Hosts & Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century

Valene L. Smith and Maryann Brent

ISBN: ISBN 1-882345-29-0


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Valene L. Smith and Maryann Brent

  • Anthropology and Tourism
  • Indigenous Peoples and the Ethnographic Present
  • The Study of Tourism
  • Economic Growth and Impacts of Tourism
  • "Tourism Needs More Respect": The Statistical Dimension
  • WTO Tourism Satellite Accounts
  • Economic Value Versus Sustainability

Chapter 1. Stone Age to Star Trek
Valene L. Smith

  • Definitions of Tourism
  • Tourism Elements
  • Tourism Through Time
  • Global Trends
  • Summary
Chapter 2. The Scientification of Tourism
Jafar Jafari
  • Evolution of Thought on Tourism
  • The Scientification of Tourism
  • Training and Education
  • The Awaiting Future
Chapter 3. Secular Ritual: A General Theory of Tourism
Nelson H. H. Graburn
  • Tourism: Rituals of Reversal
  • Tourism, Ritual, and Time
  • The Structure of Ritual and Tourism
  • Entries and Exits
  • The Tourist Experience: Liminality and Communitas
  • Variations on a Theme: Different Strokes for Different Folks
  • Plus ça Change, Plus c'est la Même Chose (The More Things Change, the More It's the Same Thing)

Chapter 4. The Nature of Tourism
Valene L. Smith

  • Tourist Motivations
  • Research Interests
  • Academic Motivational Research
  • Tourist Classifications
  • Tourism in Perspective
Case Studies

Chapter 5. Gambling Into the 21st Century
Charles F. Urbanowicz

  • Background
  • Competition
  • The Effect of Communication Technology
  • Sources of Gambling
  • Symptomatic of the Times?
  • Meeting the Competitive Challenge: Las Vegas
  • Conclusions
Chapter 6. Pale Skin on Playa del Anywhere: Finnish Tourists in the Liminoid South
Tom Selänniemi
  • Playa del Ingles
  • The Southbound Masses
  • A Diary: Days in Playa del Ingles
  • Ambiguous Places at Curious Times
  • The Liminoid South
  • Conclusions
Chapter 7. Time and Space: Atlantic City in 1886
Maryann Brent
  • Context
  • Time: Atlantic City Heyday, 1886
  • Space: Selected Atlantic City Land Uses in 1886
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion

Chapter 8. Tourism Change and Impacts
Valene L. Smith

  • Tourism: Blessingor Blight?
  • Tourist Culture: Bridging the Gap Between Resources and Consumer
  • The 4 H's of Tourism: Habitat, History, Heritage, and Handicrafts
  • Psychographics: The Five Generations
  • Psychographic Evaluation: The Five Generations
  • Looking Ahead
Case Studies

Chapter 9. Tourism on the Maya Periphery
Oriol Pi-Sunyer, R. Brooke Thomas, and Magalí Daltabuit

  • The Development of Quintana Roo
  • Mexico and the Price of Progress
  • Tourism Development in Yucatan
  • The Maya and Marginality
  • The Elements of Social Change
  • Conclusions
Chapter 10. Power and Ethnicity in "Paradise": Boracay, Philippines
Valene L. Smith
  • Filipino Heritage
  • Boracay: The Development of Tourism
  • Boracay Compared: 1986 and 1996
  • Power and Ethnicity
  • Tourism Culture and the Product Life Cycle
  • Conclusions
Chapter 11. Wilderness Tourism in Zimbabwe
Robin Heath
  • The Resource Base
  • National Parks and Safari Areas
  • Recreational Parks
  • Sanctuaries, Botanical Reserves, and Botanical Gardens
  • The Growth of Foreign Tourism to Zimbabwe
  • Tourism Within the Parks and Wildlife Estate
  • Safari Operators and Professional Hunters
  • Wildlife-Based Tourism Benefits for the Rural Economy
  • Pricing Policies and Domestic Tourism
  • Regional Development
  • Conclusions
Chapter 12. Pamukkale: Turkish Homestay Tourism
Anne Marie Van Broeck
  • Background
  • Methodology
  • Perceptions of the Kaya Family
  • The Entrepreneurial Spirit
  • The Impact on Family Life
  • The Social Position of Women
  • Relationships Between Villagers and Female Tourists
  • Community Bonds
  • Declining Hospitality<\#0150>Rising Commercialism
  • Changes in Food, Clothing, and Lifestyle
  • Elders and Tourism
  • Tourism as the Cause of Observed Changes
  • Conclusions
Chapter 13. Tourism in the Fjords and Mountains of Western Norway
Roel Puijk
  • Tourism in the 19th Century
  • Host and Guest Relations
  • Towards a New Tourist Structure
  • Tourist-Related Activities
  • Local Tourist Initiatives
  • Tourism at Finse
  • Conflicts Between Finse and Ulvik
  • Conclusion

Chapter 14. Sustainability
Valene L. Smith

  • Sustainable Tourism
  • The Historical Roots of Sustainability
  • Task Forces and Guidelines
  • The Challenge of Sustainability
  • Other Industry Initiatives
  • Ecotourism: Benefits and Costs
  • Heritage Tourism
  • Heritage and Authenticity
  • Heritage Tourism and Indigenous Peoples
  • Conclusion
Case Studies

Chapter 15. Tourism as a Protective Barrier for Old Order Amish and Mennonite Communities
Michael Fagence

  • The Anabaptist Communities
  • Tourism Interest in the Anabaptists
  • Intrusion, Invasion, Exploitation
  • Outcomes of Invasion, Intrusion, Exploitation
  • The Focal Concentrations of Tourist Activity
  • Tourism Planning to Provide Protection
  • Conclusion
Chapter 16. Tourism to the Anne Frank House
Rudi Hartmann
  • New Challenges in the 1990s
  • The Anne Frank House: From a "Secret Annex" to a Showcase Historic Site
  • Visitors to the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam 1960–1998
  • Holocaust Memorials: Individual Experiences or Group Fates?
Chapter 17. Ethnic Doll Ethics: Tourism Research in Southwest China
Margaret Byrne Swain
  • Tourism and the Sani Yi in Yunnan China
  • Sani Handicraft Production
  • Making Dolls
  • Doll Makers
  • Doll Issues
  • Issues in Indigenous Tourist Arts
  • Ethical Issues
  • Conclusions
Chapter 18. Marine Tourism and Environmental Management on the Great Barrier Reef
Steven Parker
  • Reef Tourism
  • Management Tools
  • Enforcement and Implementation
  • Industry Self-Regulation
  • Research
  • Conclusion
Chapter 19. Appropriate Tourism Impact Assessment: A Case Study of Kaniki Point Resort, Palawan, Philippines
William J. Trousdale
  • Tourism, Impacts, and the Developing World
  • Impact Assessment: Trends and Opportunities
  • ATIA as a Practical Alternative
  • Using an Active Approach
  • The Kaniki Point Resort Case Study
  • General Impacts and Regional Planning
  • Enhancement, Mitigation, and Management Responses
  • Conclusions
Chapter 20. Sustainability and Pilgrimage Tourism in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal
Trevor H. B. Sofield
  • Empowerment
  • Pilgrimage
  • Heritage and Social Identity
  • The UNDP Partnership for Quality Tourism Program
  • The Indigenous Newar Community of Kathmandu Vally
  • Svayambhunath and Changu Narayan
  • Institution Building at Svayambhunath
  • Changu Narayan and the PQTP
  • Decentralization and Dissonance at Changu Narayan

Chapter 21. The Culture Brokers
Valene L. Smith

  • Marginal Men and Women
  • The Culture Brokers
  • Conclusion
Case Studies

Chapter 22. Where Asia Wore a Smile: Lessons of Philippine Tourism Development
Linda Richter

  • The Lessons of the Marcos Era: 1965–1986
  • Learning the Lessons, Picking up the Pieces: Tourism Policy in the Aquino and Ramos Administration
  • Conclusions
Chapter 23. Putting "Culture" Into Sustainable Tourism: Negotiating Tourism at Lake Balaton, Hungary
J. M. Tim Wallace
  • Definig Tourist Destinations: Guests Versus Hosts
  • Negotiating a Definition of a Tourist Destination
  • Lake Balaton: The Hungarian Sea
  • Early History
  • The Beginning of Balaton Tourism
  • From the Adriatic sea to the Hungarian Sea
  • Balaton From the 1980s
  • The Ebb and Flow of Water Quality Issues in Balaton Tourism
  • Tourism in the Kis-Balaton
  • More Cracks in the Negotiation
  • Conclusion: Processing and Sustaining Tourism
Chapter 24. The Legend of Robin Hood: Myth, Inauthenticity, and Tourism Development in Nottingham, England
Myra Shackley
  • The Legend of Robin Hood
  • Myths and Heritage Tourism
  • Nottingham and Robin Hood
  • Does Authenticity Matter?
Chapter 25. European Union Cross-Border Cooperation: A New Tourism Dimension
Friedrich M. Zimmermann
  • The Research Team
  • European Union Regional Policy and Tourism Development
  • The Historical Dimension of the Three Borders Area
  • Tourism Attractions Focusing on Culture and History
  • The Tourism Dimensions of the Three Borders Area
  • Cross-Border Tourism as an Innovative European Concept
  • The Tourism Keystones
  • Marketing Issues
  • Conclusion

Chapter 26. Tourism Issues of the 21st Century
Valene L. Smith

  • 2000: A Psychological Time Marker
  • 2000: A Technological Threshold
  • The Critical Issues
  • Globalization
  • Urbanization
  • Urban Tourism
  • Tourism and the Urban Poor
  • Other Global Issues
  • Personal Security
  • The PEST Analysis
  • The Future: War and Peace
Case Studies

Chapter 27. From Kitty Hawk to the ISS Hilton
Maryann Brent

  • The Persuasion
  • What We Already Know: Selected Experiences
  • Problems to Solve
  • Staunch Supporters
  • Conclusions
Chapter 28. Hostility and Hospitality: War and Tourism
Valene Smith
  • Crime
  • War
  • The Temporal Nature of War
  • Wars of the 21st Century
  • Terrorism and Ethnic Cleansing
  • Civil Disturbances in the 21st Century
  • Conclusion
Chapter 29. The Commodificatin of Culture
Dean MacCannell
  • Why Leave Home
  • Is it Possible to Experience "Otherness" While on Tour?
  • Tourism Changes its Destinations
  • The Culture of Tourism Is Becoming World Culture
  • Does the Change in Tourism Lead to a Change in the Motive to Travel?
  • Will the Reason for International Travel Eventually Disappear?
  • The Next Tourism
  • Summary



List of Figures

1.Map of Northwest Alaska
2. Choris (1882), artist on the Kotzebue Expedition, sketched Kotzebue Sound Eskimos
3. Evolution of the economy
4. Umiak with tourists aboard
5. Speed of human travel
6. International arrivals and gross receipts: 1950–2010
1.1. Summer camp, Hotham Inlet 1884
1.2. Amtrak route map
1.3. Flying Tigers Squadron over Salween River Gorge (Burma), May 28, 1942
2.1. The multidisciplinary foundations of tourism studies
2.2. Tourism education–training continuum
3.1. The ritual of tourism
4.1. Psychographic positions of destinations, 1991
4.2. Suggested steps in tourists' travel careers
4.3. Dreamworld demographics: Recent levels of enjoyment
4.4. Main pilgrimages on foot to Jasna Góra in August 1987
5.1. The "crazy girls" of the Riviera Hotal and Casino
5.2. Treasure Island Hotel
5.3. Luxor Hotel
6.1. Map of Gran Canaria
6.2. The charter trip as a journey to the liminoid
7.1. Butler's resort cycle
7.2. Cumulative growth and rate of growth of Atlantic City: 1860-1990
7.3. Tourists riding donkeys
7.4. Epicycloidal diversion
7.5. The boardwalk and rolling chairs
7.6. Map of Atlantic City residences and tourist accommodations, 1886
8.1. New Guinea native with a ballpoint pen through his septum
9.1. Map of the Yucatan Peninsula
9.2. Tourists at Tulum
9.3. Workers reconstructing a Mayan site
10.1. Map of the Philippines
10.2. Growth of permanent residents compared with tourists in Boracay: 1986–1997
10.3. International visitor arrivals in Boracay, selected nationalities: 1986 and 1996
10.4. The classes of consuming public
11.1. Map of the parks and wild life estates in Zimbabwe
11.2. Too many elephants
11.3. Map of Zimbabew's CAMPFIRE projects
12.1. Roman theater of Hierapolis near Pamukkale
12.2. The thermal pools near Pamukkale
12.3. The modern Motel Gül transformed from a homestay
12.4. Woman washing utensils
12.5. Reception desk and gift shop
13.1. Location map of Ilvik, Norway
13.2. Ulvik residents dressed in the bunad
14.1. Painting of Yellowstone by Thomas Moran
16.1. The Anne Frank house in 1940 and 1998
16.2. Visitation to the Anne Frank house 1950–1998
16.3. The Anne Frank museum 1999
16.4. Map of selected Holocaust sites
17.1. The first Sani doll
17.2. Doll makers en groupe
17.3. Margaret Swain with Sani doll makers in Kunming
18.1. Map of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef
18.2. Small reef pontoon
18.3. Excursion boat
19.1. Map of the Philippines and Kaniki Point Resort
19.2. Kaniki Point coral gardens
21.1. Culture brokers as mediators
21.2. Worldwide export earnings: 1998
23.1. Map of modern Hungary with Lake Balaton
23.2. Top country destinations for international arrivals: 1996
23.3. Map of Lake Balaton and surrounding towns
23.4. Festetics family palace near Keszthely
23.5. The abbey at Tihany overlooking Lake Balaton
23.6. Keszthely, cultural center of Lake Balaton
23.7. Balaton farmhouse with thatched (reed) roof restored by German vacationers
24.1. Statue of Robin Hood outside Nottingham Castle
24.2. Poster of Robin Hood
25.1. Location map of the Three Borders Area
25.2. Skiing in the Three Boarders Area
26.1. Mega-cities around the globe
27.1. Suborbital and orbital travel
27.2. Earth rising over the Moon's horizon
28.1. The war cycle
28.2. Military "shoppertainment"

List of Tables

2.1. Advocacy platform on tourism influences
2.2. Cautionary platform on tourism consequences
4.1. Twelve types of travel appeals
4.2. Eighteen important travel motivations
4.3. Social characteristics of cluster groups
4.4. Mean scores of holiday destination attributes
4.5. Comparison of tourist type classifications: 1977–2000
6.1. Age comparison of Finish tourists
6.2. Comparison of the educational levels of Finish tourists
6.3. Frequency of visitation choices: Athens, Rhodes, and Playa del Ingles
7.1. Chronology of Atlantic City's evolution
7.2. Atlantic City population data
8.1. Independence of former colonial possessions: Post-World War II
8.2. Selected cost–benefit factors of tourism
8.3. Analysis of the 4 H's for tourism
8.4. Five generations of US travelers
13.1. Ulvik hotel guests' nationality
14.1. Hypothetical costs and benefits of ecotourism
19.1. Tourism impacts considered
19.2. Kaniki Point Resort objectives
19.3. Data collection and analysis methods
19.4. Sample of impact summary matrix for Kaiki Point Resort
19.5. Specific mitigation and management responses
26.1. World population, urbanization, and international arrivals 1950–2050
26.2. Population shifts in MDCs and LDCs in 1998 with 2050 projections and selected top 40 countries as destinations, earners, and spenders
26.3. A PEST analysis of possible future trends for tourism
27.1. Space vehicle characteristics