Tourism Review International (TRI) is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) General manuscripts, (2) Review articles that summarize the current state of knowledge on a specific area within tourism—these articles review, evaluate, and build theory/concept, and provide new directions to future research, (3) Invited articles and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (4) Theme-based research published as special issues, (5) Short research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, and (6) Book and software reviews. All manuscripts submitted to TRI are reviewed by recognized scholars using a double-blind procedure. Although the journal has an international focus, manuscripts need not be cross-cultural to be considered for publication. Instead, the primary criterion for publication is the extent to which the manuscript demonstrates a meaningful contribution to the literature in tourism and tourism-related activities. Authors are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief through email if they have any questions.
In order to enable researchers to develop appropriate research papers, special issues are announced in advance. The quality of the papers will be assessed through a double-blind peer review process that will include acknowledged leaders in that particular thematic field.
GyanNyaupane, Ph.D. Professor, School of Community Resources & Development Arizona State University 411 N. Central Avenue, Ste 550 Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
David Cárdenas, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Chun-Chu Chen, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA Shu Cole, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia DoganGursoy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA Kam Hung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China Kiki Kaplanidou, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Brian King, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Maximiliano Korstanje, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina Christian Laesser, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland Woojin Lee, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Stephen W. Litvin, The College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA Duarte B. Morais, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Cristian Morosan, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Stephen Page, University of Bournemouth, Poole, UK Cody Paris, Middlesex University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA Pauline Sheldon, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA Matthew Stone, California State University – Chico, Chico, CA, USA MorenTibabo Stone, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Arch Woodside, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA Kyle Woosnam, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Yang Yang, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Kathy Andereck, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Kenneth Bartkus, Utah State University, UT, USA Frederic Dimanche, SKEMA Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France Cathy Hsu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Xiang (Robert) Li, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA James F. Petrick, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscripts electronically via Scholastica at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures and tables in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters (or less) should also be included.
Abstract and Key words: Provide an abstract of 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures and tables in a separate file).
References: The reference listshould be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Chen, C.-C., Lin, Y.-H., & Petrick, J. F. (2012). International stereotype and the collective construction of destination image. Tourism Analysis, 17(1), 55–66. Book:Goeldner, C., & Ritchie, B. (2011). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (12th ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Book chapter in edited book: Hall, C. M., & Jenkins, J. (2004). Tourism and public policy. In A. Lew, C. M. Hall, & A. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 425–540). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Internet source:United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2017). Tourism highlights: 2017 edition. Retrieved from http://publications.unwto.org/publication/unwto-tourismhighlights-2017-edition-0
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for allillustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table (do not incorporate tables within the text of the manuscript). Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Review International are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
Peer Review Policy
Tourism Review International Peer Review Policy (TRI)
Peer review is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field to ensure only good scientific research is published.
In order to maintain these standards, Tourism Review International (TRI) utilizes a double-blind review process whereby the identity of the reviewers and authors is not known to each other.
The peer review process for Tourism Review International is laid out below:
The paper is first checked to determine if it is formatted according to the TRI Guidelines for Authors. Further, the authors need to provide statements that the paper has not been published before, it is not presently under consideration for in any publication, and it will not be submitted elsewhere until TRI has completed its review process.
The paper is then reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief (EIC) for the content. If the paper does not meet the minimum quality standard, it is desk rejected. Papers that meet the minimum quality standard are sent out to reviewers.
The EIC selects at least two reviewers who have expertise within the topic. Typically, reviewers are given three to four weeks to review the papers and provide feedback.
Once the comments are received from reviewers, the EIC assesses the merit of the paper and makes a decision to accept, revise and resubmit, or reject. In case of special issue papers, the special issue editors do the initial screening, invite reviewers, and make decisions. Usually authors receive the initial review within two months of submission.
As a reviewer for TRI you can take advantage of the following incentive:
If you review three papers for one of the Cognizant journals (Tourism Review International, Tourism Analysis, Event Management, Tourism Culture and Communication, Tourism in Marine Environments, and Gastronomy and Tourism) within a one-year period, you will qualify for a free OPEN ACCESS article in one of the above journals. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer for TRI, please contact the EIC Professor Gyan P. Nyaupane, Arizona State University, USA at email@example.com.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Review International have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Review International is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) Theme-based research, (2) General research, (3) Literature reviews (all types), (4) Invited essays and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (5) Research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, (6) Book and software reviews, and (7) Technical reports from distinguished research groups. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-review-international under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
The Nexus Between Economic Policy Uncertainty and Stock Returns of Tourism Companies: Evidence From Turkey – 87 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15724717569849
Alper Aslan* and Buket Altinoz†
*Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aviation Management, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey †Vocational School, Nisantasi University, Istanbul, Turkey
This article aims to analyze the nexus between economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and stock returns of tourism companies for Turkey by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) boundary test for data from 1997 to 2017. The analysis results illustrate that an increase in the global and European economic policy uncertainty index affects negatively to Borsa Istanbul (BIST) tourism index in Turkey in both the short and long run. In addition, global economic policy uncertainty has a greater impact on stock returns of tourism companies in the long run than European economic policy uncertainty. The causality test results support this statement and illustrate a unidirectional causality from global economic policy uncertainty to BIST Tourism Index (XTRZM). These findings proved that Turkey is not only for Europe but also a tourism center, globally. Analysis results implied that especially global economic policy uncertainty is a factor that should be taken into account to explain tourism stock returns. This article proposes that it will be useful to use the EPU index, especially global EPU, as a determinant of tourism stock returns. This result takes the existing theoretical infrastructure one step further than traditional tourism demand models.
A Review of Sustainability, Tourism, and the Marketing Opportunity for Adopting the Cittàslow Model in Pacific Small Islands – 99 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15741004672657
Therez B. Walker
School of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation (SEBI), University of Guyana, Georgetown, Guyana, South America
This article explores an important niche of destination marketing and branding for Pacific small islands and suggests the utilization of the concept of Slow Tourism, modeled on the Cittàslow (Slow City) movement. The article begins with an analytical examination of the different elements, processes, and relationships involved in evaluating the slow philosophy as a worthwhile approach towards destination marketing and the sustainable tourism agenda in Pacific small islands. The academic discourse on the Cittàslow movement unquestionably offers an open discussion, but it has yet to address the application of this concept in small islands in the Pacific. Much of the current literature on the Cittàslow approach has focused on a European context, while some researchers have paid attention to the growing number of Cittàslow destinations in the Asia Pacific region. Following a review, this article seeks to fill the gap in the literature by not only emphasizing the importance of the movement, but it also examines the view that, the growing number of communities around the world adopting the slow philosophy, gives credibility to the adaptability of the movement in a variety of geographical areas. In doing so, this article contributes to the body of tourism management, marketing, and branding scholarship. This article also incorporates the varied and varying understandings about slow living, Slow Tourism, as well as sustainable tourism that are useful to develop models for marketing/branding places with specific potentialities and attributes such as small island destinations.
Examining Tour Services, Satisfaction, and Loyalty of International Tourists in Cape Coast, Ghana – 115 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15741004672666
Alexander Preko,* Leeford Edem Kojo Ameyibor,* and Iddrisu Mohammed†
*University of Professional Studies, Accra, Accra, Ghana †University of Ghana Business School (UGBS), Accra, Ghana
Utilizing transaction-specific customer satisfaction theory within tourism marketing, this research investigates how tour services elicit international tourists’ satisfaction and contribute to tourists’ loyalty to a destination. The research was conducted using 356 international tourists visiting destination sites in Cape Coast who answered questions regarding tour services: accommodation, food services, tour guide performance, souvenir shopping, and community interaction. Structural equation modeling was used to test the six proposed hypotheses based on validated survey data from the tourists. The data revealed that community interactions, souvenir shopping, and accommodation had positive effects while food services and tour guide performance negatively influenced international tourist satisfaction. Additionally, tourist satisfaction had a positive effect on tourist loyalty. The results suggest that effective tour services encounter and tourist satisfaction can promote local city economies at destination via recommendations or revisitation of international tourists due to their memorable and unforgettable experiences. Again, the outcome of this research validates the usefulness of the transaction-specific customer satisfaction theory within city tourism literature and will help tourism officials, city managers, city developers, businesses, and tourism practitioners to have a better understanding of the studied core tour services within context.
Key words: Tour services; Tourist satisfaction; Tourist loyalty; Community interaction; Cape Coast; Ghana
Emotional and Cognitive Drivers of Customer Satisfaction in Adventure Travel – 133 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15790218411835
Linda E. McNeely,* Jennifer L. Burton,† and Julia R. Pennington†
*College of Business, Mississippi University for Women, Columbus, MS, USA †Sykes College of Business, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL, USA
Customer satisfaction has become the critical outcome variable in tourism where traveler experiences become electronic word of mouth (eWOM) for future visitors, yet the drivers of customer satisfaction in adventure travel are not well established in academic literature. This study relies on both qualitative and quantitative measures to examine visitor perceptions at a wild animal reserve to determine drivers of customer satisfaction in adventure travel. The theoretical framework extends Oliver’s expectation disconfirmation theory to this new and growing sector that differs in that consumers are seeking out unexpected experiences in their travel adventures. This research addresses the role of expectations in a context where customers are seeking the unexpected. This work also incorporates Russell’s circumplex theory of affect to illustrate the importance of achieving a positive, high activation state on the path to customer satisfaction. Findings indicate that perceptions of novelty, value, conservation focus, authentic cultural experience, and freedom of exploration are drivers of customer satisfaction, but perceptions of tranquility and the presence of animals are not. Results imply that the desire to seek animals or tranquil settings motivate the desire to book an adventure travel experience, but satisfaction with the experience itself will require the delivery of experiences that are undiscovered, unexpected, and go beyond consumers’ preconceived notions. These novel experiences produce the high activation and positive disconfirmation that drive customer satisfaction in this unique travel context.
From Old West to Cosmopolitan: Changing Narratives of Oklahoma City Tourist Guidebooks – 149 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15797285682546
Adam A. Payne
Department of Geosciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
This article seeks to bridge the gap in scholarship between entrepreneurial urbanism and the understanding of place image as presented through tourist guidebooks. Tourist guidebooks have long been used to sell regions and attractions to prospective tourists. Narratives in these guides often shift to reflect the changing economics, politics, and culture of a region or city. More recently, the rise of entrepreneurial urbanism has been one of those factors that have impacted tourist guidebooks. The (re)construction of a place image through entrepreneurial policies results in the promotion of a select package of facilities or highlighting specific attributes associated with that place. This article illustrates how entrepreneurial urban projects and policies can directly shape a city’s tourist promotions. I use Oklahoma City as a case study to explore these impacts and examine more than 30 years of tourist guidebooks to understand the changing narratives of the city in light of entrepreneurial urban policies. More specifically, I show that Oklahoma City officials shifted tourist narratives from overt Old West constructs to constructs rooted in cosmopolitanism in light of entrepreneurial agendas, like the Metropolitan Area Projects and business improvement districts.
Key words: Entrepreneurial urbanism; Oklahoma City; Tourist guidebooks; Cosmopolitan city; Old West/New West
What Do Sufi Muslim Leaders Think About Visitors at Their Sacred Sites? A Research Need – 165 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15773977783056
Ahmed Abdel Fattah and Mary Eddy-U
Tourism College, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China
The existing studies on Islamic tourism lack consideration of a particular form of Islamic practice, Sufism or “Islamic mysticism,” which is seen as a more moderate and apolitical form of Islam in the West. The Sufi sheikhs’ perceptions towards visitors at their sacred sites remain underresearched. This is despite the fact that Sufi religious sites exist throughout a number of African and Asian countries, providing pilgrimage sites and retreat centers for both Muslim visitors and those of other faiths. Although a number of academic studies examine the host/guest relationship at different sacred sites of various religions, minimal academic research has been conducted on how tourism and tourists are perceived in an Islamic, particularly a Sufi Islamic, context. This research note aims to demonstrate and raise awareness concerning the lack of research of tourism at Sufi Islamic sites, and specifically research exploring the perspectives of Sufi host communities. How Sufi sheikhs perceive tourism development and how they cope with challenges created by visitors at their sacred sites are necessary questions for researchers and tourism planners in the Muslim world to consider in the future.
Key words: Sufi tourism; Host perceptions; Religious tourism; Muslim tourism; Host/guest relationship REVIEW AND COMMENTARY
Tourism and Peace: A Review and Commentary – 173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427219X15741004672675
Stephen W. Litvin
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
Is tourism a cause of peace, or simply a beneficiary of peace? It is an interesting question that has long been debated. The primary purpose of this article is to explore the tourism–peace literature, acknowledging authors who support the notion that tourism fosters peace, as well as those who are critical. While this review will not resolve the disagreement, it is hoped that the summation of views and commentary that follows will add clarity to the debate, help readers reach their own conclusions, and spur additional exploration of this important issue.
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