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Aims & Scope
Tourism Review International (TRI) is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) General manuscripts, (2) Review articles that summarize the current state of knowledge on a specific area within tourism—these articles review, evaluate, and build theory/concept, and provide new directions to future research, (3) Invited articles and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (4) Theme-based research published as special issues, (5) Short research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, and (6) Book and software reviews. All manuscripts submitted to TRI are reviewed by recognized scholars using a double-blind procedure. Although the journal has an international focus, manuscripts need not be cross-cultural to be considered for publication. Instead, the primary criterion for publication is the extent to which the manuscript demonstrates a meaningful contribution to the literature in tourism and tourism-related activities. Authors are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief through email if they have any questions.
In order to enable researchers to develop appropriate research papers, special issues are announced in advance. The quality of the papers will be assessed through a double-blind peer review process that will include acknowledged leaders in that particular thematic field.
Gyan Nyaupane, Ph.D.
Professor, School of Community Resources & Development
Arizona State University
411 N. Central Avenue, Ste 550
Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690
David Cárdenas, University of South Carolina, USA
Chun-Chu Chen, University of Idaho, USA
Shu Cole, Indiana University, USA
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Australia
Dogan Gursoy, Washington State University, USA
Sameer Hosany, Royal Holloway University of London, UK
Kam Hung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Kiki Kaplanidou, University of Florida, USA
Brian King, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Maximiliano Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina
Christian Laesser, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Woojin Lee, Arizona State University, USA
Chung-Hsien Lin, National Formosa University, Taiwan
Stephen W. Litvin, The College of Charleston, USA
Duarte B. Morais, North Carolina State University, USA
Cristian Morosan, University of Houston, USA
Stephen Page, University of Bournemouth, UK
Cody Paris, Middlesex University, United Arab Emirates
Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Pauline Sheldon, University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA
Matthew Stone, California State University – Chico, USA
Moren Tibabo Stone, University of Botswana, Botswana
Arch Woodside, Boston College, USA
Kyle Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Yang Yang, Temple University, USA
Kathy Andereck, Arizona State University, USA
Kenneth Bartkus, Utah State University, USA
Frederic Dimanche, SKEMA Business School, France
Cathy Hsu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Xiang (Robert) Li, University of South Carolina, USA
Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, USA
James F. Petrick, Texas A&M University, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscripts electronically via Scholastica at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures and tables in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. The maximum word limit is 10,000 words.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters (or less) should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and Key words: Provide an abstract of 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures and tables in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Payne, A. (2019). From old west to cosmopolitan: Changing narratives of Oklahoma City tourism guidebooks. Tourism Review International, 23(3–4), 149–164. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15797285682546
Book: Goeldner, C., & Ritchie, B. (2011). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (12th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Book chapter in edited book: Hall, C. M., & Jenkins, J. (2004). Tourism and public policy. In A. Lew, C. M. Hall, & A. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 425–540). Blackwell.
Internet source: United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2017). Tourism highlights: 2017 edition. http://publications.unwto.org/publication/unwto-tourismhighlights-2017-edition-0
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table (do not incorporate tables within the text of the manuscript). Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must becompleted and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Review International are available to be open access and may also contain color figures (not a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
A Voluntary Submission Fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $50.00 per color page). (Not a condition for publication).
Open Access is available for a fee of $200.00. Color would be discounted to $50.00 per color page. (Not a condition for publication).
The use of Color Figures in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. Color figures are available for a cost of $100.00 per color page. This amount would be discounted to $50.00 per color page if choosing to pay the voluntary submission fee or the open access option as indicated above. (Not a condition for publication).
If you choose any of the above options, a form will be sent with the amount due based on your selection, at proof stage. This form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof, prior to publication.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Articles appearing in publications are available to be published as Open Access and/or with color figures. A voluntary submission fee is also an option if you choose to support this publication. These options are NOT required for publication of your article.
You may complete the Author Option Payment Form here.
The designated corresponding author will receive a free pdf file of the final press article via email.
Tourism Review International (TRI) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Tourism Review International (TRI) utilizes a double-blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers and authors is not known to each other.
The peer review process for Tourism Review International is laid out below:
The paper is first checked to determine if it is formatted according to the TRI Guidelines for Authors. Further, the authors need to provide statements that the paper has not been published before, it is not presently under consideration for in any publication, and it will not be submitted elsewhere until TRI has completed its review process.
The paper is then reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief (EIC) for the content. If the paper does not meet the minimum quality standard, it is desk rejected. Papers that meet the minimum quality standard are sent out to reviewers.
The EIC selects at least two reviewers who have expertise within the topic. Typically, reviewers are given three to four weeks to review the papers and provide feedback.
Once the comments are received from reviewers, the EIC assesses the merit of the paper and makes a decision to accept, revise and resubmit, or reject. In case of special issue papers, the special issue editors do the initial screening, invite reviewers, and make decisions. Usually authors receive the initial review within two months of submission.
As a reviewer for Tourism Review International you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TRI, please contact the EIC Professor Gyan P. Nyaupane, Arizona State University, USA at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Review International have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Review International is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) Theme-based research, (2) General research, (3) Literature reviews (all types), (4) Invited essays and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (5) Research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, (6) Book and software reviews, and (7) Technical reports from distinguished research groups. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-review-international under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Volume 27, Number 2
The Relevance of Air Quality Perceptions on Travel Behavior of Visitors With Respiratory Diseases – 87
Vitor Rodrigues,* Celeste Eusebio,* Maria Joao Carneiro,* Mara Madaleno,* Margarita Robaina,* Carla Gama,† and Alexandra Monteiro†
*GOVCOPP – Research Unit in Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies, and Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism (DEGEIT), University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
†CESAM – Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Air pollution is one of the most challenging environmental issues influencing the lifestyles of the world’s population. Every year millions of respiratory diseases and premature deaths are directly attributed to it. Therefore, people who suffer from respiratory diseases are more vulnerable to variations in air quality, as direct exposure leads to exacerbation of symptoms, more hospitalizations, and behavioral changes. This study aims to examine the impact of air pollution on the travel behavior of people with respiratory diseases. To accomplish this objective, a mixed methodological approach is used, applying questionnaires and interviews. The results show that visitors with respiratory diseases are more likely to value air quality and to engage in adaptive measures to prevent the effects of air pollution episodes at the destination. This study enriches the tourism literature by examining how air quality influences visitors with respiratory illnesses and provides practical implications for the tourism industry.
Key words: Tourism; Respiratory diseases; Air quality; Adaptive behaviors; Travel behavior
An Analysis of Latent Demand in Language Tourism – 107
Ines Carvalho,*†‡ Ana Ramires,†§ and Michelle Moraes*¶#**
*Research Unit for Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
†Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology, Universidade Europeia, Lisbon, Portugal
‡Interdisciplinary Center for Gender Studies (CIEG), Institute of Social and Political Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
§Instituto Portugues de Administracao de Marketing–IPAM Porto, Porto, Portugal
¶Lusiada University, Lisbon, Portugal
#Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administracao de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
**Research Unit for Organizations, Markets, and Industrial Management–COMEGI, Lisbon, Portugal
Studies on language tourism have been scarce. Existing research has focused on language tourists and their experiences. However, no study has approached nonparticipants and latent demand in language tourism. Latent demand refers to demand that cannot be satisfied due to particular constraints, and despite the interest of the individual. Yet, the characteristics of latent demand in this type of tourism remain unknown, as well as the constraints that impede the participation of these potential language tourists in language tourism. The present study aims to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying: a) the characteristics and constraints of latent demand in language tourism; and b) which factors predict the intentions of becoming a language tourist. This study comprises a sample of 1,462 nonparticipants in language tourism. Statistical quantitative data analysis (including a binary logistic regression method) was performed using SPSS. Among other findings, we concluded that several predictors increased the odds of intending to participate in language tourism (e.g., being single, being able to speak English, being enrolled in higher education), while others decreased it (lack of interest, lack of a travel companion, family commitments). Analyzing nonparticipants with high potential is key to remove constraints to their participation in language tourism.
Key words: Language tourism; Latent demand; Constraints; Travel constraints; Potential tourists
Tourism and Classic Diplomacy: The Case of Strengthening Israeli–Tanzanian Bilateral Relations – 125
Department of Politics and Government, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
This article considers the link between tourism and classic diplomacy as a field of study and policy. The article focuses on the contribution of tourism to the strengthening of bilateral relations between governments, through analysis of Israeli–Tanzanian relations as a crucial case study. Thus, in addition to the literature that focuses on people-to-people diplomacy and tourism, this article highlights the role that tourism plays in strengthening diplomatic relations between states. Tourism is positioned within the broader context of economic diplomacy, and the interrelationships between tourism and diplomacy—theoretically and practically—are examined. This article finds that tourism is an important tool for promoting bilateral relations between governments in the context of classic diplomacy.
Key words: Tourism; Economic diplomacy; Political diplomacy; Classic diplomacy; Israel–Tanzania relations; Bilateral relations
International Travel and Insurance Purchase: The Role of Traveling Companion, Household Income, Travel Risk, and Sufficient Financial Resources on This Relationship – 141
Jason Draper and Agnes L. DeFranco
Conrad N. Hilton College of Global Hospitality Leadership, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
The COVID-19 pandemic had and continues to have profound effects on the travel industry, creating many risks and unknowns, especially for international travel. Using consumer risk theory and protection motivation theory as a framework, this study explores the relationships between international travel plans in 2023 and 2024–2025 and the likelihood of purchasing travel insurance (i.e., cancellation/interruption, emergency medical, baggage) with a sample of 1,264 US residents. Travel companion(s) and household income are examined as potential moderators and travel risk and sufficient household income as mediators. Results reveal a likelihood to purchase all three travel insurance types, and travelers are twice as likely to buy insurance for international travel for 2024–2025 compared to 2023. Likelihood to purchase travel insurance is also influenced by travel risk and having sufficient financial resources where sufficient financial resources partially mediates the relationships in question. Results suggest a new era of travel where risk is inherent and if travelers have sufficient financial resources, they will purchase travel insurance to mitigate risks of potentially suffering financial losses. This is a new finding with implications for the travel insurance industry, which should find ways to partner with travel providers, such as wholesalers and group tours, to offer insurance to international travelers. Although COVID-19 has been downgraded, other diseases are surfacing (e.g., monkeypox), leaving public health an important consideration. This and subsequent research will remain important to monitor how other outbreaks and risks impact the travel industry and travelers’ methods to protect themselves.
Key words: Post-COVID-19 travel; Protection motivation theory; Travel insurance; Sufficient financial resources; Travel risk
The Economic Impact of Tourism at Regional Level: A Systematic Literature Review – 159
Charbel Bassil,* Georges Harb,† and Roula Al Daia‡
*Department of Finance and Economics, College of Business and Economics, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
†Department of Economics, Adnan Kassar School of Business, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
‡Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Management, University of Balamand, Tripoli, Lebanon
We undertake a systematic literature review that looks at the economic effects of tourism at subnational levels. This review, the first of its kind to our knowledge, is timely in view of the growing body of research investigating the economic impact of tourism at subnational levels. Moreover, given the role of tourism as a regional development tool, this review would be of particular interest to policymakers. Our selection process, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach, results in 60 papers forming the basis of the review. The latter first presents the key features of the literature and synthesizes its main findings. Then it provides an assessment of the literature by i) highlighting underresearched countries and topics, and suggesting themes for future research, and ii) recommending empirical strategies to be adopted by researchers that would better reflect the economic repercussions of tourism at subnational level. All in all, our review synthesizes the research done so far and outlines some venues that could be part of the future research agenda.
Key words: Tourism economics; Regional tourism; Regional economics; PRISMA; Systematic literature review
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Copyright © 2023 Cognizant, LLC
Updated as of December 2022
Number of submissions: 170
Number of reviews requested: approximately 3 manuscripts per paper that are advanced to review
Number of reviews received: approximately 2 manuscripts per paper
Approval rate: 18%
Average time between submission and publication: approximately 5 months
Average time to decision: approximately 30 days