Tourism Review International (TRI) is an ESCI and SCOPUS indexed peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism and is published four issues per year.
Special Issue Editors:
Duarte B. Morais, Associate Professor, North Carolina State University
Birendra KC, Assistant Professor, University of North Texas
Chantell LaPan, Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Gyan P. Nyaupane, Professor, Arizona State University
Tourists have been trying to break out of staged tourism enclaves for many decades, but only recently have information technologies empowered: a) tourists with information about destinations and supply, and b) entrepreneurial hosts with marketplaces allowing them to reach visitors with offers of lodging, services and experiences. Indeed, the constant mainstream news about AirBnB, Uber, Vayable and other tourism web marketplaces reveal that we are living the advent of the era of tourism microentrepreneurship. Tourism microentrepreneurship is defined as the process of launching a new, or adding value to an existing, enterprise employing no more than five people, providing tourism experiences, food, lodging or transportation, with the aim to enable the owner a desired lifestyle.
Microentrepreneurs have played a role in the tourism industry for a long time, however only recently have they become a visible and increasingly influential stakeholder group. Due to the recent recognition of their importance and the often-informal structure of their businesses, tourism microentrepreneurs are less well studied and practitioners are largely unprepared to fuel microentrepreneurial development in their destinations. Moreover, most destinations struggle to find meaningful ways to integrate these genuine local experiences with the formal sector components of the system. Nevertheless, there is a burgeoning body of scholarship examining tourism microentrepreneurship, and some of these seminal publications are influencing thinking and research agendas. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that fueling tourism microentrepreneurial development and its integration in a destination’s supply system can generate added (socio-cultural, economic and environmental) benefits to the host populations while making the destination more competitive and unique. Conversely, there is evidence that when left unbridled, tourism microentrepreneurship can erode the local character of neighborhoods and hurt the quality of an entire destination. Therefore, this special issue of Tourism Review International aims to feature scholarship that delves deep into the thought processes and behaviors of tourism microentrepreneurs as well as the intricacies of how tourism microentrepreneurship affects destinations.
To contribute to the literature on tourism microentrepreneurship, we invite authors to submit both empirical and conceptual papers. Authors are encouraged to submit papers that are interdisciplinary in nature. This special issue will cover a range of topics related to tourism microentrepreneurship, including, but not limited to:
Understanding the role of microentrepreneurship in destinations
Examining the thought processes and development paths of tourism microentrepreneurs
Social capital and social networking among microentrepreneurs
Cultural self-representations through tourism microentrepreneurship
Microentrepreneurship in circular economies and equitable endogenous development
Microentrepreneurship in conservation of natural resources and of working lands
Market trends and technological innovations and the rise of gig sharing economies
Tax and other policy regulatory reactions to tourism microentrepreneurship
Permatourism, communitarian entrepreneurship, and other approaches for the integration of top-down and bottom-up tourism development
February 1st, 2020: Submission of expression of interest with 500-word extended abstracts to the special issue editors: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org
April 1st, 2020: Notification/invitation to submit full papers
January 1st, 2021: Publication of the Special Issue
Adams, K., & Sandarupa, D. (2018). A room with a view: Local knowledge and tourism entrepreneurship in an unlikely Indonesian locale. Asian Journal of Tourism Research, 3(1), 1-27.
DeBerry-Spence, B., & Elliott, E. A. (2012). African microentrepreneurship: The reality of everyday challenges. Journal of Business Research, 65(12), 1665-1673.
Ferreira, B., Morais, D. B., Pollack, J., & Bunds, K. (2018). Development and validation the Tourism e-Microentrepreneurial Self-Efficacy scale. Tourism Analysis, 23(2), 275-282.
KC, B, Morais, D. B., Peterson, N., Seekamp, E., & Smith, J. (2017). Social network analysis of wildlife tourism microentrepreneurial network. Tourism and Hospitality Research, online first.
LaPan, C., Morais, D. B., Wallace, T., & Barbieri, C. (2016). Women’s self-determination in cooperative tourism microenterprises. Tourism Review International, 20(1), 41-56.
Morais, D. B., Bunn, D., Hoogendoorn, G., & KC, B. (2018). The potential role of tourism microentrepreneurship in the prevention of rhino poaching. International Development Planning Review, 40(4), 443-461.
Morais, D. B., Heath, E., Tlhagale, M., Payton, F. C., Martin, K., Mehta, K., & Bass, J. (2012). People-First Tourism: Concept Test in South Africa. In E. Fayos-Sola, Silva, J., & Jafari, J. (Eds.). Knowledge Management in Tourism: Policy and Governance Applications. Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, Volume 4, (pp. 115 – 128). London: Emerald.
Morais, D. B., K.C., B., Mao, Y., Mosimane, A. (2015). Wildlife conservation through tourism microentrepreneurship among Namibian Communities. Tourism Review International, 19(1-2), 43-61.
Nazariadli, S., Morais, D. B., Bunds, K., Baran, P. & Supak S. (2019) Rural tourism microentrepreneurs’ self-representation through photography: a counter-hegemonic approach, Rural Society, 28(1), 29-51.
Wang, D., Li, M., Gou, P., & Xu, W. (2016). The impact of sharing economy on the diversification of tourism products: Implications for tourism experience. In: Inversini A., Schegg R. (eds) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism (683-694). Springer, New York.
Aims & Scope
Aims & Scope
Tourism Review International (TRI) is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) General manuscripts, (2) Review articles that summarize the current state of knowledge on a specific area within tourism—these articles review, evaluate, and build theory/concept, and provide new directions to future research, (3) Invited articles and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (4) Theme-based research published as special issues, (5) Short research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, and (6) Book and software reviews. All manuscripts submitted to TRI are reviewed by recognized scholars using a double-blind procedure. Although the journal has an international focus, manuscripts need not be cross-cultural to be considered for publication. Instead, the primary criterion for publication is the extent to which the manuscript demonstrates a meaningful contribution to the literature in tourism and tourism-related activities. Authors are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief through email if they have any questions.
In order to enable researchers to develop appropriate research papers, special issues are announced in advance. The quality of the papers will be assessed through a double-blind peer review process that will include acknowledged leaders in that particular thematic field.
GyanNyaupane, Ph.D. Professor, School of Community Resources & Development Arizona State University 411 N. Central Avenue, Ste 550 Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690 Email: email@example.com
David Cárdenas, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Chun-Chu Chen, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA Shu Cole, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Larry Dwyer, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia DoganGursoy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA Kam Hung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China Kiki Kaplanidou, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Brian King, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Maximiliano Korstanje, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina Christian Laesser, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland Woojin Lee, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Alan A. Lew, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA Stephen W. Litvin, The College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA Duarte B. Morais, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Cristian Morosan, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Stephen Page, University of Bournemouth, Poole, UK Cody Paris, Middlesex University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Girish Prayag, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Chris Ryan, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Carla Santos, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA Pauline Sheldon, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA Matthew Stone, California State University – Chico, Chico, CA, USA MorenTibabo Stone, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Arch Woodside, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA Kyle Woosnam, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Yang Yang, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Kathy Andereck, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA Kenneth Bartkus, Utah State University, UT, USA Pierre Benckendorff, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia Frederic Dimanche, SKEMA Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France Cathy Hsu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Xiang (Robert) Li, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA James F. Petrick, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Manuscript submission: Authors should submit Word document manuscripts electronically via Scholastica at https://tri.scholasticahq.com
Follow the guidelines below to prepare the manuscript, figures, and tables.
General manuscript preparation: Manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document, double spaced, with all pages numbered. A cover page with the title only should be included because manuscripts are sent out for blind review. Include figures and tables at the end of the file or provide figures and tables in a separate file attachment. Do not incorporate the figures and tables within the manuscript text. Main and secondary headings should be clearly identifiable.
Title page: This should contain the title, all author names and corresponding affiliation(s) for each author, which includes Department, Institution, City (State), Country. The corresponding author must be clearly designated and a complete mailing address and email address for the corresponding author must be included (phone and fax numbers are optional). A short title of approximately 40 characters (or less) should also be included.
Abstract and Key words: Provide an abstract of 200 to 250 words. It should contain an abbreviated representation of the content of the manuscript. Major results, conclusions, and/or recommendations should be given, followed by supporting details of method, scope, or purpose as appropriate. Do not cite references in the abstract. Supply 3 to 5 keywords suitable for indexing.
Text: Clearly indicate all main and subheadings. Follow the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) guidelines for citing references in the text (see below) and for the reference list. All figures and tables must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear (do not incorporate figures and tables within the body of the text). The file should be arranged as: title-only cover page, title page (with names and affiliations), abstract and key words, main body text, reference list, figure legends, tables, and figures (or provide figures and tables in a separate file).
References: The reference listshould be arranged in alphabetical order. Follow APA Publication Manual (6th edition) for text and reference list citations, per the examples below. [Note: always provide citation page number(s) in the text for quoted material from a printed source.] Include in the reference list only those cited in the text and ensure that all text citations have an entry in the reference list.
Text citations: (Gunn, 1990) or (Fesenmaier et al., 1994; Mazanec, 1992, 1993; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994) or (Crompton, 1979, p. 411) (for quoted material). Note that names are to be alphabetical within the parenthetical, NOT by date order.
Journal article: Chen, C.-C., Lin, Y.-H., & Petrick, J. F. (2012). International stereotype and the collective construction of destination image. Tourism Analysis, 17(1), 55–66. Book:Goeldner, C., & Ritchie, B. (2011). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (12th ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Book chapter in edited book: Hall, C. M., & Jenkins, J. (2004). Tourism and public policy. In A. Lew, C. M. Hall, & A. Williams (Eds.), A companion to tourism (pp. 425–540). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Internet source:United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2017). Tourism highlights: 2017 edition. Retrieved from http://publications.unwto.org/publication/unwto-tourismhighlights-2017-edition-0
Please note that citations such as “personal communication” should be cited parenthetically in the text only. Do not include in the reference list.
Use of Copyright Material: Authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Figures: All figures should be provided in .doc, .jpg, .tif, or .pdf format, at high resolution. Do not incorporate figures within the text of the manuscript. Figures should be prepared without color unless the figure is to be printed in color [note there is a charge for printing figures in color (see Author Options below)]. Avoid light shading that will not reproduce well. Labeling and figure detail must be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit page parameters. Each figure must be cited in the text and legends for allillustrations should be included at the end of the manuscript file. Do not incorporate the figure legend or figure number as part of the figure itself.
Tables: Table material should not duplicate the text. Include each table on a separate page at the end of the manuscript or as a separate file. Include a title for each table (do not incorporate tables within the text of the manuscript). Avoid overly wide or long tables that would not fit printed page parameters.
Copyright: Publications are copyrighted for the protection of authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the corresponding author whose manuscript is accepted for publication. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript files(s).
Author Options: Articles appearing in Tourism Review International are available to be open access and also contain color figures (neither is a condition for publication). Authors will be provided with an Author Option Form, which indicates the following options.
A voluntary submission fee of $125.00 includes one free page of color and a 50% discount on additional color pages (color is discounted to $100.00 per color page).
Open access is available for a fee of $200.00 for up to 15 pages and $50.00 for each additional page. Color would be discounted to $100.00 per color page.
If you choose to have your article be open access, an Open Access form will be sent with the amount due based on the number of pages at proof stage. The Open Access form will need to be completed and returned with payment information and any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
The use of color in articles is an important feature. Your article may contain figures that should be printed in color. There is a charge for figures appearing in color. Cost for color figure in an article $200.00 (if not paying Voluntary Submission Fee or Open Access Fee). A payment form will be provided with your proof if you take advantage of this option, which will need to be completed and returned with any corrections to the proof prior to publication.
Author Option Form: The Author Option form will be sent to the author whose manuscript is accepted. The form must be completed and returned with the final manuscript file(s) even if the answer is “No” to the options. This form serves as confirmation of your choice for the options.
Page Proofs: Page proofs will be sent electronically to the designated corresponding author prior to publication. Minor changes only are allowed at this stage. The designated corresponding author will receive one free copy of the issue in which the article is published and a free pdf file of the final press article will be sent by email.
Disclaimer: Although every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, the editorial board, editors, and their respective employees, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement.
The publishers and editorial board of Tourism Review International have adopted the publication ethics and malpractice statements of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) https://publicationethics.org/core-practices. These guidelines highlight what is expected of authors and what they can expect from the reviewers and editorial board in return. They also provide details of how problems will be handled. Briefly:
Tourism Review International is governed by an international editorial board consisting of experts dedicated to the advancement of scholarly and managerially-oriented knowledge throughout all fields of tourism. In doing so, the journal’s content reflects a broad-based portfolio approach that includes: (1) Theme-based research, (2) General research, (3) Literature reviews (all types), (4) Invited essays and commentaries from thought leaders in the discipline, (5) Research notes that clarify concepts, theories, definitions, and/or methods, (6) Book and software reviews, and (7) Technical reports from distinguished research groups. Information regarding the editorial board members is listed on the inside front cover of the printed copy of the journal in addition to the homepage for the journal at: https://www.cognizantcommunication.com/journal-titles/tourism-review-international under the “Editorial Board” tab.
This editorial board conducts most of the manuscript reviews and plays a large role in setting the standards for research and publication in the field. The Editor-in-Chief receives and processes all manuscripts and from time to time will modify the editorial board to ensure a continuous improvement in quality.
The reviewers uphold a peer review process without favoritism or prejudice to gender, sexual orientation, religious/political beliefs, nationality, or geographical origin. Each submission is given equal consideration for acceptance based only on the manuscript’s importance, originality, academic integrity, and clarity and whether it is suitable for the journal in accordance with the Aims and Scope of the journal. They must not have a conflict of interest with the author(s) or work described. The anonymity of the reviewers must be maintained.
All manuscripts are sent out for blind review and the editor/editorial board will maintain the confidentiality of author(s) and their submitted research and supporting documentation, figures, and tables and all aspects pertaining to each submission.
Reviewers are expected to not possess any conflicts of interest with the authors. They should review the manuscript objectively and provide recommendations for improvements where necessary. Any unpublished information read by a reviewer should be treated as confidential.
Manuscripts must contain original material and must not have been published previously. Material accepted for publication may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the publisher. All rights and permissions must be obtained by the contributor(s) and should be sent upon acceptance of manuscripts for publication.
References, acknowledgments, figure legends, and tables must be properly cited and authors must attest their manuscript contains original work and provide proof of permission to reproduce any content (artwork, photographs, tables, etc.) in connection with their manuscript, also ensuring their work does not infringe on any copyright and that they have obtained permission for its use. It is important to note that any and all materials obtain via the Internet/social media (including but not limited to Face Book, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) falls under all copyright rules and regulations and permission for use must be obtained prior to publication.
Authors listed on a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the study and/or writing of the manuscript. During revisions, authors cannot be removed without their permission and that of all other authors. All authors must also agree to the addition of new authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that this occurs.
Financial support and conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared.
The reported research must be novel and authentic and the author(s) should confirm that the same data has not been and is not going to be submitted to another journal (unless already rejected). Plagiarism of the text/data will not be tolerated and could result in retraction of an accepted article.
When humans, animals, or tissue derived from them have been used, then mention of the appropriate ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.
The publishers agree to ensure, to the best of their abilities, that the information they publish is genuine and ethically sound. If publishing ethics issues come to light, not limited to accusations of fraudulent data or plagiarism, during or after the publication process, they will be investigated by the editorial board including contact with the authors’ institutions if necessary, so that a decision on the appropriate corrections, clarifications, or retractions can be made. The publishers agree to publish this as necessary so as to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
Consumption of Luxury Hotel Experience in Contemporary China: Causality Model for Conspicuous Consumption – 171 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15410074029607 Kam Hung
School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
China plays a preeminent role in luxury consumption in the global arena. However, the antecedents, attributes, and outcomes of conspicuous consumption among the Chinese, as well as how such a consumption preference can influence hospitality practices, are not yet fully understood. This study intends to address these issues. Through the discussions of five focus groups that consist of 38 hospitality-related Chinese practitioners, this study debunks the myth of conspicuous consumption among the Chinese in general and hospitality settings by identifying the characteristics of experiential conspicuous consumption in hotels as well as those in general settings. This study also theoretically conceptualizes conspicuous consumption by proposing a causality model on the basis of research findings. The characteristics of experiential conspicuous consumption in hotels are aligned with those of general settings for clear understanding of such a behavior in Chinese society. Strategies for constructing conspicuous consumption experience in hotels are derived accordingly.
Key words: Conspicuous consumption; Chinese; Causality model; Consumption experience; Luxury hotels The Complementary Effect of National Park Fee Increases on Visitor Spending in Gateway Communities – 187 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15410074029616 Jeremy Sage,* Norma Nickerson,*† Zachary D. Miller,‡ Alex Ocanas,* and Jennifer Thomsen†
*The Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA †Department of Society and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA ‡Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
In 2017, the US National Park Service faced a nearly $12 billion maintenance backlog. To address this backlog, they announced plans to increase entrance fees in 17 of the most visited parks. As fees are a component of the travel cost, we consider price change effects on demand for park entry. Demand for the 17 parks is shown to be inelastic. Recognizing that spending in gateway communities is complementary to national park visitation, we use Yellowstone National Park as a case study on entrance fee increase effects on gateway communities. We estimate a $3.4 million annual loss in gateway community spending by visitors as a result of reduced visitation by those visitors who choose not to purchase a 7-day pass. Acknowledging the diminishing effect of the fee increase on travel costs, we further explore alternative means of structuring fees based on examples of other countries.
Key words: Entrance fees; National parks; Protected areas; Travel cost; Elasticity; Economic contribution The Role of Guanxi in Chinese Tourists’ Destination Loyalty – 199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15410074029625 Yao-Chin Wang,* Chun-Chu (Bamboo) Chen,† Yueh-Hsiu Lin,‡ and Chris Ryan§
*School of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA †School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA, USA ‡Graduate Institute of Hospitality Education, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, Kaohsiung, Taiwan §China–New Zealand Tourism Research Unit, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
The theory of guanxi, coming from the work in Chinese psychology, has been widely applied in marketing and management academy. Although tourism scholars have paid considerable attention to Chinese tourists, the use of Chinese psychology in explaining the market remains limited. The purpose of this study is to apply guanxi in explaining Chinese tourists’ destination loyalty using Taiwan as a case study of a tourist destination. Based on the guanxi theory, the study results showed that cognitive image, affective image, and perceived value exerted positive influences on destination loyalty. Further, sentiment, one dimension of cognitive image, appears to play a determining role for Mainland Chinese tourists to establish guanxi with Taiwan.
Key words: Guanxi; Chinese tourists; Destination image; Destination familiarity; Destination loyalty; Taiwan Special Section Resilience Guest Editors: Ashley Schroeder and Lori Pennington-Gray
Examining International Food Travelers’ Engagement in Behaviors to Protect Themselves From Foodborne Illnesses While Abroad – 213 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15410074029643 Ashley Schroeder,* Lori Pennington-Gray,† and Laura Mandala‡
*Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA †Tourism Crisis Management Initiative, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA ‡Mandala Research, Alexandria, VA, USA
In recent times, food travel has continued to gain in popularity and food and beverage activities are an important consideration for travelers. According to World Food Travel Association (WFTA), more than 9 in 10 travelers are now considered to be food travelers because they have participated in a “food or beverage experience other than dining out, at some point in the past 12 months.” At the same time, travelers are an at-risk population for foodborne illnesses due to their tendency to eat out and experience local gastronomy. While health care providers and tourism service providers can and should advise travelers on ways to mitigate foodborne risks, it is ultimately the responsibility of travelers to protect themselves. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents of food travelers’ engagement in personal protective behaviors (PPBs) related to foodborne illnesses during two phases of the travel experience: prior to and during travel. The independent variables were the extent of prior international travel experience, prior experience with foodborne illnesses, concerns about food safety, and food safety and foodborne illness risk perceptions. Data were collected via an online panel of food travelers from the US who had traveled outside of the country at least once in their lifetime (n = 758). Results revealed that concerns about food safety were antecedents of engagement in all five PPBs. Risk perceptions were antecedents of engagement in the during travel PPBs. The extent of prior international travel experience and prior experience with foodborne illnesses were inconsistent antecedents. The first two findings suggest that cognition (in terms of risk perceptions) is a driver of engagement in PPBs during travel and affect (in terms of concerns) is a driver of engagement in PPBs prior to and during travel. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Key words: Food travel; International travel; Protection motivation; Food safety; Personal protective behaviors Conceptualizing Destination Resilience From a Multilevel Perspective – 235 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15369305779010 Alberto Amore,* Girish Prayag,† and C. Michael Hall†‡§¶
*School of Business, Law and Communications, Southampton Solent University, Southampton, UK †Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand ‡School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden §Department of Geography, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland ¶School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
The concept of resilience has gained momentum in current tourism research, yet there are still flaws and discrepancies between the many notions applied in the field. These limitations are further evident when we focus on tourist destinations. The aim of this article is to advance the conceptualization of destination resilience through a multilevel perspective (MLP) that frames landscape, regime, niche, and actors as integrated elements of the tourism system. The resulting framework encompasses ecological, socioecological, sociopolitical, socioeconomic, and sociotechnological dimensions reflecting the embeddedness of resilience among heterogeneous and potentially complementary destination stakeholders. It is argued that the use of the MLP advances the understanding of tourism destination planning, particularly in contexts coping with gradual as well as drastic changes due to both demand fluctuations and supply-side disturbances.
Key words: Resilience; Tourism; Destination resilience; Multilevel perspective; Regime Destination Resilience and Sustainable Tourism Development – 251 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15369305779029 Patrick J. Holladay
School of Hospitality, Sport and Tourism Management, Troy University, USA
Measuring the resilience of a dynamic system is a difficult undertaking. This article is an effort to present intersecting theories between destination resilience and sustainable tourism. Traditional tourism management relies on a narrow focus based in scientific approaches that are often linear in concept. This type of thinking may lead to some limitations in planning and a full understanding of how the tourism industry operates on various scales. Resilience describes the capacity of a system to absorb change and continue to persist. Sustainability is the intersection of social, economic, institutional, and ecological variables. In this article, a heuristic model is presented that combines and adapts Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle and Holling’s Adaptive Cycle. This heuristic model is intended to stimulate theories on destination resilience within the context of sustainable tourism.
*USC Center for Public Relations, Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA †Department of Management, Farmer School of Business, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA
Destinations around the world are rolling out smart tourism initiatives to increase their competitiveness and to support their sustainability goals. However, whether smart tourism development can also help them build resilience is a question that currently lacks an answer. This article links the two concepts of smart destinations and destination resilience at the conceptual level and presents a five-pillar framework of smart destination resilience. Specifically, it suggests smart tourism infrastructure and governance equip smart destinations with sensing, opening, sharing, governing, and innovating capacities that can enhance destination resilience by supporting six specific resilience conditions. As such, the article provides the necessary theoretical building blocks to support empirical research at the intersection of smart tourism and destination resilience. It further provides practical insights on how to ensure that smart destination development leads to greater resilience but also warns of the need to scope out potential vulnerabilities inherent in smart destination design.
Key words: Smart tourism; Destination management; Governance; Destination resilience; Adaptive capacity Thailand’s Approach to Destination Resilience: An Historical Perspective of Tourism Resilience From 2002 to 2018 – 277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15369305779083 David Beirman
Management Discipline Group, University of Technology–Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Thailand’s inbound tourism industry has grown significantly during the early part of the 21st century. By the end of 2017, Thailand attracted the highest level of international tourist visitation of the 10-nation Association of South East Nations (ASEAN) with 35.38 million international visitors. By 2017, it was the ninth most visited country in the world and ranked second only to China as the most visited national destination in Asia. A key characteristic of Thailand’s government destination management and marketing organization [Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT)] and the private sector of Thailand’s tourism industry has been a remarkable capacity for destination resilience. This article focuses on the resilience of Thailand as a destination between 2002 and 2018 through the theoretical prism of organizational resilience and the destination sustainability framework. During this period, Thailand’s tourism industry overcame a range of potentially damaging crises and reputational challenges. This article seeks to explain the TAT’s commitment to embedding resilience into its strategic planning. TAT’s extensive implementation of effective risk and crisis management best practices has enabled Thailand’s tourism market to recover rapidly from a range of challenges. TAT’s commitment to resilience is enhanced by its extensive cooperation with both its private sector stakeholders and the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), which is headquartered in Bangkok. The Thai tourism industry’s commitment to risk and crisis management reflects the importance of tourism to Thailand’s national reputation, image, and economy. TAT’s close relationship with PATA and ASEAN Tourism, two transnational tourism associations with a strong commitment to destination resilience, has helped to benchmark Thailand’s qualitative approach to tourism resilience. TAT demonstrates a clear appreciation that rapid recovery from crisis events and effective contingency management practice require a high level of collaboration with key stakeholders. Numerous private sector stakeholders with a vested interest in the success of Thai tourism represent all sectors of the tourism industry. They have readily contributed their resources and support to Thailand’s marketing campaigns.
Key words: Tourism resilience; Crisis management; Recovery marketing; Private–public sector collaboration; Organizational resilience; Destination reputation An Applied Destination Resilience Model – 293 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427218X15369305779092 Estefania M. Basurto-Cedeno*† and Lori Pennington-Gray*
*Tourism Crisis Management Initiative, Department of Tourism, Recreation & Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA †Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas y Facultad de Hoteleria y Turismo, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabi, Manta, Ecuador
Destinations around the world are adopting a resilience framework to deal with the increasing frequency and intensity of disasters affecting the tourism industry. However, agreed upon measures and models of resilience by the tourism industry have yet to be determined. This article proposes a scalable resilience model for tourism destinations, extending the application of the Regional Tourism Adaptation Framework (RTAF) to diverse types of risks and different size destinations. Specifically, it addresses gaps with the RTAF model and extends the model to address these gaps. As such, the article uses theories from the resilience literature as well as knowledge about the tourism industry to build out a more scalable and generalizable model. It further discusses limitations of the model that need to be tested in future studies.
Key words: Resilience model; Scalable model; Destinations; Tourism industry
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