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Special issue of Tourism Review International
Africa Tourism in Change
Tourism Review International (TRI) is an ESCI and SCOPUS indexed peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism and is published four issues per year.
Special Issue Editors:
Tembi Tichaawa, Associate Professor and Head of Department
Christian Rogerson, Distinguish Professor
School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Gyan P. Nyaupane, Professor and Interim Associate Dean, Arizona State University
Tourism is a dynamic phenomenon in a state of constant change. As such, issues of tourism and change has been explored by researchers, mainly incorporating social and economic dynamics that continue to shape the development of contemporary tourism (Lew, 2014), albeit from a global perspective. Geographically, the changing nature of tourism is anchored on the transforming relationships between demand and supply (Woosnam & Kim, 2014). Changes, whether historical or current, affect how residents and stakeholders perceive tourism and related impacts (Nyaupane, Lew & Tatsugawa, 2014). This special issue broadens the discussion around tourism in change, with a specific focus on Africa. Change in tourism is not a new phenomenon, not least for the region of sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, events of recent decades intensified the changing characteristics of African tourism. Overall, the impress of globalization, better access to and high mobility of available capital developed transportation systems, social media and global marketing, the sharing economy, economic growth in new market areas, security measures, increasing need to regulate the growth of tourism due to climate change and biodiversity challenges, for example, have all contributed to the changing characteristics and processes of African tourism. The COVID-19 pandemic is the most recent potential driver of change in the tourism landscape and economy of Africa. From another perspective, tourism represents a change for African destinations and various stakeholders as many localities and regions try to use tourism as a vehicle for positive change in destination economies and communities. Indeed, for the past two decades several international organizations, policy-makers and governments – national and sub-national- have increasingly framed the tourism industry and its local and regional development connections as high-potential tools for sustainable development. Tourism in many cases, however, has become an agent of negative change and a tool for exacerbating inequalities and imposing negative environmental impacts for destination communities across Africa. The aim of this special issue is to investigate different aspects of tourism in change in sub-Saharan Africa – past and present. Using a range of both theoretical and applied perspectives this special issue seeks to analyze tourism in change within the specific development context of sub-Saharan Africa. Several themes can be explored, including, but not limited to:
- Turning points in African tourism; past and present
- Local economies and tourism in change
- Tourism resilience and recovery strategies
- Agritourism in change
- Heritage and heritage tourism in change
- Changing inner-city tourism
- Changing sport tourism
- Changing festival, events and MICE tourism
- Environmental change, including climate change
- Ecotourism and the community
- Reconceptualizing tourism planning and policy
- Rethinking domestic and regional tourism
- Diaspora tourism
- Change in resident perceptions of tourism development
- Revisiting historical research in tourism
- Business tourism in Africa
- Re-imagining visiting friends and relatives tourism
- Tourism and technology
- Tourism and pandemics
Expressions of interest/extended abstract of 500 words due: September 15, 2020. Email to firstname.lastname@example.org
Notification of acceptance of abstracts: 30th September 2020
Submission of full papers: before February 1, 2021. Online at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Anticipated date of Publication: Towards the end of 2021
Aims & Scope
Tourism Review International (TRI) is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) General manuscripts, (2) Review articles that summarize the current state of knowledge on a specific area within tourism—these articles review, evaluate, and build theory/concept, and provide new directions to future research, (3) Invited articles and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (4) Theme-based research published as special issues, (5) Short research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, and (6) Book and software reviews. All manuscripts submitted to TRI are reviewed by recognized scholars using a double-blind procedure. Although the journal has an international focus, manuscripts need not be cross-cultural to be considered for publication. Instead, the primary criterion for publication is the extent to which the manuscript demonstrates a meaningful contribution to the literature in tourism and tourism-related activities. Authors are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief through email if they have any questions.
In order to enable researchers to develop appropriate research papers, special issues are announced in advance. The quality of the papers will be assessed through a double-blind peer review process that will include acknowledged leaders in that particular thematic field.
Gyan Nyaupane, Ph.D.
Professor, School of Community Resources & Development
Arizona State University
411 N. Central Avenue, Ste 550
Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690
David Cárdenas, University of South Carolina, USA
Chun-Chu Chen, University of Idaho, USA
Shu Cole, Indiana University, USA
Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Australia
Dogan Gursoy, Washington State University, USA
Kam Hung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Kiki Kaplanidou, University of Florida, USA
Brian King, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Maximiliano Korstanje, University of Palermo, Argentina
Christian Laesser, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Woojin Lee, Arizona State University, USA
Chung-Hsien Lin, National Formosa University, Taiwan
Stephen W. Litvin, The College of Charleston, USA
Duarte B. Morais, North Carolina State University, USA
Cristian Morosan, University of Houston, USA
Stephen Page, University of Bournemouth, UK
Cody Paris, Middlesex University, United Arab Emirates
Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, New Zealand
Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Pauline Sheldon, University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA
Matthew Stone, California State University – Chico, USA
Moren Tibabo Stone, University of Botswana, Botswana
Arch Woodside, Boston College, USA
Kyle Woosnam, University of Georgia, USA
Yang Yang, Temple University, USA
Kathy Andereck, Arizona State University, USA
Kenneth Bartkus, Utah State University, USA
Frederic Dimanche, SKEMA Business School, France
Cathy Hsu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Xiang (Robert) Li, University of South Carolina, USA
Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, USA
James F. Petrick, Texas A&M University, USA
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Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscripts electronically via Scholastica at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures and tables in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable. The maximum word limit is 10,000 words.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters (or less) should also be included.
ORCID iD: Authors may include their ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) number if they wish and a link and the iD number will be included in the final article.
Abstract and Key words: Provide an abstract of 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (7th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures and tables in a separate file).
References: The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (7th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. Consult chapters 8 and 9 in the manual for complete text citations and reference list entries. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Payne, A. (2019). From old west to cosmopolitan: Changing narratives of Oklahoma City tourism guidebooks. Tourism Review International, 23(3–4), 149–164. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15797285682546
Book: Goeldner, C., & Ritchie, B. (2011). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (12th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Book chapter in edited book: Hall, C. M., & Jenkins, J. (2004). Tourism and public policy. In A. Lew, C. M. Hall, & A. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 425–540). Blackwell.
Internet source: United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2017). Tourism highlights: 2017 edition. http://publications.unwto.org/publication/unwto-tourismhighlights-2017-edition-0
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Inclusive and Bias-Free Language: Authors should ensure that their manuscript is free from bias, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and does not indicate cultural dominance or make cultural assumptions. Use appropriate and unbiased language descriptors regarding age, disability, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and other personal factors. Consult Chapter 5 of the 7th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for bias-free language guidelines.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for all illustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table (do not incorporate tables within the text of the manuscript). Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must becompleted and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Online Fast Track Publication: Accepted manuscripts will be loaded to Fast Track with DOI links online. Fast Track is an early e-pub system whereby subscribers to the journal can start reading and citing the articles prior to their inclusion in a journal issue. Please note that articles published in Fast Track are not the final print publication with proofs. Once the accepted manuscript is ready to publish in an issue of the journal, the corresponding author will receive a proof from our Production Department for approval. Once approved and published, the Fast Track version of the manuscript is deleted and replaced with the final published article. Online Fast Track publication ensures that the accepted manuscripts can be read and cited as quickly as possible.
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Review International are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Tourism Review International (TRI) Peer Review Policy
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Tourism Review International (TRI) utilizes a double-blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers and authors is not known to each other.
The peer review process for Tourism Review International is laid out below:
The paper is first checked to determine if it is formatted according to the TRI Guidelines for Authors. Further, the authors need to provide statements that the paper has not been published before, it is not presently under consideration for in any publication, and it will not be submitted elsewhere until TRI has completed its review process.
The paper is then reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief (EIC) for the content. If the paper does not meet the minimum quality standard, it is desk rejected. Papers that meet the minimum quality standard are sent out to reviewers.
The EIC selects at least two reviewers who have expertise within the topic. Typically, reviewers are given three to four weeks to review the papers and provide feedback.
Once the comments are received from reviewers, the EIC assesses the merit of the paper and makes a decision to accept, revise and resubmit, or reject. In case of special issue papers, the special issue editors do the initial screening, invite reviewers, and make decisions. Usually authors receive the initial review within two months of submission.
As a reviewer for Tourism Review International you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals.
If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TRI, please contact the EIC Professor Gyan P. Nyaupane, Arizona State University, USA at email@example.com.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Review International have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Review International is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) Theme-based research, (2) General research, (3) Literature reviews (all types), (4) Invited essays and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (5) Research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, (6) Book and software reviews, and (7) Technical reports from distinguished research groups. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-review-international under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Access Current Articles (Volume 26, Number 2)
Table of Contents:
Volume 26, Number 2
The State of the Art of Emotional Advertising in Tourism: A Neuromarketing Perspective – 139
Sara De-Frutos-Arranz* and Maria-Francisca Blasco Lopez†
*Faculty of Economics and Business, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
†Faculty of Commerce and Tourism, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Due to increasing competition in the tourism sector, destinations struggle to attract the attention of potential visitors through advertising. This article addresses the influence of emotions in tourism advertising, arguing that they are an effective predictor of individual behavior, and essential in destination choices, which have an important unconscious component. This bibliometric work discusses the role of emotional advertising, reviews the literature in order to describe the current state of knowledge in tourism and neuromarketing, and assess the valuable findings made by recent years due to advances in neuroscience. The literature review provided an in-depth understanding on how neuromarketing contributes to reveal tourists’ implicit emotional responses that affect subsequent decision marking and seek to prove that neuromarketing research can increase tourism competitiveness through providing data to conduct more efficient campaigns. Consequently, the field is an important subject for further research and several lines of future investigation have been identified.
Key words: Emotions; Advertising; Tourism; Destination marketing; Consumer neuroscience; Neuromarketing
Business Innovations and Interorganizational Relationships in the Hospitality Industry: Does Partner Diversity Matter? – 163
Thais González-Torres, Eva Pelechano-Barahona, and Fernando E. García-Muiña
Department of Business Administration (ADO), Applied Economics II and Fundaments of Economic Analysis, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain
Innovation is a potential source of differentiation and competitive advantage for the hospitality industry. However, the dynamism of the environment forces hotel operators to establish multiple and simultaneous interorganizational relations—portfolio of alliances—in order to provide the accommodation service and develop innovation activities while being efficient, aimed at remaining competitive in dynamic contexts. The benefits obtained, considering the set of relationships from a global perspective, are superior to those addressing alliances from an individual point of view. Bearing this in mind, this study empirically tests how the diversity among the agent’s attributes—resources and cognitive schemes—within the portfolio of alliance can affect the introduction of business innovations. It is also analyzed whether the previous experience in collaboration of the hotel firm moderates this relationship. The results reveal that hotel companies must design their partner configuration according to the type of innovation to be introduced, focusing mainly on areas such as service and marketing.
Key words: Hospitality; Business innovation; Alliance portfolio; Resource diversity; Cognitive diversity
Disclosing the Unnoticed Power of Market Segments in the Tourism Growth Nexus Discussion – 183
Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Economic and Regional Development, Amfissa Campus, Greece
Business Support Centre, Regional Development Fund, Region of Central Greece, Greece
The present study aims at investigating the tourism growth nexus by launching a new approach when conceptualizing tourism expansion. We add to the relevant discussion in two specific ways. First, we claim that tourism is a heterogeneous economic activity and launch the concept of market segments when searching for cointegrating and causality relationships at the interface of tourism and economy, an issue that goes unnoticed and an approach that is not tested so far. We define them in two different ways: business tourism spending and leisure tourism spending. In the analysis, we also take into consideration capital investment spending as well as internal consumption within the tourism industry. Second, we apply second-generation panel data analysis within the Eurozone economic space, which is insufficiently investigated within the concept of tourism growth nexus discussion. Research findings indicate that a unidirectional causality relationship running from business tourism spending to economic growth is present. Hence, if business tourism spending increases (decreases) then economic growth will increase (decrease) too. Additionally, changes to leisure tourism spending will cause changes to economic growth in the same direction and vice versa. Internal travel and tourism consumption as well as capital investment spending within the travel and tourism sector form a feedback hypothesis with economic growth meaning that they are mutually influenced when changes occur. Practical implications indicate that a friendly and attractive tourism ecosystem in terms of investments and innovations will enhance sustainable economic growth and tourism demand in the long run.
Key words: Eurozone countries; Causalities; Growth; Tourism; Market segments
Destination Arrangement for an Emerging Tourist Market: An Application of an Acculturation Model
Faculty of Management Sciences, Phuket Rajabhat University, Phuket, Thailand
This research applies the concept of bidimensional acculturation to the Indian tourist market in order to seek a greater understanding of how short-time travelers adapt to host cultures. A qualitative research design using the snowball sampling technique was applied. In-depth interviews with 12 tourism stakeholders in Phuket were conducted. The applicability of the acculturation model became evident as the Indian tourists were more likely to apply the separation strategy of cultural adaptation. All the informants completely agreed that Phuket has great potential to host tourists, including the Indian tourist market, because of being a world-renowned tourist destination. Nevertheless, it was evident that key informant implied Indian tourists were likely to adopt the separation strategy of the acculturation model. The interview analysis suggests the evidence of three key themes underlying the adopted strategy, namely, seeking home comfort and suitable food and activities, maintaining their unique characteristics, and spending time with a big group of family. The research findings benefit both private and public tourism organizations. Unique challenges and destination arrangement for a destination in order to host an Indian tourist market are suggested.
Key words: Acculturation model; Stakeholder perceptions; Indian tourists; Destination arrangements
Did Closing Borders to Tourists Save Lives? Tourist Arrival, Self-Protective Leadership, and COVID-19 Casualties – 215
Mulyadi Robin,* Sharif Rasel,† Girish Prayag,‡ And Mesbahuddin Chowdhury‡
*Australian Institute of Business, Adelaide, Australia
†College of Business, Government & Law, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
‡Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, UC Business School, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
International human mobility has been the driving force of economic growth and policy decisions for the tourism industry. However, the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated policy changes that explicitly limited mobility. Our research sought to examine whether closing borders to international tourists was related to the reduction in the number of COVID-19 fatalities, and the impact of country-level culturally accepted norms towards leadership in the implementation of these policy. This study builds on the call for further research on how tourism destinations plan for and respond to global crises and disasters. We used data from the World Bank and the GLOBE Project to test the direct effect of international tourist arrivals in 2019 on COVID-19 fatalities in 2020 and the moderating role of self-protective leadership on this relationship. Our findings supported our proposition that closing borders to tourists saved lives but self-protective leadership is critical. In fact, a key contribution of our study is that attitudes towards leadership play an important role in the effectiveness of policy deployment during times of crisis; in particular, closing the border had a stronger impact in saving lives across countries where self-protective leadership is culturally acceptable and expected. Implications for destination management are also suggested.
Key words: Tourist arrival; Self-protective leadership; COVID-19; Governance; Policy response
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Updated as of December 2021
Number of submissions: 175
Number of reviews requested: Average 3
Number of reviews received: Average 2
Approval rate: 22%
Average time between submission and publication: Estimated 6 months