore through evolutionary and relational economic geography how the human agency of local communities, organized armed groups, and the central government together shape the evolutionary trajectory of a national natural park as a tourist destination where armed conflict is present. The research was conducted in El Cocuy National Natural Park in Colombia and focuses on the period after the arrival of the High Mountain Battalion in 2003. Data collected from 11 key informants in semistructured interviews were analyzed with Atlas.ti and complemented with documentary analysis. The results show the dynamics of human agency in the National Natural Park and its effects at three levels: 1) local communities see their creative capacity and decision-making conditioned by power and control/pressures exerted by organized armed groups and the government; 2) the actions of organized armed groups control and limit ecotourism development; and 3) public regulations restrict these places’ evolutionary pathways. Overall, actions derived from power relations exercised by the organized armed groups and the central government determined the evolutionary trajectory of the destination, reducing its adaptability to change, the empowerment of local communities, and its prospects.
Key words: Community development; Human agency; Protected areas; Relational economic geography; Evolutionary economic geography; Power relations
Community Participation in Wildlife Tourism in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park – 139
Refiloe Julia Lekgau and Tembi Maloney Tichaawa
School of Tourism & Hospitality, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
This study examined the nature of community participation in wildlife tourism in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park—a transboundary protected area shared by Botswana and South Africa. Since the opening of the park, much attention has been directed towards stimulating community participation in wildlife tourism and conservation within the protected area in order to reduce poverty and contribute to local development in adjacent communities. Following a qualitative methodology, the study conducted a documentary analysis in which historical documents and policies pertaining to the protected area were examined. Further, the study interviewed 17 key informants and conducted two focus groups with members of the two communities located adjacent to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. The study found that although policies had a positive effect on the community participation in wildlife tourism within the park, in Askham the two communities (Khomani San and Mier) had acted autonomously in the involvement in wildlife tourism. Additionally, the study found wildlife tourism in Tsabong to be in its early stages of development and therefore found limited, and hesitant, participation in the sector. Lack of awareness and limited funds were found comprised as the major limitations to community participation in both Tsabong and Askham. The study concludes that community participation is central to obtaining the benefits conceptualized by wildlife tourism in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park.
Key words: Wildlife tourism; Community participation; South Africa; Botswana; Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park
Empowering Women Through Community-Based Tourism in the Western Cape, South Africa – 157
Chanel Emily Mc Call* and Kevin Frank Mearns†
*Department of Historical and Heritage Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
†Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
Tourism has received considerable attention in recent years with regards to the impacts of tourism and its ability to contribute toward sustainability. This article focuses on the positive impact community-based tourism can have on the empowerment of women. Four domains of empowerment have been identified in literature, and the objective of this research specifically reviews the social and economic empowerment domains, which community-based tourism has had on the lives of women involved in tourism. Primary data in the form of life histories were collected through semistructured interviews by the researchers, and data analyzed according to an empowerment framework. The results yielded a number of women considered to be empowered on both economic and social levels. However, despite the considered empowerment of women, aspects of disempowerment were noted. The study fundamentally reveals that Sustainable Development Goal 5, pertaining to women empowerment, can be achieved through the economic empowerment of women who in turn socially empower the communities in which they reside.
Key words: Women empowerment; Community-based tourism; Economic empowerment; Social empowerment
Women, Fishermen, and Community-Based Tourism at Djoudj Bird National Park, Senegal: An Application of the Actor–Structure Livelihood Framework – 173
Aby Sene-Harper,* Lauren N. Duffy,* and Birame Sarr†
*Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
†Institute for Tourism and Economic Sustainable Development, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain
While community-based tourism (CBT) has delivered on economic opportunities in some cases, researchers have questioned the viability of its impacts, often citing inequitable distribution of benefits as a critical debilitating factor. CBT is often based on normative principles that assume all actors have equal aspirations, power, voice, and access to resources. Yet tourism activities are embedded in the same uneven social structures that envelope and define local livelihoods. In this qualitative case study of a fishing community outside of Djoudj National Bird Park in Senegal, we analyze the way a CBT project fits within women’s and fishermen’s livelihood strategies, focusing on the social and cultural norms structuring their participation in tourism. We apply the actor–structure livelihood framework to unveil the interactions between the norms embedded in the community-level social structure (i.e., social and cultural norms) and individuals’ agency as they seek out meaningful livelihood opportunities in CBT. The results of our study show that social norms, implicit biases, and cultural identities associated with women and Black Moorish fishermen, normalize their nonparticipation in certain positions within the CBT project. Through this analysis, we highlight norms shaping other livelihood activities and how they spill into the CBT sphere. We situate our findings within the broader scholarly discussion on CBT as a tool that encourages the equitable distribution of benefits and empowerment of local communities. We also discuss livelihood perspectives, specifically actor–structure framework, as a viable approach to explore failures, challenges, and opportunities of tourism as a community development tool.
Key words: Community-based tourism; Livelihood approaches; Actor–structure framework; Agency gender; Fishing livelihoods; Senegal
Contributions of Partnerships to Conservation and Development: Insights From Amboseli – 189
Tabitha Mugo,* Ingrid J. Visseren-Hamakers,† and Rene van der Duim‡
*Department of Tourism Management, School of Tourism, Hospitality & Events Management, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
†Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Institute for Management Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
‡Cultural Geography Chair Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands
For several decades, both academics and practitioners have fiercely debated how to reconcile conservation and development objectives. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to align biodiversity conservation and livelihood goals have triggered a shift from pure protected area approaches to a hybrid scenario, including diverse partnership arrangements that consider livelihood needs of communities neighboring protected areas. These partnerships often include tourism to provide income and jobs. The future of the Amboseli landscape in Kenya has been an integral part of these debates, since it has faced long-lasting conservation and development challenges. Many initiatives, often in the form of partnership arrangements, have tried to address these challenges. By using the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) and a set of indicators to measure the contributions to conservation, we examine two of these partnerships—the Amboseli Ecosystem Trust (AET) and Big Life Foundation (BLF)—with the aim of understanding the extent to which they contribute to addressing these challenges. Data were collected using document analysis, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, nonparticipant observation, and informal conversations. Findings show that both AET and BLF have been able to address direct drivers of biodiversity loss (such as human wildlife conflicts, poaching, unplanned infrastructural developments) and—to a much lesser extent—the indirect drivers, such as poverty and land subdivision. Through the workings of both partnerships, more community members have gained access to specific community capital assets, through employment opportunities and other monetary incentives and education. However, it is not clear if and how the livelihood benefits transfer to real and long-term support for wildlife conservation.
Key words: Biodiversity conservation; Development; Partnerships; Amboseli, Kenya
Constraints and Drivers of Community Participation and Empowerment in Tourism Planning and Development in Nigeria – 209
Adenike D. Adebayo* and Jim Butcher†
*Tourism, Hospitality and Events, University of Sunderland in London, London, UK
†Tourism, Events and Hospitality, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, UK
It has been argued in the contemporary academic discourse on tourism planning that community participation in the planning process creates a mechanism to mitigate negative impacts and to satisfy at least some of the needs of the community. In this context, this article analyzes the underlying factors that constrain community participation and empowerment in decision-making in South West Nigeria. It also seeks to identify factors that can drive such processes in tourism development. The research adopts a qualitative approach to gather data from stakeholders in the Nigerian tourism sector. Findings from the research show that three factors constrained local community participation and empowerment. These factors are mainly intangible and relate to the political culture in Nigeria. They include community awareness and education, issues of trust, transparency, and accountability, hence making the community members feel a sense of alienation from the process. It is thus recommended that the Local Government Tourism Committees should be given the capacity to function in order to aid participation and empowerment at the local community level.
Key words: Community participation; Empowerment; Tourism planning; Decision-making development; Nigeria
Tourism Brings Good Things”: Tourism and Community Development in Rural Papua New Guinea – 229
Fiona N’Drower,* Gianna Moscardo,† and Laurie Murphy†
*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Divine Word University, Madang, Papua New Guinea
†College of Business, Law & Governance, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
Many governments and NGOs have argued for using tourism, especially community-based tourism (CBT), as a development tool. While this tourism option is often described as more sustainable in terms of contributions to destination community well-being, there is only a limited understanding of the processes that actually underpin CBT and its outcomes in peripheral destinations. This article argues that one reason for this limited understanding is that research into CBT has typically been conducted from a Western perspective with little consideration given to historical and political contexts of colonization and disempowerment. This article reports on a research study that used an alternative, culturally appropriate research methodology with 12 rural PNG villages that had self-initiated CBT ventures and that specifically sought to give these village communities a voice in understanding how CBT can be developed to be one part of larger sustainable community development processes. Major findings included: a positive view of tourism as an additional source of income that fitted well with existing sustainable livelihoods; strong connection between development decisions and the core Melanesian values of clan identity, leadership, and support from elders, community cooperation and reciprocity in the successful maintenance of tourism activities; the need to manage the entire supply chain and not be limited by the actions and power of external tourism operators and agents; the need for education and training in many aspects of tourism to enhance entrepreneurial approaches and greater returns from the supply chain; and the challenge of gender issues.
Key words: Papua New Guinea tourism; Community-based tourism (CBT); Indigenous methodology; Destination community well-being; Sustainable livelihoods
Service Learning as Community Development? Local Resident Perspectives of Community-Engaged Educational Travel – 247
Noel B. Habashy* and Carter A. Hunt†
*International Agriculture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
†Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, and Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
There is strong body of literature exploring community member and resident perspectives on tourism that has emerged from numerous locations across the globe. Yet virtually none of this writing explores the role of repeat community-engaged service learning with local communities. What theory does exist on the topic indicates that increased rates of community member participation yield more positive viewpoints on community–program partnerships. Engagement in this form of tourism development in communities may have an influence on participation in the community institutions that have the most ability to influence local development outcomes. This qualitative, ethnographic study fills this gap in the literature by analyzing community members’ emic perspectives of a recurring educational service learning program to a lesser developed region of Costa Rica. Surprisingly, community residents do not view educational service learning as a form of tourism, though they do see it as valuable for setting the stage for desired tourism development in the future. Findings also indicate community members’ involvement in key institutions makes it more likely that they perceive the impact of students in the community positively. As the first study to analyze educational service learning travel from a community development and resident perspective, this work will provide a valuable theoretical contribution relevant to those engaged in this form of travel across the Global South.
Key words: Community development; Residents’ attitudes; Participation; Institutions; Costa Rica
The Impacts of COVID-19 on Nature-Based Tourism in Botswana: Implications for Community Development – 263
Lesego S. Stone,* Moren T. Stone,† Patricia K. Mogomotsi,‡ and Goemeone E. J. Mogomotsi‡
*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
†Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
‡Okavango Research Institute, P/Bag 285, Maun, Botswana
COVID-19 has had significant impacts on industries and individuals globally. Due to restrictions put in place to reduce the spread of the disease, it has affected the travel and tourism industry. Using the concepts of ecotourism and sustainable tourism, a systematic qualitative document analysis of available literature was carried out to determine the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on nature-based tourism and its implications on community development, using Botswana as a case study. Results indicate that due to the unsustainable and predominant dependence on the international market, the tourism sector in Botswana has come to a standstill. Furthermore, the promotion of domestic tourism to nature-based attractions may lead to conservation issues. COVID-19 has also had an impact on community development through abrupt losses of employment and income. However, several positive environmental impacts have also been experienced. This article calls for a transformation of the tourism sector to make it more resilient. As a response measure, it is necessary to assess whether there is a need to call for a change in policy from high-value low-volume to low-cost high-volume, which may have negative impacts on conservation. However, as an adaptive response, we assert the need to diversify tourism products to consider the needs of both domestic and regional markets so that the focus is not just on nature-based tourism and international clientele.
Key words: Botswana; Community development; Covid-19 pandemic; Ecotourism and sustainable tourism; High-value low-volume policy; Nature-based tourism
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