Tourism Review International (TRI) is an ESCI and SCOPUS indexed peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism and is published four issues per year.
Special Issue Editors:
Duarte B. Morais, Associate Professor, North Carolina State University
Birendra KC, Assistant Professor, University of North Texas
Chantell LaPan, Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Gyan P. Nyaupane, Professor, Arizona State University
Tourists have been trying to break out of staged tourism enclaves for many decades, but only recently have information technologies empowered: a) tourists with information about destinations and supply, and b) entrepreneurial hosts with marketplaces allowing them to reach visitors with offers of lodging, services and experiences. Indeed, the constant mainstream news about AirBnB, Uber, Vayable and other tourism web marketplaces reveal that we are living the advent of the era of tourism microentrepreneurship. Tourism microentrepreneurship is defined as the process of launching a new, or adding value to an existing, enterprise employing no more than five people, providing tourism experiences, food, lodging or transportation, with the aim to enable the owner a desired lifestyle.
Microentrepreneurs have played a role in the tourism industry for a long time, however only recently have they become a visible and increasingly influential stakeholder group. Due to the recent recognition of their importance and the often-informal structure of their businesses, tourism microentrepreneurs are less well studied and practitioners are largely unprepared to fuel microentrepreneurial development in their destinations. Moreover, most destinations struggle to find meaningful ways to integrate these genuine local experiences with the formal sector components of the system. Nevertheless, there is a burgeoning body of scholarship examining tourism microentrepreneurship, and some of these seminal publications are influencing thinking and research agendas. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that fueling tourism microentrepreneurial development and its integration in a destination’s supply system can generate added (socio-cultural, economic and environmental) benefits to the host populations while making the destination more competitive and unique. Conversely, there is evidence that when left unbridled, tourism microentrepreneurship can erode the local character of neighborhoods and hurt the quality of an entire destination. Therefore, this special issue of Tourism Review International aims to feature scholarship that delves deep into the thought processes and behaviors of tourism microentrepreneurs as well as the intricacies of how tourism microentrepreneurship affects destinations.
To contribute to the literature on tourism microentrepreneurship, we invite authors to submit both empirical and conceptual papers. Authors are encouraged to submit papers that are interdisciplinary in nature. This special issue will cover a range of topics related to tourism microentrepreneurship, including, but not limited to:
Understanding the role of microentrepreneurship in destinations
Examining the thought processes and development paths of tourism microentrepreneurs
Social capital and social networking among microentrepreneurs
Cultural self-representations through tourism microentrepreneurship
Microentrepreneurship in circular economies and equitable endogenous development
Microentrepreneurship in conservation of natural resources and of working lands
Market trends and technological innovations and the rise of gig sharing economies
Tax and other policy regulatory reactions to tourism microentrepreneurship
Permatourism, communitarian entrepreneurship, and other approaches for the integration of top-down and bottom-up tourism development
February 1st, 2020: Submission of expression of interest with 500-word extended abstracts to the special issue editors: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org
April 1st, 2020: Notification/invitation to submit full papers
January 1st, 2021: Publication of the Special Issue
Adams, K., & Sandarupa, D. (2018). A room with a view: Local knowledge and tourism entrepreneurship in an unlikely Indonesian locale. Asian Journal of Tourism Research, 3(1), 1-27.
DeBerry-Spence, B., & Elliott, E. A. (2012). African microentrepreneurship: The reality of everyday challenges. Journal of Business Research, 65(12), 1665-1673.
Ferreira, B., Morais, D. B., Pollack, J., & Bunds, K. (2018). Development and validation the Tourism e-Microentrepreneurial Self-Efficacy scale. Tourism Analysis, 23(2), 275-282.
KC, B, Morais, D. B., Peterson, N., Seekamp, E., & Smith, J. (2017). Social network analysis of wildlife tourism microentrepreneurial network. Tourism and Hospitality Research, online first.
LaPan, C., Morais, D. B., Wallace, T., & Barbieri, C. (2016). Women’s self-determination in cooperative tourism microenterprises. Tourism Review International, 20(1), 41-56.
Morais, D. B., Bunn, D., Hoogendoorn, G., & KC, B. (2018). The potential role of tourism microentrepreneurship in the prevention of rhino poaching. International Development Planning Review, 40(4), 443-461.
Morais, D. B., Heath, E., Tlhagale, M., Payton, F. C., Martin, K., Mehta, K., & Bass, J. (2012). People-First Tourism: Concept Test in South Africa. In E. Fayos-Sola, Silva, J., & Jafari, J. (Eds.). Knowledge Management in Tourism: Policy and Governance Applications. Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, Volume 4, (pp. 115 – 128). London: Emerald.
Morais, D. B., K.C., B., Mao, Y., Mosimane, A. (2015). Wildlife conservation through tourism microentrepreneurship among Namibian Communities. Tourism Review International, 19(1-2), 43-61.
Nazariadli, S., Morais, D. B., Bunds, K., Baran, P. & Supak S. (2019) Rural tourism microentrepreneurs’ self-representation through photography: a counter-hegemonic approach, Rural Society, 28(1), 29-51.
Wang, D., Li, M., Gou, P., & Xu, W. (2016). The impact of sharing economy on the diversification of tourism products: Implications for tourism experience. In: Inversini A., Schegg R. (eds) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism (683-694). Springer, New York.
Call for Papers: Deadline 2/15/20
Special Issue: Tourism and Community Development
Tourism Review International (TRI) is an ESCI and SCOPUS indexed peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism and is published four issues per year.
Special Issue Editors:
Moren T. Stone, Senior Lecturer, University of Botswana
Lesego S. Stone, Senior Research Scholar, University of Botswana
Gyan P. Nyaupane, Professor, Arizona State University
Gyan P. Nyaupane, Professor, Arizona State University
Tourism is widely considered as an effective contributor to economic development for all countries of the world. However, despite the almost universal adoption of tourism as a developmental tool, the extent to which tourism brings about socio-economic development remains the subject of intense debate (Sharpley & Telfer, 2015). It is generally hyped as a vehicle for both rural and urban economic regeneration in many Global North nations. It has also been adopted by the Global South as a developmental catalyst, reflecting that tourism has long been an integral element of national development strategies.
To promote community development in many countries in the Global South, community-based tourism has been advanced as a bottom-up strategy that encourages the equitable distribution of benefits to local communities to meet their household needs (Johnson, 2010; Giampiccoli & Kalis, 2012). Sanders (1970) asserts that community development is dedicated to progress, while Gilchrist (2004) argues that it helps local residents meet their unmet needs, builds local capacity and improves skills and knowledge of individuals and the community as a whole. In tourism, community development is analysed in terms of community capacity, empowerment and participation in relation to tourism development (Singh, Timothy, & Dowling, 2003; Aref et al,2011). Literature indicates that while there is a call for tourism to develop communities there are still setbacks and contestations on defining and relating the following terms with tourism: community (e.g. Stone & Nyaupane, 2014); community development (e.g. Timothy, 2002); community empowerment (e.g. Nyaupane & Poudel, 2011; Sofield, 2003); community participation (e.g. Nyaupane, Morais & Dowler, 2006; Tuson, 2006); community partnerships (e.g. Bramwell & Lane, 2000); community collaboration (e.g. Hall, 1999); sense of community (Aref, 2011), to mention a few. It seems a given that we all know what is meant by these terms; however, these terms can be interpreted differently and in many ways. Furthermore, they can easily be appropriated for a particular use.
The purpose of this special issue is to explore successes and/or failures and challenges and opportunities faced by countries of the world that pursue tourism as a development tool. In so doing, it will critically appraise contemporary perspectives on tourism and development, in particular, sustainable tourism development, which despite increasing doubts with respect to its legitimacy and viability, remains the dominant tourism development paradigm. We therefore invite scholars from both developing and developed countries to submit multidisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary papers that add to the existing knowledge on the topic. Both conceptual and empirical papers are encouraged. Authors are encouraged to submit papers that address the following themes but not limited to the following:
Tourism and community development nexus debate
Community-based tourism and human livelihoods
Communities’ perceptions and attitudes towards tourism development
Community involvement/participation in tourism
Tourism development and institutional frameworks
Challenges and opportunities of community development from tourism
Tourism development and sustainability
Tourism development and SDGs
Protected areas tourism and community development
Natural resources and tourism development
Participatory methodology in community tourism research
Aref, F. (2011). Sense of community and participation for tourism development. Life Science Journal, 8(1), 20-25
Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (2000). Collaboration and partnerships in tourism planning. Tourism collaboration and partnerships: Politics, practice and sustainability, 2, 1-19.
Giampiccoli, A., & Kalis, J. H. (2012). Tourism, Food, and Culture: Community‐Based Tourism, Local Food, and Community Development in M pondoland. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 34(2), 101-123
Gilchrist, A. (2004). The well-connected community: a networking approach to community development: Community Development Foundation (Great Britain), The Policy Press, UK.
Hall, C. M. (1999). Rethinking collaboration and partnership: A public policy perspective. Journal of sustainable tourism, 7(3-4), 274-289.
Nyaupane, G. P., & Poudel, S. (2011). Linkages among biodiversity, livelihood, and tourism. Annals of tourism research, 38(4), 1344-1366.
Nyaupane, G. P., Morais, D. B., & Dowler, L. (2006). The role of community involvement and number/type of visitors on tourism impacts: A controlled comparison of Annapurna, Nepal and Northwest Yunnan, China. Tourism management, 27(6), 1373-1385.
Sanders, I.T. (1970). The concept of community development. In L.J. Cary (Ed.), Community development as a process, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, pp. 9-31.
Sharpley, R., & Telfer, D. J. (Eds.). (2015). Tourism and development: Concepts and issues (Vol. 63). Channel view publications.
Singh, S., Timothy, D. J., & Dowling, R. K. (Eds.). (2003). Tourism in destination communities. Cambridge, USA: CABI publishing.
Sofield, T. H. (Ed.). (2003). Empowerment for sustainable tourism development. Emerald Group Publishing.
Stone, M. T., & Nyaupane, G. (2014). Rethinking community in community-based natural resource management. Community Development, 45(1), 17-31.
Timothy, D. J. (2002). Tourism and community development issues. Tourism and development: Concepts and issues, 149-164
Tosun, C. (2006). Expected nature of community participation in tourism development. Tourism management, 27(3), 493-504
Aims & Scope
Aims & Scope
Tourism Review International (TRI) is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) General manuscripts, (2) Review articles that summarize the current state of knowledge on a specific area within tourism—these articles review, evaluate, and build theory/concept, and provide new directions to future research, (3) Invited articles and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (4) Theme-based research published as special issues, (5) Short research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, and (6) Book and software reviews. All manuscripts submitted to TRI are reviewed by recognized scholars using a double-blind procedure. Although the journal has an international focus, manuscripts need not be cross-cultural to be considered for publication. Instead, the primary criterion for publication is the extent to which the manuscript demonstrates a meaningful contribution to the literature in tourism and tourism-related activities. Authors are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief through email if they have any questions.
In order to enable researchers to develop appropriate research papers, special issues are announced in advance. The quality of the papers will be assessed through a double-blind peer review process that will include acknowledged leaders in that particular thematic field.
GyanNyaupane, Ph.D. Professor, School of Community Resources & Development Arizona State University 411 N. Central Avenue, Ste 550 Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690 Email: email@example.com
David Cárdenas, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Chun-Chu Chen, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA Shu Cole, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia DoganGursoy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA Kam Hung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China Kiki Kaplanidou, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Brian King, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Maximiliano Korstanje, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina Christian Laesser, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland Woojin Lee, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Stephen W. Litvin, The College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA Duarte B. Morais, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Cristian Morosan, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Stephen Page, University of Bournemouth, Poole, UK Cody Paris, Middlesex University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA Pauline Sheldon, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA Matthew Stone, California State University – Chico, Chico, CA, USA MorenTibabo Stone, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Arch Woodside, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA Kyle Woosnam, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Yang Yang, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Kathy Andereck, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Kenneth Bartkus, Utah State University, UT, USA Frederic Dimanche, SKEMA Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France Cathy Hsu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Xiang (Robert) Li, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA James F. Petrick, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscripts electronically via Scholastica at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures and tables in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters (or less) should also be included.
Abstract and Key words: Provide an abstract of 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures and tables in a separate file).
References: The reference listshould be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Chen, C.-C., Lin, Y.-H., & Petrick, J. F. (2012). International stereotype and the collective construction of destination image. Tourism Analysis, 17(1), 55–66. Book:Goeldner, C., & Ritchie, B. (2011). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (12th ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Book chapter in edited book: Hall, C. M., & Jenkins, J. (2004). Tourism and public policy. In A. Lew, C. M. Hall, & A. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 425–540). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Internet source:United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2017). Tourism highlights: 2017 edition. Retrieved from http://publications.unwto.org/publication/unwto-tourismhighlights-2017-edition-0
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for allillustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table (do not incorporate tables within the text of the manuscript). Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Review International are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Review International have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Review International is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) Theme-based research, (2) General research, (3) Literature reviews (all types), (4) Invited essays and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (5) Research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, (6) Book and software reviews, and (7) Technical reports from distinguished research groups. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-review-international under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Perceptions of Travel Importance, Benefits, and Constraints in Predicting Travel Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Leisure Travel – 1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15561098338286
Chun-Chu Chen* and Yao-Chin Wang†
*School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA, USA †School of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
This research conducts a cross-cultural examination of leisure traveler’s perceptions of travel importance, benefits, and constraints as predictors of travel behavior. Results from the both the US (n = 559) and Taiwanese (n = 500) samples indicate, as expected, that leisure travelers who perceive travel as more beneficial and important travel more frequently. Additionally, it was found that when people perceive a higher level of travel constraints, they naturally tend to consider leisure travel as less beneficial and important, which serves to reduce leisure travel. Whereas these relationships were both significant across both samples, the Taiwanese sample was shown to have a more favorable view of leisure travel and, therefore, tended to travel more frequently. These findings would appear to have meaningful theoretical and managerial implications for the tourism and lodging industries. Key words: Travel behavior; Travel importance; Travel benefit; Cross-cultural research
The Nature of Tourism Education Programs in Developing Countries: The Case of Tanzania – 13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15561098338295
John T. Mgonja
Department of Tourism and Recreation, College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
This article reviews the nature of tourism education programs in Tanzania. The results reveal that tourism education in the country is a relatively recent phenomenon with the oldest program being offered in 2000. As such, the programs are still evolving and tend to reflect more entry-level training. Specifically, diplomas and certificates are the major credentials offered and no institution in the country offers a terminal degree in a tourism-related field (i.e., doctorate degree). Hence, doctoral education needs to be acquired outside the country, which can represent a meaningful constraint on the ability to efficiently and effectively train instructors. Given this review of tourism education programs in Tanzania, additional research is recommended to further examine the quality of the programs as well as to conduct a comparative analysis with other developing countries in the region.
Key words: Tourism; Human resource training; Developing countries; Credentials; Tanzania
What Determines Destination Loyalty? Revisiting the Investment Model in a Destination Context – 21 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15561098338312
Hongbo Liu,* Xiang (Robert) Li,† and Karen P. S. Tan†
*School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK †Department of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Building on Li and Petrick’s earlier work, this study applies the investment model to a destination context. Specifically, this study proposes that tourist satisfaction, perceived investment in a destination, and perceived quality of alternatives can be used to explain tourist loyalty to a destination. An alternative approach that indirectly measures quality of alternatives is proposed and compared against the direct approach used by other researchers. The proposed relationships were tested through an online panel, surveying American travelers on their perceptions of a southeastern US state as a vacation destination. Results provide empirical evidence to (i) support the use of an investment model as a theoretical foundation to explain destination loyalty and (ii) show that the indirect measure of quality of alternatives is more robust than the direct measure employed in this study. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
The Evolving Field of Wind Energy Tourism: An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action – 37 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15656150709479 Danqing Liu,* Catherine Curtis,† and Randall S. Upchurch‡
*Department of Management, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China †School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA ‡School of Resort & Hospitality Management, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL, USA
Studies concerning adoption of wind energy tourism is growing in interest for academic researchers; however, the body of knowledge surrounding consumer adoption of wind farming as a tourism experience is still in its infancy. The enclosed study tests the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) using that model’s core constructs of behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, subjective norms, and attitude measurements are predictors of action. The reported sample consisted of 287 Chinese residents who had visited China’s Ningbo wind farm facility. By application of the factor analysis procedure, it was determined that behavioral beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms control, and normative beliefs exerted an interactive effect on resident intent to visit the Ningbo wind farm for recreational purposes. The prevailing message is that the need for social bonding, normative influences exerted by peers comprising environmental consciousness, and curiosity associated with the science behind wind farm technology serve as primary drivers of interest in wind farming for recreational purposes.
Key words: Theory of reasoned action (TRA); Behavioral beliefs; Attitude; Normative beliefs; Subjective norms
Attributes of Tourism Graduates: Comparison Between Employers’ Evaluation and Graduates’ Perceptions – 55 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15664122692155 Nicola Wakelin-Theron,* Wilfred I. Ukpere,† and Jane Spowart‡
*Department of Tourism, School of Tourism and Hospitality, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa †Department of Industrial Psychology & People Management, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
‡College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa The tourism industry requires that increasing attention be paid not only to the quality of products and services but also to the quality of the human resources that constitute one of its major assets, since tourism is essentially a people-centered service industry. As such, a high-quality skilled workforce will ensure greater competitiveness and innovation, improved job prospects, repeat tourist visits, and economic growth in South Africa. This study aims to establish how tourism graduates perceived their abilities in terms of knowledge and skills and how the tourism industry evaluated tourism graduates’ actual abilities in terms of knowledge and skills within the tourism industry. The researchers adopted a sequential, explanatory mixed-method that entails combining quantitative and qualitative methods. The researchers conducted a quantitative survey of a purposive sample of 561 managers, supervisors, and owners of tourism industry establishments, as well as tourism graduates exposed to the industry and those working in the tourism industry. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 12 participants who were purposively selected. This study found that the tourism industry experiences graduates as being comfortable with technology, having a professional appearance, as well as outgoing—their three top actual abilities. However, graduates were perceived to lack entrepreneurial skills. In addition, work experience, negotiation skills, and career planning were among the lowest ranked actual abilities of tourism graduates. Actual knowledge and skills gaps indicate a lack of the educational expertise required, as it underpins the curriculum in a tourism qualification and adds extensive value to the tourism industry when recruiting, training, and developing staff.
Key words: Actual abilities; Knowledge and skill; Tourism industry; Tourism graduates; Higher education institutions Research Notes
Is Cannabis Tourism Deviant? A Theoretical Perspective – 71 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15561098338303 Tianyu Ying,* Jun Wen,† and Hairong Shan†
*Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, School of Management, Zhejiang UniversityHangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China †School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia
With the growth of cannabis tourism, destinations such as the Netherlands have begun to offer cannabis-related products and services to visitors, including tourists from countries where all drugs are strictly prohibited. Yet limited research has sought to understand cannabis-oriented tourists’ efforts to neutralize deviant connotations, namely by justifying or rationalizing misbehavior, when deciding to participate in cannabis tourism. This research note proposes a framework of deviant consumption behavior (DCB) constructed of geographic shifting, self-identity shifting, and moral identity shifting from the perspective of cannabis-oriented tourists to delineate tourists’ decision-making process around engaging in deviant behaviors. The proposed framework suggests that previously developed DCB frameworks in the marketing and consumer behavior literature should be adapted for use in outbound tourism research. This research note also highlights areas for debate and investigation regarding cannabis tourists’ deviant behavior. Future research directions are provided based on the proposed framework as it applies to deviant tourism research.
Key words: Deviant consumption; Neutralization; Deviance externalization; Cannabis tourism; Amsterdam; Chinese tourists Inward- and Outward-Facing Governmental Tourism Units in the United States: A Content Analysis of Names Used by States and Commonwealths – 79 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15561098338349
Kenneth R. Bartkus * and Stephen W. Litvin†
*Professor Emeritus, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA †Hospitality and Tourism Management, The College of Charleston, School of Business, Charleston, SC, USA
Developing meaningful names for government units that promote tourism can serve to facilitate more efficient identification by interested others. While the process would appear to be relatively intuitive (i.e., use of descriptive/suggestive identifiers), the results of this study reveal that the names used for official US state/commonwealth units responsible for administrating and promoting tourism-related commerce to businesses and visitors do not always include tourism-related identifiers. First, the review of inward-facing units (i.e., administrative units responsible for promoting business commerce in tourism) reveals that some of the states/commonwealths do not appear to use names that clearly identify the unit as tourism related. Second, the review of outward-facing units (the official state/commonwealth websites dedicated to promoting tourism to visitors) reveal that some of the domain names either do not reflect a clear tourism focus and/or may be difficult to interpret. To mitigate potential interpretational issues with the names, it is recommended that administrators consider the use of descriptive/suggestive names that more clearly identify the unit as tourism related.
Key words: Governmental tourism units; Tourism-related descriptive/suggestive identifiers; United States
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